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Full text of "Sirat Ibn Hisham"

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Abridged by: 
*Abdus-Salam M. Harun 




AL-FALAB FOUNDATION 




© AL-FALAH FOUNDATION FOR TRANSLATION. PUBLICATION & 
DISTRIBUTION M2 J /20G0. 

All righis reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, tfored 
in a retrieval system, or transmitted in ;my form or by any meara, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopy ing* recording or otherwise, without ihe 
prior permission of the copyright owner. 

Views expressed by different authors of books and simfe published by 
Al-Fuluh Foundation Jo not necessarily represent the views of Ai-Falah 
Foundation, 

The translation of ite meaning of the Quranic verses quoted in the text is 
taken from Dr. Muhammad Tajud-DTn Al-1-iiluJi and Dr. Muhufmrrad 
Muh?rin Khan's tMerpwiaiian of the Meaning ofrttcNobk Our'on . 

Translated by In&s A. Faiitl 

Revised by Mu hum mad M" Abdul-Fa ItaJi 

Edited by Umm Ffruq Cuolc 

Coyer designed by Xadtjah Garrett 

Published hy: 

AL-FALAH FOUNDATION FOR TRANSLATION. 

PUBLICATION & DISTRIBUTION 
24 At-Tayaran St., NasrCiiy, 
Cairo, Egypt 
Td. ctfax:26228^ 
E-mail; fulah ft* imouch.com 

ISBN: 977-58 l.l-8im 



Preface 



Throughout history, I he world W,\s never witnessed an ideal character 
like that of Prophet Muhammad Ipbuh), This fact is maintained in the 
Glorious Qur'an. when Allah. Most High. says. 

* Yr Jmiv wdt'ed in the Mi'Mtrnger of Aituh an eiecitem rxtimpivr for 
him wim fuifws m Athiit and tftt Final Day. mid wlto remember* Allah 
ffBtcfkh 

(Al-Ahzab:ll) 

Therefore, it is the duty of every Muslim to study and reflect on the 
Sirnh of the Prophet ipbiib), so 4i Ifl gain success in Ibis world and 
prosperity in the world to come, tn this context, Az-Zuhuii said. "In 
studying the bank's ctf the Prophet (pnuhJ. lies the knowledge of this world 
as we J I as that of the Hereafter." 

Thus, it grves us great pleasure 10 present this valuable book to nur 
heloved readers. Ai the same time, we feel indebted to the ahridger's family 
for giving us the chance to present This priceless work to our 
English-speaking readers. Also, we ask Allah to ahundanlly reward bolti line 
author, ihn Hisham, and the ahndeer, \Abdu.s-Satam M. Harun, and bestow 
His mercy upon (heir souls. 

Pin ally, at! praise and thanks iije due to Allah, without Whose help and 
guidance nothing can be accomplished, 

Al-Falah Director 

AtUommed Aide* 



Contents 

Introduction VII 

I- THE PROPHET AND THE ARABIAN PENINSULA 

BEFORE THE MISSION . , 1 

II- THE MISSION AND DA WAH TO ISLAM UNTIL 

HI- THE GENERAL EMIGRATION ..... ........ 91 

IV- THE PILLARS OF THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY 105 

V- THE BLESSED STRUGGLE 117 

VI- A NEW STAGE 1Q7 

VII- THE END OF THE BLESSED JOURNEY IN THE 
WORLDLY LIFE 275 

' ' '*■■ V« vO ...r..**..*..... ■>-• Ml<itlIiiuHitii*i> itiik*»ti«tti 4L %7 J 

**1 U&&dr]f tOtf*«^MVfM««W*^M.n v . ■■iiiniiMMHi>«M ttmmt*. W&V 



<s> 



Introduction 



History and Biography 

The history of the Pre-Islamic Arabs was known only by means cif 
narration, Arabic history even before the advent of Islam reflected ihc 
nature of I heir lifestyle. It showed their pride in their fathers and forefathers 
heroism, generosity, loyalty, storks of ancestry and alliance*. There were 
also nan* stives aboui iht* history of the Kabuh. the ciTiergcnce of the well of 
2amzam, The &&$ ol the tribe of Jurhum and kilters of Quraysh. and the 
Mu'rib Oam who;-* collapse caused people to disperse in the land. There 
were also stone* of diviners and The ire nations. Thus history portrayed their 
socio-political and religious aspects of life. 

Islam appeared ai the time when people were accustomed to Tepnit all 
these fortes and events. With the beginning of the Message, preceded by 
portents ol prophcthood* the early life anil up-bringing of the Prophet 
tphuhK the Revelation and relevant events and attitudes of the Prophet's 
Companions ami enemies* the Prophet's behavior ami relations with 
Muslims, disbelievers Chrisiians, and Jews, there emerged a prolific and 
broad subject-matter of information ant! tidings which were also circulated 
through narration. Moreover, the Quran, ihc tuuiith, and the words of 
Companions, constituted a rich record of that new life. 

While the Quran wa* heinu written down, the hu fifth remained a trusted 
scries of narration. In general no one had the courage to think of writing the 
htidiih as a response to the Prophet's saying, 

"Do noi tftntte rut" (fry writing} fa? ayything except the Qur'dih and 
wtuftvt'r tins tfiwtfd we thy writing for tinyihinf; artier than thf Qnr'uti 
\htmhi timit !L * 

The wisdom behind this was ohvious; it aimed at avoiding confusion 
between the Revelation and the Prophet's words during the time of 
Revelation. Undoubtedly, it was a temporary matter lasting until the whole 
Qur'an had been revealed. 



When 'Umar ihn 'Ahdd-'Aztz ruled (from 99 to 101 AHl lie spem forty 
days performing tstikhdmh prayers faking Allah whether he should write 
down luitlirli or not. He continued until he felt Allah's approval He then 
asked Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn 'Umar ihu Ha/ni (d. 120 AH), ihe ruii^j 
of Mudmah at I hat lime, to write down the hmhih. He wrviic down the 
hadiths he hud memorized m a book, which was sent la the provinces. 
I'mar ihn Ahdel-'Azfc also asked Muhammad ibn Muslim ihn Shirulb 
Az-Zahri, llie teacher of MaEiL to write down Imttith. and ihe tatter did so m 
tkhjfc form. 

Afterwards, Muslims continued to write down whatever they knew of 
the Prophet's htultths without keeping lo a particular form of sectioning or 
classification. For instance, while iomc set aside chapters on law, others 
began to classify hmUth into chapters on the Prophet's birtli until the 
Revelation, chapters on his Male in Makkah, his proclamation to the 
Qltraysh. who then permeated ham and his followers as well as information 
on wars and mat lets of Jihad. 

Historians began m write genera! history books including Ihe life of the 
Prophei f.pbuh), ihus satisfying their religious inch mil ion to perceive him as 
an ideal model anil guidance for Muslims. 

Biographers 

The first Prophetic biographers were: 'Urwah ihn az-Zubayr ibn 
AI-'Awwam fd. 92 AH). Aban ihn ^Umman (d. 105 AH), Warm ibn 
Munabbah {± 1 Tfl AHh Sharh_abil ibn Sa^d (d 123 AHl. Ibn Shihab 
a/Zahti (d. 124 AH), and "Abdullah ibn Ah! Bakr ibn Ha*m i± 135 AHh 

All their hooks perished with ihe exception of some parts which were 
scattered throughout main references on history like Aj>Xabaii's book of 
history. Only a piece of Wahb ihn Munahhah'^ hook is currently stored in 
He i del burg in Germany. 

Aftcr this came another gene ration of biographers, the most renowned of 
which were Musa ihn % lU]hah id, I4i AH), Mif ummnr ibn Rishid td. 150 
AH), and Muhammad Ihn Ishaq (d. 152 All). This generation was followed 
by Ziyful ul-Rukai (d. 183 AH). Ai Waqidf the author of Ai-Maeha/i (d. 
207 AH). Ihn Hisham (& 218 AH), and Muhammad ihn Sad the auihor of 
Ai-Zahaqcit (d. 230 AH). 

— <vT)— 



The Biography by Ibn Ishaq 

Of all Ihc above menunried early biographers, the biography written by 
Tbn Ishaq' 1 ' was the most renowned and highly documented. He wrote in the 
early Abbasid period. Et was said thai Jhn lahOq visited Al-Man&ur in 
Baghdad along with his soft, AI-Malutt Al-Man&ur said to him. " + Do you 
know who [his man is. ibn Isfraq?" Ibn Jslinq replied, "Yes. he is your son, 
Commander of the Be J fevers." He said, 4l Co, and write a book for him on 
I he creation of Allah Since Adam up to Lliis day "Ibn Ishaq did as he was 
told Then Al-Mansur said to him. 'You have made it 50 big (hit Iskaq. go 
and summarise it'\ He did and the book was shelved in the ireisury of the 
Commander of the Believers.. 

ARer half it century, Ibn Htstum'*' rewrote this hiogniphy through one 
person, 7AyM Al-Bllk!'?^, Tbn Ishaq's book, which he wrote, was not in the 
form that It has today. This is because Ibn Fiislium examined Ihn Isftaqs 
biography of Ihc Prophet (pbuhJ by editing, abridging, making additions, 
and sometimes criticizing ajid objecting through the narrations of other 
scholars. He even utilized part of his methodology; of narration. 



I He js Muhammad IN fcJwq too VmSr ibn KhiyAt Ahfl AbdillJili nJ^Mwiiut jU^impJil. ihe 
pjllrnn ol tjayi rhn MiiklmtllUill ihn ,il-Mua.;ih|> ibts Ahd Mulll'd HM framJIalltu. Yjaiii ifcii a 
toptlif of "Ayn at-Tainr J u™h Wen 61 Kufa nn l he rthiif +i( Jtwrt It Mfaf evtufjffctl b> Mus- 
lim} dyriTi# (he wijtn of AlJil ttaif ill D AH Srajfiajr in MudTniA. hii eMdiiui Muhniimmd ijs 
hfttil in S* AH MuIiiimjiuiJ *fwryi fit* cud> yi'mih ui Mudiitnk High he. hflgajr irjvcllnji Bin! lw 
4fcw lo AlpuuKlriil in J t5 AH wIiliu ltd ilioJc aboul iORlc I^SfHian^. All inwards, lie traveled lo 
nuiOJ UtamiC tibuitfnc* uK'h a> Kul'd. ANJ.](.ii.ifi. Ar-Rjyy. A! ll.t^rah. diiid Hj^MjiI whclta he 
Jii-i.1 in 15? A 1 1 Ihn " Adiyj said abiiul Ihn l*ilSq, "tl u-jn h tficJJ VJilUc of Ifcw l>J|i^| tJm hi L Jivqrr- 
«tf (hi? k<nn> JllrnLiwi in ripiiks tffiSfitl ifH-ludai ihE million' eiDnflaijm* of the Mcssfinirer (if Allah. 
\\n MeSiaiit Jitd Hie frqeinning nf ljimiujh.* 

2. Ahu Muluiiniwd Abdul-Malik ibn Milium !bfl A> tjQb at-Hlmyiri w:±v r.iiw^ in Ahlia^aJi, Tllcn 
ly *iim (o E.|!vpl whurc lie iTtel tiMisrn Ahb--5ruiEt "i and reciti'd many Anisic jKicnt\ In .btlilfliotL (u 
L-dHlfq; Ihn I^j^"* hmwiph>. Ihn Ih-JISm vu<Ac j hook on the hncipe iitut km^>hif oFltimyjj, 
uikl j ihlttJ wrtk *,w on v%p\Ut\n\nn (\f uutle^r Anhii; potim*. Htdjod id AhFusuiun 2I(S AH, 

3 Hv u Iht lLkl'i£ Alnii MuhcutinLul &yi*\ ihn AMdAtulii Ibn n-lufn^l j}-BulL!i"i al-'Amiri al 
Kilj Al thjkj"t j.M."fihv'J l«j R.uiu Hulj i>r n.mu "Amir ihn Sn "^a'jh. ZiyiuL wtnl lo Bn^htkid 
uiifir lie .[hike .iThmje nij[it.iiv L^m^Lirj!^ feJerFing In Jbn KJfiiH .irtd utttet utitiuicui^Ji ^ fufeirine IP 
Muh jiii tn .id kl-in SSfim A11cTW*«i.*. fte td WIKttf lM Kutti wherf hi? *li«t in I tt? HO dating ihc rule 
urijanun «r-R;nllid thn Itiiikjjti paid .tpiicmt /cicrcnc^ in irini ilitrikh, »w lw t,»nJ m iht- <nh-win! 
til 1n> E^m^. "} irnniTCd *tnm: ihtniji ithfL'h.nre rcpukivc to he nKnlnuiaJ ^huut him, *onw fnjf 
mtfliHhFtL<d ny sonic people uchI mjiT"." n*rt mifllilicd b> Ai Btiki'i' Id he narrated " 



(VN) 



There ]s no doubt that Ihn Htshom was honejii and that he conformed in 
Ins ciiaikio of Ihn UJiiq's book. He never changed or added a word of Ibn 
hhiiq unless he was explaining or fefucing a narration, when he would refer 
in a mod i flexion by slating fl Jhn Hi sham said". 

His main purpose nf a ting ibn tshuo/s biography was to make an 
abridgment. He delcied all that hud been mentioned before the history of 
Ismi'II the son of Ibrahim (peace be upon them both) us well as stones and 
information of fsm;Vil"s ^ons which, in his opinion, did riot serve the 
Prophet's fpbuht biography. He aiso eliminated ail the Ion* controversial 
poems, if anyone compared the original text of Ibn Ishaq urnf Ibn Hicham'* 
narration, he would find that he was very careful and utterly honest, winch 
were eharEicienstics of tin: Muslim scholars of mm hme. 

The Status of Ibn Hi sham's Biography 
of the Prophet (pbuh) 

lifidoubiedly, ihn Ishuq's book was and will continue id be a major 
reference for readers of the Prophet ^ (pbulvi biography. No one plunged into 
the life of the Prophet Muhammad (pmihh without referring to Ibn Isftaqs 
hook as a major source of information. 

for a very long itme tlie biography written by Ibn Ishjhj was known 
among scholars as the Ho^raphv by Ibn Hisham because Tbn Misham 
narrated and edited it, Ibn Khalqun said, "Ibn Hi sham is the one who 
compiled the biography of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) from the by tiles 
and stories narrated hy Ibn IsMq and it is the biography in the people's 
hands, known as the biography by Ibn Hisharu." This work was studied 
carelfufly by commentators. For instance, Abul-QaMm "Ahdur-Rahman 
as-Suhayli 1t ' til 5Kf ) presented an extensive annotation of the hiograpby m 
f 1 1 s book , A r-Rit w£ ai-Anf. 

Alter this Abu Dharr aJ-KhushaynT'-' eAamined the book by captaining 
ihe parts of it that were unclear, as well us providing some criticism in 

h Alful QJiim AKJur Mjjjtri.m ihn AhdnUlh ihn Aiunsd ibn Attach ,il-KKaih ami as-£ah4#lf ut- 
&ttij£jJ4£J d Miiliiii lk* vfj.\ bunt in SON AH in Andtaluv. M^1U|^h He ipent ihree JMCJ m M«- 
ntcvo ujjjJ dure Uttf c lu 5H I UD. 

2- ANi llhiitr Muj,' .it* thu Muhnrnm*! ibn Hb»~4ii at$j£h} flJ-Khuihayni. B2H&ft4. H», w<u ffom j 
%i^|ji^E uUd KlHishujm H» AtiifciJiM, fawn 4i irih* fruei O^tU tth He *us tiam n> 532 AH ind 
dial in *jUJ AH 



Shark dfMmh uu-Nalxtwiyyuh which was published by Dr. Bronolah, 
Badrud-Din Muhummiid tbn Ahmad al-Ayni ptwenled in 805 AH a 
commentary called KtishjotUrhamJi Shark Strtti fbn Ht.iham. 

There were also others concerned about summarizing, including 
Bui hfinud-Din IbrQhtrn ibn Muhammad, known as I'hnui-Mnrluri asb-Shfifn 
Who summarized ilic biography ana* added That which was Jacking in 61 1 
AH in a book called AdUDIutkhlmh p Aiukhhistir n.^Simh. Abul- Abbis 
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Abder-Rafcman alAVasilt. also summarized this 
work in 71 1 AH in a hook entitled Mukhtosttr Sirai ttk HiMm. Moreover, 
I be biography of the Prophet ipbtiht by Ibn Hishtun was composed mio 
verse form by Abfl Muhammad Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Said 
njfcDumayri ad-Dayrim who dted in 663 AH. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn 
Ibrahim, known as Irmush-Shahid td. 793 AH) composed it into tens of 
thousand* of verses in Ah Path ttl-Qunhfi Siral At-Huhib. 

Abridging the Prophet's [pbuhj Biography by Ibn His ham 

Early in m\ youth ' ] attempted several times to read this venerable 
work from he-ginning to Cod but I failed due 10 me disturbing digression in 
writing that made it tiresome, I read various passages dispersed throughout 
it, which were like meadows in a cksen. They attracted me because of the 
beautiful expression and the glory oTihcir aim 

Neverthcfc*, I felt, while reading the biography of the Prophet (pbuhJ 
something of what 1 enjoy in reading the Quran or thi.' Prophet's hadiihs* of 
sincere worship and devotion. A deep-seated motivation drove me 10 repeat 
my endeavor* 10 read the biography: my faiher was among ihosc Who wrote 
aboui the Prophets (pbiihj biography. He abridged it in a bonk of thirty 
chapters emitted Tafkhii. ad-Drus aI-Awwaiiyy<th fis-Sirtth 
o^MiikiuMWtliyyuh (A Summary of Preliminary Lessons in the 
Muhammad^ (pbulu Biography >, which was for a long time Ihe only book 
to be taught in the Simh courses of the religious intitules in Egypt. 

However, 1 was not capable of reading the whole book because, as 1 
have mentioned, there is a disturbing digression in writing. The reader of 
Stivh encounters long chapters of names of captives of the Battle of Badr, 



L ' AhgvSalnm Hftrittr. the aHtidtfcr l> f *''k NuA, 

- CD 



names of the horse* of Muslims in this Baltic, a fist of the Muslims who 
at i ended tiaxlr from among die Quraysti and from the An£ar. those who were 
martyred on that day and so on ol livings, prolix poems, lengthy lineage, 
word me?*, and aiso including some Qur'anic commentaries which arc 
irrelevant to the core of Shah. In addition, chain* of authorities on which 
Sirah is based were spoiled ouu which might be important only for scholars 

of criticism. 

In this 'abridgment". I tried to extract elements from the original work to 
present it in a new form that is allowed for uninterrupted reading, while 
being careful about the original text so the reader ton Id cite it. I did not 
replace a tetter of the ordinal text so as tn be honest in performance. I 
referred to Ion Mi sham's wordings in the beginning of the subject ur in 
footnotes, but the whole teat is of Ibn IshBq as narrated by Tbn Hishum. I 
mem toned (be chain of author i Lie s only when it was indispensable fur the 
subject by quoting whai had been reported hy Ibn Jshaq or Ibn Itisti&m. 

To make the text coherent. I interpreted what was needed of explanation, 
relying on accredited Sixth commentaries and Jinguisiic references. 
Abridgement is a kind of facilitation for those who are unable to read the 
original and it serves to lint today's youth to ihejr heritage, Allah willing, 
you would be able to read this boot in a Few days and acquire an immediate 
benefit, while reading the original, if possible, would take a few months. 

J asSc Allah to make this book useful, as it is a small contribution 10 
science, aiming for the salisfaetion of AUah and that of the Propfct, prayer* 
and peace lie upon him. 

Misr al-Jadidah. Mid-Kamadan 1374 AH 



*AkduL-&al&m JfdtUH 



The Noble Lineage 

(from Muhammad (pbuh) 10 Adam) 

Abu Muhammad ~ Abdul -Malik ibn Hisham said, "This is | book on the 
biography o< the Messenger of Allah tphiih-1 Muhammad ibn l Abdullah ibn 
Abdul-MuEulib [called Shnybalil ibn Hashim, [called Anul ibn "Abd. 
Manaftcallcd Al-Mughirahl ibn Qusayy [calkd Zaydl ibn Kilah ibn Murnih 
ibn Ka h ibn Lu'ayy ibn Chimb ibn Fihr ibn MOM ibn An-Na^r ibn KmSnah 
jhn Khuzavmah ibn Mutfrikah [called Amir] ibn llyas ibn Mudar ibn N'iz&r 
ibn Mil* add ibn ' Attoan ibn U'dd land it was said Udad] ibn Muqawwim ibn 
Nah_Qr mn Tayrah, »hn Ya rub ibn Yashjub ibn Nabit ibn ( Prophet) tana 1 1 
ibn r Prophet} Ibrahim |the Intimate Friend of Allah] ibn Tarik [and he was 
Azar'l tbn N'aiiur ibn SfirGgh ibn Rail ibn Falakh ibn Aybar ibn Shalukh ibn 
Ariaklxhadh ibn Sam ibn [Prophet) NiiIl ibn Lanik ibn Muttushaktkh ibn 
Akhnukh [who was said to be Prophet Idrisl ibn Yard ibn Muhlayl ibn 
Qaynan ibn Yflnish ibn Shiiti ibri Adam-(p[mhV 

Ibn Htsham said. '1 wilT. with the help of Attah Almighty, start this hack 
with Ismail the son of Ibrahim, the aneeslor of the Messenger of Allah 
(pbuh). all the descendants down to the Prophet t pbuh J mentioning what 
was known about them and leaving aside the other sons of Ismail for 
summarization. Thus i wit! deal with what is re levant to the hiography of 
ihv Messenger of Allah (pbuhL I wilJ alio refrain from citing some of what 
Ibn Ishaq had examined tn this book which did not mention the Prophet 
I pbuh). or any irrelevant Quranic verses, nor include anything which ii a 
reason, interpretation, or witness serving this book, Besides. 1 will omit the 
poems which were unknown to those specialized in poems ;l\ well as 
anything repulsive, misstate menis of some people and stimc things which 
were not admitted by Al-Bukfi'T* 11 to be- narrated Otherwise I will write 
everything with the guidance of Allah Arniighiy so as to narrate after him 
| Ibn tshaql and to make it known. 



I. He ft a* l he toichprnf Ifrn Hitham add ilui-ipta ai Itm Itjpq Hii n»uw h 7.\yxi \h» ' Ahditbh ibn 
*£Bipjyjj At Biitil. He dial in l»J AH AlBuLl' it a dcwcwlcfll hfaiu* <rf Biuri Amu ibn 



A Follow up of the Lineage 
[from the Descendants of Ismail (pbuh) 

Jsrna"?h son of Ibrdhfm, had twelve sons: Nabh, Qaydan Adhbal, MJshu. 
Ma^na i, Mfishi, Dima. Adhar, UrnO, Yuiuri. Nabash. and Qaydhuma. 
NShil son of Ismail begot Yashjub who beget Ya'mb who bcgui Tftyrah 
who bceot Nahur who begot Muqawwim who begot Udud who begot 
\AiinQn. From Admin, tribes were dispersed from Ismail's line. 'Adnan 
be^ot two sons: Ma* add and "AfcL 'Akk settled in Yemen after marrying 
from the Ash"uri people, so the home and language hecame one. The 
Ash' art people were dependents of Ash'ar ibn Nafol ibn Udad ibn Humaysi fc 
ibn 'Anir ibn Anb ibn Yashjub ibn Zayd ibn Kahlin ibn Yashjub'ihn 
Ya^rub ibn Qahian. As for Ma'udd. the other son of " Adnan. he begot four 
sons; Ntzar, Quito" jh. Quoa*., and lyaU Quda'ah went to Himyur ibn Saba" 
in Yemen, and Qanas were said 10 have perished and all the other sons of 
Ma" add. among whom was An-NVman ibntii-Mundhir who was the lung of 
Ifirah. 

The Vision of Rabrah ibn Na&r 

Rabrah ibn Kasr llie king of Yemen saw a dream which terrified him. 
After sending far all divinerv sorcerers, and fortune-tellers, he told them 
about it. 

Rabrah said, "] saw a vision which terrified and frightened me, so tell 
ine about Us interpretation.* 1 

They replied. Tctl it to us and we wjJJ interpret," 

Rub" ah; "If I spell tl otil \o you, 1 will not feel satisfied about your 
interpretation. No one will know its interpretation unless lie knows it before 
f tell him." 

One of them: "If rwr kjng wants that, he can send to Saifa and Shiuq 
since no tfne js as knowledgeable as iliesc two to tell him wJ»ai he asks," 

He hrnught them both. Sailb met hint before Shiqq. 



Rithfuh: 1 saw a dream which terrified and frightened me, so lell me 
what it is. If you arc right in knowing it, you will be able to give the right 
imerpreiation." 

Saith: 'I ttSfl do. You saw a blaze commg out from the darkness, fell on 
an earth depression, and uie all skulls," 

Rabi" ah: "Ymt arc right Satifi, so what is your interpretation?" 

Suiifr "( swear that the Abyssimans wil} occupy your land and seise 
from Abyan to Jurash <lwo Yemeni towns)." 

Rabl'ah: "G Saiflt tins is raging and painful, when wiSI it be? Will il be 
during my time or after mc? H 

Saijii: "After your Lime by more than sixty or seventy years!" 
Rabfah: "Will their reign continue or will ii end?" 

Salili: It will end after more than seventy, then ihey wiil be fought and 
expellee! and wtII flee," 

Ram" ah; "Then who will succeed them? 11 

Salih: Iram tbn DhT Yazan who will come from Aden to expel them all 
from Yemen." 

Ruhr ah: "Will Ms reign continue or will it end?" 

Sniifc "It will end." 

Rahi'ah: "Who will endit?" 

S»l?& "A chaste Prophet who will be inspired from the heavens." 

Robfah: "Who is this Prophet?" 

Satfit M A descendant of Ghfttib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Na&. and the 
rule will be by his people until die end of the world!" 

RabTnh: "Is there an end for the world?" 

SaLth.: "Ye*, when the people of earlier limes are brought with those of 
Inter times. The fair-doer will be happy, while the wrongdoer wilt suffer," 

Rabfah: "Is it true what you are saying?" 

Sttiih.: "Yes. by twilight and dusk and daybreak when it comes, what I 
am informing is true." 



When Shiqq came, !he king mid him what he had told Sauls hut be 
concealed what Sa|ih had .said, *a as to sec whether they would agree or 
disagree. 

Shiqq: "You suw a blaze coming out from the darkness, fell between a 
meadow and lull, and ate all people." 

When he t«ld him this, he knew thai they agreed iilihoug'h Sailjj said 
"fell on an earth depression, and ate aJI skulls" and Shiqq said, 'fell between 
a meadow and hill, and ate it] J people." 

Rabiah: "Yuu did not err, Shiqq So what « your inre rotation r 

Smqq: "I swear by all people, your land will be occupied by Hiicks, who 
will vanquish to the finger trps. They will dominate from Abian to Nujran" 

Rabfafc "O Shiqq this is raging and painful, wlien will it be? Will it be 
during my time or after me?" 

Shiqq: "No alter you for a period or time, then you {i.e. your nation* will 
be rescued by o powerful notable persnn who will aitffer disgnice and 
humiliation." 

Rabrah: "Who is that notable?" 

Shiqq: "A boy, not stout nor mean, will come from Dhil Yazun 
household and will not leave anybody (alive) in Yemen/' 

Rabrah: "Will bis rule continue or end?" 

Shiqq: "h wilt end with the advent of it revealed Messenger who will 
conie with truth and justice among the people of religion and grnec. Power 
will be m {the hands) of bis nation until the Day of sorting oul" 

Rabrah: "Whai is the Day of sorting out? 1 ' 

Shiqtjr "A day when the rulers will be recompensed, supplications will 
come from ihe heavens heard by those alive and dead, and all will be 
brought togedw for an appointed time, when those who were pious will 
triumph and have charitable benefits." 

Rabtah: "Is it true wirat you are saying?" 

Shiqq: "Yes by the Lord of heaven and earth, and what ascends and 
descends in between them, what I am informing you of is undoubtedly the truth." 



Rahfah ibn Nasr believed what they (Saiih and Shiqq) said, so he 
equipped his household to go to Iraq. He sent a letter 10 u Persian king, 
Silbur ibn Khiareiid, and they stayed in JJSfah, 

Seizure of Yemen by Abu Karb Tuban As "ad 
"And his Invading Yathrib" 

When RaJj>1 ah jhn Masr died, the rcien of Yemen Tell u> Hassfln ibn 
Tubin Asa'd, known as AM Karfr. His father. Tubaa Asad went his way 
ft 0111 1 he Bust to Madtnah lYalhrih) bur he did not ail nek its people, 
However, he left his sou thcie who was assassinated. Then, lie conquered 
the place once more with 1 he intention to demolish and annihilate it. A 
group ui people headed by Amr ibn TalLah wen? gathered for him and they 
fought each other in Madinah- The Ansir said rhal they used to fight him at 
daytime and host hint ai rtigltt. He liked lhat and said, "By Allah, these 
people are generous. " 

While Tuhfrn As' ad {also called Tubba'i was fighting, two 
knowledgeable Jewish rabbis who were firmly established in knowledge 
and knew that he wanted to annihilate Muduiah and lis people, said to him. 
"0 king, do not do it. If you refuse there will be an interposition between 
you and it {MadTnah) and we are nol sure that you may be im mediately 
punished/' He asked them. "Why ihisT They replied, "It is the place of 
Immigration sought by a Pmphei who will come from the Inviolable place 
tin MakkahJ from the Quraysh in the latter periods, to have it as his home 
and settlement," 

He stopped what he was doiii£. as he found the two rabbis were 
knowledgcabJe. He was pleaded with Uicir words, so he left Madinah and 
convened to their religion. 

Ttibba and hi* people had been idol worshippers. While they were 
heading to Makkah on their way to Yemen, between tMan and Amaj tu 
town between Makkah and Madinah.) a group of Hudhayl ibn Muthikuh said 
to hirn. "O king, may we gujtle you to a house of treasury disregarded by 



kings before ym which contains pearls, aquamarine, corundum, gold, and 
silver?" 

TtibbaV'Ves:* 

The group; "A house in Makkah which is worshipped by Us people 
where they oiler prayers/' 

In fe way. those of Hudhuyi wanted u> gci rid or \um, since they knew 
that whichever kmg warned CO own the house or tyrannize its place, was 
doomed to death. The king asked the two rabbis about what was told to him. 

Rabbis: "They want to get rid of you and your soldiers. Wc know thai no 
one can have the House of Allah on earth, if you followed them you would 
definitely perish as well as all who are with you," 

Tubba": "What do you suggest me la do when I rcneh it? 1 ' 

Rabbis: "Do what its people da: circumambulate around it and glorify it 
be eencrous there, shave your head, and yield to it until you leave." 

Tubba": "What presents you both from that?" 

Ruhbis: "By Allah ii is the House of our father Ibrahim and it is as we 
tolii you but its people interposed between us and the House by the idols 
they stationed tirnund it and the blood they shed there. They are impute 
people associating others with Allah." 

Believing in the sincerity of their discourse, he followed their advice, so 
when confronted the group of Hudhayl he cut off their hands and legs. Then 
he reached MakLafi. He circumambulated the House, sacrificed there, and 
shaved his head. He spent sU days at Makkah sacrificing to feed its people 
and gave Them to honey drink. He saw a dream that he covered the House 
(with cJotfe). Thus, he covered il with very thick cloth: then he dreamt that 
he should cover it with a better quality, so he covered it with Yemeni cloth. 

It was said that Tubba" was the first to cover the House. He charged his 
follower* of J urn wo to clean themselves, not to approach it with biood, dead 
bodies, or any filthy items, He made a jjaic and a key for it Taking his 
soldiers and the two rabbis, he left Makkiih to Yemen He cnlled his people 
in Yemen to )om his new religion. They refused to do so unless he stands 
before the arbiiraiion of lire. 



In Yemen they used In sec the arbitration of fire in Case of ally 
difference: tticv believed that ii cms up the oppressor and does not harm ihc 
oppressed. Hence, bis people caxne wiih their Idols and what ihey used 10 
S#i£$fli& in their religion. The two rabbis put their tholyl hooks on their 
necks sitting by die fire from which it would emerge. When the fire 
approached I hem. ihcy tried to avoid it out of fear. The attending people 
blamed ihem and told them lo he paiieni . They held palicnce then the fire 
ate up the idols una things Ihul they hiid sacrificed for them, as well as men 
from (he people of Jii my a r win* were e airy in g them. The two rabbis widi 
their books, appeared perspiring bui the fire did not harm them. Since then 
the people of Himyar converted to (the rabbis'l religion* and that was the 
beginning of Judaism in Yemen 

When his son Hassan ibn Tubun As* ad became king, lie urged the 
Yemenis to conquer the lands of both (he Arabs and non-Arabs When Lhev 
reached Ihe land of Bahrain, the Yemeni people did not want to continue Hut 
u*e si red to return to their country. They resorted lo Hass&n's brother, 'Amr. 
who was among rhcm t urging htm to kill bis brother [Hassan) and take over 
the rule and re mm with them to Yemen. All a e reed with the idea except for 
Dhu Ru ayn a I -Mm iv an w ho forbade ium from thai, hut he did not respond 
10 him. Dhu Ru'ayn wrote on a parchmem rliat " Amr would be deprived of 
sEctp because of lus betray, then he sealed the paper and gave it. to 'Amr. 
Afterwards, Amr killed Hassan *in<i returned to Yemen with his army. 

In Yemen 4 Amr was deprived of sJecp and became overwhelmed by 
insomnia He asked doctors, diviners, and seers, and one of them said to 
him. "By Allah no one tyrannically killed his brother or any of his blood 
relatives like you did but was deprived of sleep and overwhelmed by 
insomnia," When he heard that, he killed every person who hud incited hint 
to kill his brother Hassan, until it came to DhO Ru'ayn, 

Dhu Ru^ayn: "I have an aequittal from you." 

'Amrt "What is \iT 

Dhu Ru'uyn; "The written parchment I gave you.^ 

When he brought it out and raid the words on it; he laiesv that he had 
advised him (through his prediction), 



"Amr died and Ihe. Itayar kingship declined and its people dispersed. 
Then a man. who was nol from tfw royaj houhchakl emerged. His name was 
Lakhaay'uJi Yanflf Dhu Shanatir. Me killed the gm*d people among them 
in id .diuteu i he royal people. Lukhriay\m was homosexual. He sent lo 
Zur'ah Dhu Nuwds the son of Tubfui Asa d. the br uther ot Hassan, He was a 
young boy when Hassan was killed and became an intelligent and handsome 
young man. When I be messenger (of LakhnaV ah) came to him. he knew his 
purpose. He vietii to iimu hiding a knife between his shoe and his toot, and 
bemg alone, he jumped on him and killed him with the knife. The people 
said lo him, "No one will rule us but you. You have saved us front that 
vicious man." 

He brought the Jimtyur kingship hack to rule the Yemeni tribes for a 
long lime. Me was ihe Ia« king of Himyar and he was the maker .of the pit. 
In Nojifin. there were people of grace and honesty and who were Christians, 
They were led by Abdullah ihn Alh-Thamir. Dhu Nuwto went to J hem with 
hit soldiers to force them to convert into Judaism. Having refused to do so, 
they were thrown alive into a large pit where a great fire had been lit. He 
also killed others by mc sword. About twenty thousand were kilted, 
including their leader Abdullah ihn ath-Thamtr, The Qur'an refers to this 
event: 

4. Cursed www the ptaplu of the ditck fire supplied i abundant iy) with 
fuel when they stu by it (ftrek and they witrtexsed what ike? were tftting 
ijgQffift the hetieveri tie. Hit a\mg thtml They tmd nothing a#aiwt them, 
except ifitii they believed in Alttdi. the AlUMighry, Worthy of ait 
Praise* >> 

(Al-Buriij:4-Sl 

The Abyssinian Victory over Yemen 

One of them { i.e. the Christians of Najran), called Daws Dhu 
TJiuluban. slipped away on his horse and reached the Roman Emperor 
where be sought support against Dhu Nuwib ami his soldier* and told him 
whut they had niiufc. The Roman Emperor told him that his country was Tor. 
so be would write io the Abyssinian king who was Christian as w*ell and 



more adjacent to Yemen, Daws weal to The Negus (the Abyssinian King J 
with the Emperors letter to support Daws 10 get victory and Lake revenge. 
He relumed to Yemen with the help of seventy thousand Abyssinian 
warriors tinker the leadership of AryiU. Among the warriors was Ahrabah 
al-Ashram. Ary^t went his way through the sea until lie reached ihe Yemeni 
shores- When they met Dhu Nuwas and his Yemeni adherent v. Dhu Nuwas 
realized ihut he wouU be defeated so he directed his horse towards the sea. 
fell intu the water and drowned. Aryai was granted rule over Yemen, 

The Dispute between Aiyat and Abrahah 

Aryfit spent ycaro on the Thrown of Yemen. Abrahah disputed with him 
over Abyssinian matters in Yemen until the Abyssinian* became disunited, 
with a secLion aliened lo each of them. They were incited against each other. 
When the Iwo groups approudied each other and then Abrahah sent to 
Aryit 

Abrahah; "You wiil not benefit if the Abyss i mans fnlt against each other 
to the point of extermi nation. Come, and let us duel each other. The winner 
will have ihe warriors uf the other.*' 

AryAt; ''This is fair/ 1 

Abrahah, a vtout, skin man, confronted Aryai* d handsome, mighty, and 
ta!t man carrying a bayonet. Behind Abrahah stood a Jad called 'Aiwadah to 
support his buck. Aryai threw the bayonet aiming id the lop of Abiahah's 
head but it fell on his forehead slitting his eyebrow, eye. nose, and lip. Thai 
is why he was dubhcJ Abrahah at -Ashram (Abrahah the Slitl 'Atwadah 
attacked Aiyal front the back and killed him, Aryan's soldiers joined 
Abrahams, and so an Abyssinian uni/kaiion emerged in Yemen. 

The Story of the Companions of the Elephant 

Abrahah built a church called AI-Qull-yiis in SaiVa' that had no 
equivalent in its time on earth- He seni to The Negus; "1 have built for you. 
O king, a church an equivalent of which has never been built for any king 
before you. I will do my best to make the Arabs perform pilgrimage to it." 



When the Arabs knew about Abruhah's letter 10 the Negus, fine of the 
calendar imcrcalators^ gm angry. He went to Al-Qullyas. urinated there 
and relumed home, Being inlormed about this even L Abrahah asked. "Who 
did it" He was answered, "He is an Arab of those of the House (Lire Ka'bah) 
to which peopte perform pilgrimage* Wheat he heard about your saying f 
will make ihe Arabs perform pilgrimage [o if he was infuriated and urinated 
in it to show that this place was not eligible for pilgrimage." 

A bra hal i was enraged and swore to march and demolish the House. 
After equipping, and deploying the A by simians, he marched with soldiers 
having elephants painting towards the House, The Arabs heard about this 
and were terrified but insisted on fighting the approaching army, 

A Yemeni notable called Dhu Nafr instigated his people and other Arabs 
to Tight against and restrain Abrahah from his attack and plan to demolish 
the Inviolable House. However, when they fought Ahrahah. they were 
defeated snd Dhu Nafr was taken captive. 

Pursuing his large t. Ahrahah reached die land of Khaifrf am but was 
resisted by N'ufayt ibn Mabth al-KhathTaml who led the Arab tribes. Again 
Ahrahah vanquished him and took him captive. Afterwards he released him 
and used him as a guide. Passing by Taif. MaV.itd ibn Mu*aUib among 
others iTnm Thnqif said to Abrahah: *Q king, we are your slaves, obedient 
to you, having no disagreement with you. This house - they meant Al-Lat 
tail idol] ■ is net what you are seeking, you want the House in Makkah. We 
will vend with you someone to guide you," They sent Abu Ri^hal as a guide 
who accompanied him to Mughammas (a place near Makkalu where AbQ 
Righal died and was buried. Abrahjh sent an Abyssinian called Al-Aswud 
ibn Mafsiid by horse lo Makkah, He rubbed the Quraysh and other tribes 
including two hundred camels belonging to "Abdut-Muttahli, who was men 
master of the Qtitaysh. Quraysh, Kinanuh and Hudhayl and all who were in 
and around the Inviolable House wanted to fight him but they realized they 
would not be able to. 

Ahrahah sent Hunalah ai-Himyuri 10 "Abdul-Muiialin. with a message 
saying iliui lie did noi want war with tlie people of Makkah. He only wanted 



I The tntEfTjlaLnft went llrtwf W'hu utcil lu ddjlril pntfatK urn) ucr&l ntowhi ift ite pre. 



to destroy tlrc House, so if the peopk or Mukkah did not in' to stop him 
from destroying ii, there would he no need lo light. Abrahuh asked Hunuiah 
to see 'Abdul-Mumdib in case l>c did intend lb Tight him. Abdul -Mmialihs 
answer was. 'By Allah, we do not warn to. fight him: wc cannot resist him. 
This t> AHah's Inviolable House, which was bmh by His Intimate Friend 
Jbrahlm. If He prevents him from it, il is His House and Shrine, and if He 
allows him, so wc cannot prevent him,'* 

" AbcUii-MuuaJib and some of his sons went with Hunoiah until they sow 
some enemy soldiers. 'Abdul-Mulialih asked about Dhu Nafr, who was his 
friend. He visited him in prisun. 

* AhduUMuitaliri; "O Dhi Naircan you noi help in whal has happened?" 

Dhu Nafr: "What Lmd of hdp L-an the a 1 he- from a captive m the hands 
of ;i king, waiting 10 he killed morning or evening? Inhere is nothing I can do 
for you but 1 wilJ send to Anis^ the elephant rider, who is a friend of mine. I 
wj|] recommend that you meet the king and tell him whatever you want, and 
to intercede for your good, il' he can." 

" Abdui-Muttalib: "J hope so/' 

Dhu Nafr sent to Anfe, 

Dhu Nafr: '" Ahdul-Muuahb is ihe master of Qumysh and uwner of 
Makkah'* trade caravans. He feeds peopk in the piain and beasts in the 
mountain. The king took two hundred camels from him. Get him a 
permission to meet him, and intercede for his good wiUi whatever you can." 

Amsi "I will do so. 11 

Arris spoke to Abrahah 

Atris: ,h O king, here is the master of Qumysh at your door who wants 
your permission to enter. He is the owner of Makkah's trade caravans, He 
feeds people in the plain and beasts in the mountain. Let him ask you about 
his request." 

Abrahah allowed him to enter. "Ahdul-Muiralib was very handsome and 
mighty. When Abrahah saw htm. he praised him and allowed him to sil 
under him since he dUliked ttiai the Abyssinian* see him silting on the royal 
throne beside him. so he let him sit on the carpet and he sat down beside 



him, lie loid [he tnieipnHcr to ask hini about his request. 'Abdui-Minjahb 
replied, "My request is to have back my two hundred camels which were 
taken from me." When the interpreter told him hi* request, Abtahah 
commanded him lo say to him t "\ was impressed when J saw you; now I 
have k'ist interest in you after talking to me. Are you asking me about the 
two hundred camels which 1 have taken and saying nothing about the House 
that represents your religion and the religion of your forefalhcrs which 1 
have come to destroy?" 'AbduUMuualih replied, "I am the owner of the 
camels and the House has tin Owner Who will defend it." A bra hah replied, 
"No-thine will slop me! M \4hduJ-MtiTjjJih suidL "Wc shall see." 

After taking his cumeU hack, "Abdul-Mu&alih returned io the Quruysh 
;md informed them of Abrahoh's intern ion He ordered them to leave 
Miikkah seeking shelter ul the top- i>f Ihe mountain* so uk to avoid attack 
from the army. ■ Abdul -MuJlulih held the knocker of die K;fhah and 
supplicated to Allah with a group of the Quraysh to give them victory over 
Abrattah and his soldiers. 

Then they sought surety in (he mountains wailing for what Abrahah was 
going lo do in Makkah, In tin.* morning. Ahrahah proceeded to Makkati, 
mobilized the army, and prepared the elephant that was called Mahmud, 
Abiahah had decided to reLurn to Yemen after demolishing the KiTbah 
When the elephant was pointed towards" Makkah, Nufayl ihn tjablb 
whispered in the elephant*?! ear> "Kneel down or go back to where you have 
came. You are in the Inviolable town of Allah." When he left his ear. the 
elephant knelt down. Nufayl quickly climbed the mountain. The troops beat 
the elephant to make it gel up but it would nut: they beat us head wall iron 
bars, but it would not get up. Whenever they made it face toward!* Syria or 
Yemen it would immediately gel up and *wrt off. Then suddenly birds like 
swallows and starlings came from the sea. and with every bird sverc three 
Jcnttl-likc and chickpea-like stones, one in its beak and two in its claws. 
Everyone who wa* hit by any of tlfese stones died. Those who were not hit 
fled, bin on their way back, they were failing down and dying. Ahralndi was 
affected in his body and died 

Ibn tshaq said. ''When Allah sent the Prophet Muhammad ipbuhk it was 
a greui blessing of Allah 10 count on the Quraysh that He saved them from 
the Abyssinian*. Allah the Almighty says in the Qur'an. 



• HttvexoH (() Muhammad} not scan how your Litrrf dealt with tht Own- 
ers of the EUptiant? Out He not make thtir pitn jw* mifti\'-' Atui aaar? 
rtKtiinxt them bmfy in fJoeJ<x stiikmx them with rfoites of Sijjtt. Altd 
mudp them Uh? ttn empty field **f .\tatk.\ fofn-?tich the com has hetm eaten 

(AJ-Ftf- 1-51 

The Sons of Nizar ibn Ma add 

Ni/iir ihn Ma' add begot three sons: Mudar, Rabrah, and An mar. Mudui 
begot Lwo sums; litis, ami Avion, llvils begat three sons; Mudrikuh, 
Jiihikhah. and Qumii'ali. Mudrikoh begot two sfjrts: Khuzaymah and 
ITudhayL Kuzuytiuih begot four sons: Kmiinah, AsatL Aswhih. and Al-Hfln. 
Kinanah begm lour sons: An-Nadr*^ Malik, 'Abd Maoai, and Milkun, 
An-Nadr hc|ioi two soils: Malik and Vakhlud. MDlik begot Fihr, Fihr begot 
four sons: Ghalib. Mufraiib. Al-Uaiitlt, arid Asad< Ghalib begol two sons: 
Lu'.iyy and Taym. Lu'oyy tacgoL tout jsons: Ka b. *Amtr. Sajuah. and "Awf. 
KiTb begot three sons: Miirrah. Adiyy. and Huyiys, Munah begot Ehrcc 
sons; KHob. Taym. and Yaqq&ih, Kilflb begot two sons: Qusiayv and 
Zultfsh. Qiisayy beuoi four sons: *Abd Munaf, 'Abdud-par, 'Abdol* v (j£za. 
and And Quxayy. And Manaf begot lour sons: H&shim. *Abc! Shams. 
AI-MuiiuHh. and Nawfal. 

The Children of " Abdul-Mujttalib ibn Hashim 

Ibn Hisham said, "' Abdul -Muiriiltb ibn Hashim begoi icn sons, and six 
daughters; Al* Abbas, ilamrah. Wbdullah. Aou lalib. Az-Zubnyr, 
A I HarHlL EujL Al-Muquwwim. Qirar, Aba Lahan fliLs name was 
'Abilul-'Uzzaj; Safiyyah. Umm Hakim Al-Bayjla. Atikah, Umaymah. 
Arwii. and Barrah. 11 



I Ihn Kivfiifli Hin J tlui( An-Najr it Quoyvh; qit£ hum ofhm t>ne Mrnigs w Cunyst) bul those mil- 
shJe hii line Jonnt || i^ uiui thu rt i* Rlir pirn ^fuhk who f*Qiuuv«fr, 



The Parents of the Prophet (pbuh) 

'Abdullah ihn \-\bdil-Muilalih begot the master of all the children of 
Adam, the Prophet MLihaoimud, prayers, peace, mercy, and blessings from 
Allah be on him and His: family His m of her: Aminah daughter of Wahh ihn 
Abd Manaf thn Zuhrah ibn KiJiib ibis Murrati ibn Ka h ihn Lu'ayy ihn 
Gbalth ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr. Her mother was Rarrah daughter or 
" Abdul-" LJfjift ibn "Urhman ibn Abdud-Dar ibn Qu^ayy ibn Kilab ihn 
Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Luayy ibn G ha lib tbn Fihr ihn Miiiik ibn An-Nut|r 
The Prophet Muhammad *p*>uhj is ihc most honored of the children of 
Adam, of the best paternal and maternal lineage; he is the honored, 
generous. glorified, and great 

The Digging of Zamzam 
and Disputes concerning it 

While 'Abdul-Mtuialjb was sleeping under Ihc shade of ihe Ka'fcih 
Mimcone commanded him in a dream to dig Zamzam- * Abdul -Muualib said, 
"While I was sleeping in the shade of the Ka bah someone came to me 
saying, "Dit£ "jjbah," 1 said. 'What i* Tlbah? Then he went away. The next 
day while I was in he J keeping. He came in me saying, Dig Ai- Matin fin ah.' 
[ said. What is AI-MajlrriuuiJi?' Then he went away. The rtc\l day while 
sleeping in bed he came to rae saying. Dig Zamzajm.' I said. 'What is 
Zxnuum? He said. Ti never depletes n<u jis water lessens; it is 10 provide 
water for pilgrims; it ts between excretions arid blood, at the rap of the erow 
wim whitish wings, 1 ' 

When he discovered the plate, knowing that his vision had come true, he 
took his spade and was, accompanied than by his only child, Ai-Harith. and 
started digging. Once the stones covering a welt appeared he esc I ai rued 
with. 'AlliUiir Akbur'. The Quraysh then knew that he had reached his target. 
The-Y crowded around him and asked. "O *Ahdul-Muiiaith it is the well ^f 



j . Ji ku% u jjj dw J tji.ii v-licih lie Mu jN^ui Li> dig ii, liu iMik thtc iinb' «cstb juJ ific r<jtaiV. h\jt. he Jul 
nid we en:tctlrifU0i lilimd. Thterunjiiirb. Iv snw .1 i'umw '.'.si/aping IW iliiujiHhrfcrantl tfnurfed IPk fn- 
vUiluhle MiLtqitc. 1 1(? <hugft4craJ Jt ami nxizmitftiSt and blood tliwcJ .iwJ he proceeded lodijf 



our forefather IstiuT tl. As we have a righl in it, lei us l>e your partners in iL" 
He replied: "No. I will not do thai. This ma Iter was especially delegated to 
me. not you." They said, "Be fair. We will not leave and we will he upset 
with you." He said. "So Jet us have whoever you want as an arbitrator-" 

They answered: u The %he-diviner n| Bann Ka d Hudhaym." He said, "Ok." 
She was near Syria. l Abdul-Mmrahb traveled to her with a group from Banu 

Ahd Manaf and a gruup from every tfibe belonging lo ir»c Qurayrih. The 
land was then in I lie wilderness. When thev reached the wilderness between 
HijaV and Syria, AbduNMurialib and his companions ran out of water to the 
extent that (hey were dying of thirst. They asked for water Irani the others 
of (he Quraysh hut they refused to give them (waier) saying, "We arc in the 
wilderness and we are afraid of suffering from what you are now suffering 
from." When Ahdui'MuuaHh saw the peoples altitude and being fearful of 
what would happen to himself and his companions, he said. "What do you 
think?" They answered. "Wc wilj do what you think, so command us 
whatever you want/ He said, 1 think every one of you should dig his own 
pit with whatever strength he has. Whenever any of you dies his 
companions will put hirn in his pit and cover his body with dust, until only 
one person w ill remain, This is because jf one person remains unbuncd it 
will be easier than the remaining of a whole group urtrmried" They agreed 
and everyone dug his pit and started waiting for death. Afterwards, 
* Abdul- Muttalib said, "By Allah, we are easting ourselves by our hands to 
death without si ri king in the earth seeking for ourselves This is weakness, ft 
may be that Allah will provide us with water in some place, so lei us ride 
on." They rode with the oiher people of Quraysh who were watching them 
to see whal they would do. "Ahdul-Munaiib rode his camel, and when ii 
moved a fresh water spring gushed forth from underneath its hooves, 
'Abdul-Muualib said. "Aljuhu Akbar" and so did his companions. They 
descended and kept on drinking and filling up their pois. 

They invited the tribes of the Quraysh, "Come to the water that Allah 
has made uv drink from, Come and drink and fill your pots." After drinking 
and filling up their pots, they said, "Surely Allah decreed Tor you against us H 
*Afrdu|-MuU.ttlifx By Allah, we will never dispute with you over Zamzam. 
The One Who provided you to drink this water in this desert is the One Who 
provided you with Zairuam, no return straightaway to your source of 



water-giving. They all returned without reaching the she-diviner and they 
left Zitin/um to htm, 

*Abdul-Muttalib Vows 
to Slaughter a Son of his 

The Qu rays It's initial utuuidc towards die digging of Zamzam made 
Abdul Mmulib ibn Ha^him, make u vow. ihat iT Allah would Hess him with 
ten sons who would grow to manhood, lit; would sacrifice one of them to 
Him -it the Ka bah When hK mh'^ became ten ;uilI i l-^l'jsv J Batoaty, \--: 
gathered them to Inform them about his vow, calling then) to fulfil his oath. 
They accepted He s*id| "Everyone of you will [akc a wooden arrow, write 
his name on it* and then come to me/ 1 They did and wen I to hi in. He took 
them to Htibal tan idol J located on a well Lit the Ka bah. Everything that was 
devoted to the Ka'bah was fat lie red in that wetL 

At Huhni there were seven wooden arrows, and c^ch one of l hem 
contained a message. {For instance), an arrow was mude for "blood-money' , 
whenever they disputed on whom to take it. they wi*ukj cast the seven 
arrows 4 : if the arrow carrying J he word blood- mnney came out for a certain 
pejson. he would have to pay. An arrow, on which "yes" is written and 
another with H no" for a matter on which the loi had been summoned. On 
another wus "of you" . another m^fecw; (frol a tribe member), another "other 
than you " ajid the laslcarricd the word 'Vatcr". 

Whenever ihey wanted to dig for water. Ihcy mude the divination 
including this arrow, and ihcy applied the outcome. On circumcising a boy, 
arranging for » mut-ringe, burying a CXMpse, or doubting the lineage of a 
person, ihcy went to Hubal to give the man responsible for easing tow. a 
hundred dirhams and a slaughtered camel. Then they would approach the 
one whom they were concerned with saying. O our god. this so and so, the 
son 'of so and so, and we want for htm so and so; show us what is right to do 
for him," They would then s*y to the man responsible for the arrows, 
"Cast"\ If the arrow bearing "of you" came forth, then he was of a pure 
descent ol their tribe: if it was ihc arrow of "other than you" then he was an 

l; Whereas if the answer was muigtuf he was considered neither a blood 



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rckuive nor iu> ally. When "yes" came forth in other issues, itiey ueied 
accordingly; arid if it was "no" they delayed the subject for a year until it 
would be raised again. Thus, (hey administered their affair according to the 
judgement of the arrows, 

" Abdul -Mulla lib ^slrcd the man responsible for the arrows lo c&stlots for 
his sons. using rhe arrows which bore rheir names, [ellinc him about the 
vow. His sons guse the man the arrows, 'Abdullah (at that time) was the 
youngest ami most favored son of 'Abdul-Muiinlih. so he thought that if the 
arrow missed, he would be spared. When thti man begun shuffling the 
iurow.-i, 'AlxJul-Mulialih stood at Huhal supplicating to Allah. Then the man 
shuffled the arrows, ' Abdul liLh's name earn*! forth- Ahdul-Mulialib look his- 
son by the hand and e razor to sacrifice him at Isaf and Nuilah f idols). 
However, the men of the Qtiraysh left iheir assemblies to ask him what he 
was going in do. He told them that he would slaughter him. The Quraysh 
and hi> ions dissuaded him by saying, 'By A Hah you will never slaughter 
him unless there is an esiahltshed excuse* If you do it, every man will go 
and s.aughicr his son. and what will become of people then?" Then 
Al-Mughlrah ihn " Abdullah ibn *Umar ibn Mnkh/um, who was of the 
maternal cousins, *aid, "By Allah yon will never slaughter hint unless there 
is an established excuse. Tf his ransom he of our wealth we will pay. The 
Quraysh and his sons advised him to go to Hijaz where there was a 
she -diviner who had a familiar spirit, so he would ask her, having freedom 
of action: if she told him to slaughter, he would do so t while if she ordered 
him with a matter, which would be good for him as well as for his son, he 
would readily accept it. 

They went to Mudlnati and heard thm she was in K hay bar. Then ihey 
rode on until they readied her. When " Abdul -Mutudib explained to Iter his 
story about the vow. she asked them to leave her until the spirit vis tied her 
as she would consult with him. Leaving her, ' Abdul-Miuialih supplicated to 
Allah. The next Jay she said, 'The answer has come to me. How much is 
j he blood^ money among you'. 5 " They s&& "Ten camels." She told Lhem lo 
go back to their country, offer the young man and ten camels as sacrifice, 
and then cast the lots for tbem and for him. If the: nuin*s arrow were to come 
out. ihey would add fen more camels, until their god is satisfied- However. 



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if the camels' arrow were lo come oul, they would be slaughtered instead of 
" Abdullah, u*. their god would he Satisfied and their man would be rescued. 

Returning it» Makkak they agreed lo do as ihcy had been advtsed. 
"Abdul-Muijalih was eonlinuully supplicating to Allah. They brought 
"Abdullah and tan camds, while 'AbcJuMvluUjdib Mood by Hubal praying in 
Ail alt. Then they east lots and Lhc * AbduJlah';; arrow came forth. They added 
leu moiec.imck hecfim.me; iweniy The} cast lob again and aL\iin. ,ssk] each 
time Abdullah's arrow came out. 'AbduJ-iYluuallb supplicated lv> Allatu and 
they added ten camels until they reached a hundred. Only then did the lots 
full drains! the camels. The Quraysh and those attending said. "At last your 
god is* satisfied, AbduUMuiiaHb." It was said that Abdul-Muiialtb said. 
"No by Allah, not until 1 cast lots three limes for them." They did and each 
time- the arrow fell against the camels, which were slaughtered, and left 
die re. and no human was prevented to eat. 

What was Said to Aminah 
when She had Conceived the Prophet (pbuh) 

People, and only Allah knows hest. that Amman daughter of Wahh. the 
mother of the Messenger of Allah tphuhi h used to say when she was 
pre gii, i ul with the Messenger of Allah, that it was said to her {in a vision). 
"You are conceiving the master of this nation antt when be has been born 
say, t seek refuge for him with the One from the evil of every envious 
person', then name him Muhammad 1 % 

And, when she became pregnant with him. site saw in u dream thai a 
light emitted forth from her by which she could see the castles of Busra in 
Syria. After a short while "Abdullah- the Prophet's father died, while his 
mother was still pregnant, 



t Only (hire hcfwrhiTii wnriruflnl with ihe amtmnK Muluinin^J itm i'qly^n ihti Muj'uJn ihc 
jfSSLxiizttttt of iWFzxAiihkq. StLilunti^a thn U]i.ivS]j|h ilrn <il-Jlli[£li< athJ MuliiinirniHl ihniiitniaji 
ijw Hafrroh, when riictr hsttim Jiwjd jthoin the .ifiprn.KtiiTii; time m i Mts$cn^i «f AlLtii uhu 
*iuild Lisrtu? irmn Ujjii, <*hith thl'j Itui* U*w n Junj! whil kunud lluf Bwuk and lnld Ibtftu 
iifau* Lhc Piu^hti itiid hu tmvK Euch una vuued ih.A rf hh ffcqpwKi! v-iJe ddkvtvd ± mjitu c-tTiht 
Fie wrtiiJiJ cnll him MaJkimmml The ihfrc o1 Ihcrti did JO. 



<M 



The Binfa of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) 

The Prophet (pbuh) was bom on Miindtty 1 2th Rabi'ul-Awwul m the 
Year of the Elephant. Qays ihn Mafcbramah said, 1 and The Prophet (pbuh) 
were bom in the Year of tbcElcphunl." Hassan ihn Thfibit said, "By Alltih. I 
wus a well-grown buy at sevtn or tight, understanding all that I heuid. 
when I heard a lew veiling out raising his voice as much as he conic! from 
the lop or a fort in Yatlirib, m O Jews" until I hey .ill jgatbened and said, "Woe 
to you, whaL has happened?*' He replied 'Tonight Jus sinned u star with 
which Ahmad isio he bom." 

When the Prophet 1 * mother delivered him, she seni ta his grandfather, 
" Abdul -Muiialib. to inform him about ihe birth of a boy. asking him to come 
and look at him. After seeing him. she told hint ahum what srte had seen 
when she was prcgrtam wilh him, what was sajd (o her and what ihe Was 
asked to name him. h is alleged thai 'Ahdul-Mutiatib took him to the 
Ka bait where he prayed and praised Allah thanking Him for His gift, Then 
he brought him out and gave him to his mother, searching for wet nurses for 
him. A woman from BanA Sa'd ibn Bakr called Haiimah daughter of Abu 
Dhu'uyb, was chosen as a wcl nurse. 

Halimah 

liaHmah narrated thai she left her dwelling with her hu>hand and a 
suckling sun. accompanying some women of her dun, in quest of other 
babies to.suekle; 

"Jt was a year of famine and drought and we were destitute, I rode my 
greenish she-donkey. There was with us an old shenramei which did not 
yield even a drop of mifk. We could noi have a wink of sleep the whole 
night because of the weeping of my hungry hahy. There was not enough 
milk in rny breasts, nor could the she-camel feed him. We constantly Imped 
for rain and immediate relief Riding my she-donkey it lagged behind 
because of its weakness and malnutrition, so that it was a hardship for other 
riders. When we reached MakStuh, we looked for children l« suckle, and the 
Messenger of Alton was offered to each woman of us who refused him 



saying thai he was an nrph:m That was because we hnped for a good reward 
from the child's father. We said. "An orphan! and what can hi* mother and 
grandfather do?' Wc disdained because of that- Every woman who came 
with roe got a suckling child except inc. Before departure. I said to my 
husband. By Allah. ! hate to return among my friends without a suekJmg 
baby; I will go and hike that orphan/ Hie said. *No harm on you if you did: 
perhaps Allah will bless us through this orphan." So I *em and took hirn 
because there was no other alternative bin to take him. On my way hack* us 
soon iis I put hint hi my kip. my breasts overflowed with milk, which be 
drank to his heart's conteni. and so did his foster brother, Then both of ihem 
sic pi. while before this we could noi sleep because of rny son's crying. My 
husband went to the old slic-camcl to mill; it; to his surprise its udders were 
fulh he milked it and we drank of its milk until we were completely 
satisfied, and wc spent a good night, in the morning my husband said, "Do 
you know Halltnah that you have taken a Ijlciscd child?* I said, "By Allah, I 
hope so.' 

I carried him with me, as we rode buck on my she-donkey, and it went at 
such a speed that other donkey* could not catch up to it, so thai my fellow 
Lraveters said to me. 'Woe daughter of Abu Dhuayb! Stop and wait for us. Is 
this not the she-donkey on which you had come with? "Sure it is." I said. 
They replied, "By A II ah ; there is something unusual/ Then we reached our 
dwelling?, in Bitnil Sad land, which 1 had never known a land as barren as il was. 

Having him with us + my Hock yielded milk abundantly. We milked them 
and drank at (he time when no one could have a dnop of milk, nor find 
anything In iheir animals 4 udders. People around us were saying 10 their 
shepherds. "Woe to you! Let your sheep graze where the daughter of Abu 
Dhu'uyh's shepherd goes/ Still, their Rocks returned hungry without even a 
drop of milk, while mine had milk in abundance. We continued to recognize 
thin this grace was from Allah, until two years hitd passed, when I weaned 
him. He was growing up more than any other child did. so by ihe time he 
svas two he wus a strong child. We took him back to Ins mother, though we 
were keen to keep him with us because of the blessing and fortune which he 
brought us. I said to her. "Would you leave my little hoy with me until he 
becomes bigger, for 1 am afraid of the epidemic of Makkah which might 
in fee I him.' Wc persisted uniii she let him go with us. 



% AHuh, after few months of our return, he and his brother were with 
our Iambs behind our dwellings when his brother came running to us. Two 
men in white have seized my Ouray shi holier and thrown him down and 
ripped opened his ehe*t. and are moving it up.' Wc ran cowards him and 
!ound htm standing up with a pate luce. We embraced him, inking him what 
had happened. He said. Two men in while garments came, laid me down 
and ripped open my chesi. looking for something which I do not know. 1 So 
we look him buck to our lent. 

His I foster) father said to me. 'Ilultmah, 1 am afraid that ihik child has 
had a stroke, so wc should return him to hi* family before anything appears 
en him,' Thus wc earned him to his mother who wondered. "Why did you 
bring him while you were insiMing to lei him stay with you?' J said to her, 
'Allah has let my son grow to this age and I have done my duty. I am afraid 
thai any harm will befall turn. >o 1 have brought htm back to you as you 
wished.' Shu felt that this was not Mil; mailer and she insisted to know- the 
iruih Limit [ told her what hud happened. She said, 'Do you fear a demon 
possesses him?' I replied that I did, She said that demon had no control over 
her son who ha*! a great future before him. Then she told how when she was 
pregnant with him a tight went out from her which reached the castles of 
Busra in Syria, and that she had bom him with the least difficulty 
i magma nle. When she delivered htm he put his hands on ihc ground raising 
his head towards the heavens. 'Leave him then and go in peace,' s;iid she," 

The Opening of the Prophet's (pbuh) Chest 

Ibn isJiaq said, "Thawr inn YazM told mc, on the authority of a 
knowledgeable person whom I believe is Khalid ibn Madan al-KalLVl. that 
some o( the Prophets fphuhj Companions asked him to tell ihern about 
himself. He \ pbuh' s:iid. 

"I ujti the suppheaiion of my father Ibrahim and the good tidings of l>a 
When my mother was pmgnant with me, she saw in ft dream a light emitting 
from her thai let her see the castles of Syria. My suckling was among Banu 
Sad ibn Bakr, While T was with a { foster) bioiher of mme be bind our (en is 
shepherding the l.imhs, two men wearing white garments came to me with a 



golden hasm lull ot mm, n^n tticy 1011k me <md ripped upcn mv bell^. 

extracted my heart and .split it; ihcn tliey extracted a black do! Hunt a aritl 
discarded n away. Then they washed my heart and my belly with thai snow 
until they tad fully cleaned I hum. Then one ivf them said 10 J he other, 
"Weigh him agamst ten 01 bis naLuii'. tic did so and I outweighed iheiiL 
Then lie said. 'Weigh him against a hundred of his nation'. He did so and 1 
outweighed them. Then be said, TVeigb him against a thousand of tjBS 
naiion H . He did so and 1 outweighed them. He said, Leave him. for by Aliah, 
if you weighed hmi against his enure nation he would outweigh them,' ,H 

Under the Custody of his Grandfather 

The Prophet (phitlii lived within* mother Aminah the daughter of Wahb 
and his grandfather \4bdui- Mutual ib in Allah's care and guard inn ship, 
growing like a good plant, as Allah hud honored him. When he was six 
years old his mother Arurnah died at Abwu", a place between Makfeah and 
Madmah. when she look him to visit his maternal uncles of Banu 'Adiyy ibn 
an-Naipr. She dted on her return to Makkah. Thus the Prophet (phuh) was 
left lo his grandfather, who had a bed in the shade of the Ku'buh. His sons 
sat around the hed, hut none of ihcm sat on it. out of respect for him. The 
Prophet t phuh j, being Mill a young hoy would sit on it and his uncles would 
drive him away. When \4bdu!-Mui£dib saw this he said, "Let my son alone, 
for by Allah he has u great future." Then he would make him sit beside him 
on his bed and would wipe his hack with his hand. It used to please him to 
see wfa4t he did. When the Prophei tpbuhl was eight years old, lu> 
grundfadier died. That was eight years after the Year of the Elephant. 

Under the Custody of his Uncle 

After the death of " Abdul- MuyiaJib, the Prophet (pbuh) lived with his 
Uncle Abu Talib. There was a man of Lihb who was a seer and whenever he 
eartie to Makkah. the Qu ray a hi men brought their hoys for him to look at 
and to tell I heir fortunes. Abu T&lib also brought the Propliet ipbuh) who 
was still Lit i ha I time a boy. The seer looked at him and then he became 



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preoccupied with something* When he finished be said "Bring me thai 
boy." When Abu 131 ih saw his enthusiasm he concealed him and the seer 
began to say. "Woe to you. bring me the boy J have just seen, for by Adah 
he has a great future." 

The Siory of BafelrA 

Abti Talib was going by caravan to Syria as a trader. While preparing for 
his departure, tht Messenger of Allah attached himself closely to his uncle, 
so (hai be compassionately decided to take him along, saying "By Allah I 
will lake him with me suitl we will never separate," Reaching Bosra in Syria, 
there was a monk called BabTra staying in a hermitage. He was well versed 
in Christianity. It was alleged ihai this monk had always lived in thai 
hermitage where he gamed his knowledge from a book handed down from 
generation to generation That year when they settled near Bahfru it was. 
unlike previous years, when he never spoke to them nor even noticed litem, 
he made a great feast for them. This was because, as it was alleged, he bud 
seen >ometrung white in his hermitage. They said that while he was in bis 
hermitage he recognized the Prophet of Allah in the caravan when they were 
approach tm: T wiih a cloud overshadowing him among the people. Then they 
came and sal in the shadow of a tree near the monk. He found the cloud 
overshadowing ihc tree, and its branches were bending and drooping over 
the Prophet ipbuht umil he was in the shadow under iL When Babirt saw 
that, he Jefi his hermitage. He sent to them saying. "T base prepared food for 
you, f ) men of Quraysh and 1 would like you all to come, both the old and 
the young, bondmen and freemen."" One of them said, "By Allah, BabTra- 
Someibtng unusual has happened to you today, you have never treaied us 
like ibat lieforc, as we have often passed by you What lias occurred 10 you 
today?" He replied, "You are right in what you sny. but you are guests and 1 
wish to be generous to you by offering food thai you all may eai." Thus, 
mey grouped together, and went to him, leaving the I'mphel tpbuhl. their 
youngest, behind w\th the baggage under the tree. Looking at the people. 
Raliira did not see ihc sign which he knew aboul, so he said, O people of 
Quraysh do not let any of you not attend my feast." They told him thai 
everyone had come except for a boy, who was the youngest of them, so they 



kepi him with their baggage. Here he said. Invite him lo join you in this 
meal.'* Among ihcm a Qurayshi said, "By Al-L&t and Al-'Uzza, we art to 
blame for leaving ihc sun of Abdullah ibn * Abdul- Mu£uilib/' 

Then he brought him, embraced turn* and made him sit wtili die pcopte. 
When Bahjra saw hint, he observed him carefully, watching his body to find 
traces of his description fin the Christian books). After eating, the people 
dispersed and Bajiiru went to him saying, "Boy, 1 ask you by Al-Lat and 
AWViZti to answer me what 1 am going to ask your Bahjra said so only 
because lie had heart:! Ihc people of this boy swearing by these idols. It was 
said thai ihc Prophet (pbuh) said lo hun. "Do not ask me by AJ-Liu and 
Al-'Uzzfi, for by Allah I deleft nothing more than thest two." Bahfrfl 
replied. "Then by Allah telj me what 1 ask you." He iauh '^k me whatever 
you Like. " So he began to a*k him ahoui his sleep, appearance, and affairs in 
general. The Prophet** tpbuhj answer coincided with whai Tiahirii knew of 
lus description. Then he looked at his back and found the seal of 
prophethood between Ills shoulders in the very place described in hi* book. 
Afterwards he went to his uncle Abu Tahb asking, "What is the relationship 
between yon and this hoy?'" He said. "He is nty &on/' Bahjra said. "No. he is 
noi your son. The father of this boy should not be alive. "He ts my brother's 
son/" he said. When he asked where his father was. he told him thai he died, 
when his mother had been pregnant with him. "Thai is true/' said Bahira, 
"Go back with your brother's son to his eounhy and proteet him cautiously 
against the Jews. for. by Allah, if they knew about him what J know, they 
will contrive evil against him. Great things are in store For your nephew, so 
promptly take him home J' 

The Sacrilegious War 

This war erupted when the Prophet ipbuhJ was twenty years old' 11 . It 
was culled the sacrilegious war because the two fighting tribes. Kmana and 



I Jim HnliAm Miii] rJiflf Itv K-npbc* tphtiln wi1ne.>u«d home, nf ihe-w ilayt, m, lm uildc* lutd taken 
hini with itldti, fi *a\ nctfrjic*] thHi Ihc fttifhrt (p**^* *nW ifou he wed la pttJt up die iiiuhh 
whirh Ihr muiuu limJ iJtoi ;irnt pvc ihtm tu hb utidc* to ifooaL, Tim w*% tfie 3u4 wtikjULuii 
*jj of AMUrrkJ. i* a± ihc lu.il une. jml >*a* f receded *iih three sactlic&um *aiv *Sc Hm ht- 
iwoctt Kinjtmih und Ilnw&an. Uie wand hrtweeri {Jkuajih juxl Hjwofin. notl the ihinl fctween 
Kininiih and Hirwifrin. DotiiJti hts fyunid in Al-'lqd j] F.irtd ural AlAcfiinJ 



Qwy- ' Aylim violated inviolable mutter* between them, liarh ihn Umayyuh 
ihrv Abi Shams was the leader of Quruysh and Kmanah. At the be^innimj of 
the day Qays was triumphant hut by midday victory went Id Kinftnah. 

His Marriage to Khadijah 

{may Ailaft be pleased with her) 

Khadijah was u trade woman of honor an J wealth. She used to hire men 
to entry out her trade based on pro&-staring, as the Quruysh were a people 
of commerce. When she heard about the Prophet's truthlulness. honesty, and 
honorable behavior, she seni for him proposing a deal thai he would carry 
out Iter trade in Syria, while she would pay him more than any other she hud 
paid before. He was to be accompanied by a lad of hers called Muysarah. 
The Messenger of Allah accepted the deal, and the two went out until they 
reached Syria. 

The Prophel (-phuh)' sal under the shade of a tree near a monk's cell The 
monk went to May surah, asking "Who is that man under the tree?" Maysuruh 
answered. "He is of the Quraysh, from ihc people oi the Haram." The monk 
said, -None hut a Prophet ever sal under this tree!'" 

Then the Prophet i.phuhf. after selling the goods and buying whatever he 
wanted to buy, started the journey back to Makkuh. At the height of notin 
when the heat was intense, as he rode his camel, Maysarah saw two angles 
shading the Prophel fpbuhi from the sun's beam. En Makkuh he gave 
Khadijah her property which she afterwards sold with double its value or 
thereabouts. 

Maysarah toki her about the words of the monk and how ihc two angles 
shaded him. Khadijah was a decisive, intelligent, and noble woman 
possessing the bounties with which Allah willed in honor her. Once 
Maysarah -told her these things, she scol to the Prophel (pbuh) as she said. 
"O cousin 1 like you because of your relationship and your high reputation 
among your people, honesty, good manners, and truthfulness" Then she 
proposed marriage. Khadijah was then the most honorable, richest woman 
and of the best family backgrounds in the Quraysh. AH her people were 



keen to marry her if tl were possible- The Prophet (phuh) told his uncles 
about Khadfjalrs proposal, and hi* uncle Jiamzah went wilh him to 
Ktiuwaylid ibrt Asad tor proposal and he married her.' h She was the mother 
of all the Prophet's children except Ibrahim. These children are At-Q&iim. 
which was pan 01 a surname by which the Prophet was caJIcd. * Abdul lab 1 -' 1 * 
'/.ay nub. Ruquyyiih, Umm KuLihuTn. and Fiumah, peace be upon them all. 

Al-Q&sim and "Abdullah uied in the prc-lslam lime, while the Prophet's 
daughters embraced islam and migrated with him lo Madinah. 

Waxaqah ibn Nawfal 

Khadijah went lo her (palcmaH cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal ibrt Asad 
ibrj "Abdel-'UzziL who was Christian who had studied ihej Scriptures and 
was knowledgeable. She narrated to him what her lad Maysarah had told her 
about the monks words and how he saw ihc (wo angels shading him, 
Waraqah si& "If this is true. Khadijah. verily Muhammad is the Prophet of 
this nation. I know that a Prophet is expected to appear in this nation and in 
this era.* Waraqah fell thai the matter was too slow and u*cd lo say, "How 
lonpT 

The Rebuilding of the Ka'bah 

The Prophet {pbuhj was thirty-five years of age when the Qvraysh 
agreed lo rebuild I he Kabbah, by roofing il but tJiey feared destroying il, 
since it was made of white stone*. 

A shipwreck uf a Roman mere ham ship was found ashore in Jiddah. 
They took as. timber to prepare it for roofing Ihe Ka hah. There was a 
Coptic carpenter in Makkah. so they fell that everything was ready for 
restoration, A ,snakc used to come Gift of the Ka'bah well in which the 
dedicated things were thrown. The snake used to encroach everyday on the 



I Tlw PVnphei i pfruhi provided her *nh ,j dowry *if twenty \hE-camjdi She <#u*. ific fim fie urn- 

ncd, mid he d*i TWft muTT> uluirrtcr wife \ir\\tl ihc tied died 
2. " AtHliiltuh wji Inowti 10- limit Imd Iwo mles ALlSJiir iirnl Al_-T\ij/yfy. 



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wait of the Kabiik. a matter which terrified them as whenever anyone 
approached it. it raised its head, made a nulling nmsc and opened US mouth. 
One day while h was sunning itself. A flail ^rtt a bird, which captured it and 
flew away, At rluil. (he Qwaysh said, "We "hope that Allah is pleased with 
wruit wc intend to do; wc have a worker who is a frieml afrlUte We have 
die limber and Allah has saved us from the tfjife* Wlwn they luid decide 
to knock it down and rebuild \L Abu Wahb ibn Ami ibn *Aidh ibn 'Atxl 
ibn 'iitttan ibn Makh/Om look a mine from the Ka bull nui it swop out «T 
his hands and returned to its place. Me said 'O Quray*h, do not lei ftjjft ibis 
building anything but lawful gains; so no harlotry, rffctf. nor unjust 
practices," 

Afterwards, the Quraysh divided labor between themselves; the section 
near the gale was uppumted la Bauu AK1 ManHf and 2uhrah. Ltoe sec lion 
between the Stuck Stone comer and die Yemeni corner w;v* io Banu 
Mukhriim and The Qurayshi tribes joined diem, the back of the Kigali was 
[o BanO Jurnah and >Sahm. itie side of die //i/r to Banu \\hdud-D5r ibn 
Qusayy. Banti Asad ibn ' 'AhdeLTzzl and BunQ ' Adiyy ibn Xa*h. 

While people were anxious about demolishing (he temple, and retreated 
in awe, AJ-Walid umuI-Mu^hTrah said, "1 will Man ihc demolition He took 
a mattock, and went up io it saying, "O Allah, we hivri ran disbelieved in; 
your religion!. O Allah, we only want to tin good," Then he destroyed the 
part between the two comets. Thni night people were watching citst, raying. 
"Wc will wait and see; if be is injured wc will not demolish any of if and 
will keep it as it was; but if nothing happens to him ihcn Allah is satisfied 
with what wc an: doing and we will destroy ti.* In the mom ins AJ-Wafid 
was work ins; and i he people with him. When they reached ihc foundation of 
Ibrahim Ipbuhi. ihey found glten stones like eamct k s h Limps joined together 

The Quray.shi tribes kept on gathering stones lor (he building, each nine 
on its own. The building was erected up to the Blitek Stone, wbraae 
disagree ments emerged: each tribe wanted to lift it alone *o its piuce. an.Ul 
they mack alliances, nnd prepared to fight. 

A narrator said that Abu Umayyah ihnuJ-Muglurah. then the elde>t of 
the Quraysh. said, "O Quraysh* lei ihe Ursi man to enter the gale of ibis 
mosque arbitrate in your dispute." They agreed. The first one ro enter was 



Lh*> Messenger of Allah (phuhK On seeing him, tltey said, "It is the 
Trustworthy MMfijf'to). we arc satisfied? It is MuhanirnutiV' When lie 
reached them and they told him l he story, he sind. "Give mc a m;milc.'" They 
brought one, which he (-spread on I he ground ami) plaeed the *tune on. 1-Jc 
then said, "Let (the head of) every tribe hold a side of (he m;iniL* and lift n 
up ail together/" When they got il into position he plated it wilh his own 
hands, and then ihe building continued above it. 

Reports of Arab Diviners, Jewish Rabbis, 
and Christian Monks 

Jewish rabbi*. Christian monks, and Arab diviners had discussed the 
subject of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) before his advent when his time 
was coming closer. ITie rabbis and monks knew about him from their 
Prophets and what had been written in their Scriplurus describing him. The 
Arab diviner* knew about Imn from Satan* reporting what they had secretly 
overheard when they were not hindered from hearing by being thrown with 
slurs. Diviners, mak and femaJc, continued lo raise some of these issues 
which the Arabs were not attentive to, until Allah *cm him. then the things 
which they hud mentioned occurred and tbey recognized them. When the 
Prophet's corning was getting nearer and his mission was about to begin. 
S a tans were prevented to listen and they couW not occupy the >ea(> in which 
lhey used to sit lo overhear the heavenly tidings, as they were hurled with 
shirs . The jinn knew that it was n Divine oeeuifenee from A I Jab's ride over 
people. 

The Description of the Prophet (pbuh) 

Jbn Eh sham said thai the description of the Prophet fphuhJ as mentioned 
hy * t h mai the mawtf* of Ghufrah on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad 
ibn -M ibn Ah? Tillib who said. ^When 'AIT ibn Abi Tatib described (he 
Messenger of Allah (pbuhi. he ssiiil He was of a height not very laU, nor 
very short, but average among people. His hair was not as over curly nor 
lank, but it was t moderate iyl curly and combed. He was riot corpulent nor 



<E> 



did he have a rounded, small face I le had a white, reddish complexion. His 
eyes were hi act. He hud Eotig eyelashes, iuid muscular joinis, and the pun 
between hi^ shoulders was also muscular. The Ime of hair klwcen his neck 
and chest was Uiin and fine His putms and feel were strong. He used to 
walk firmly and straight ly. and he used to turn around altogether with his 
whole hotly. Be i ween his shoulders there was the sea? of prophet hood; and. 
he (pbuhi is the seal of :tll Prophets. He was of all mankind the most 
generous, mtKt courageous, most truthful, most faithful, the best to live 
with, and the most hospitable to accompany. Whoever saw him for die first 
rime venerated him, and whoever mixed with him loved him.' Then his 
describcr said. 'I have never seen he fore him or after Mm anyone who 
resembled hon, peace be upon him." 

The Description of the Messenger of Allah 
(pbuh) in the Gospel 

Ihn Uhaq said. "Among things which reached mc about that which hud 
been revealed to 'Jsa the Son of Mary in the Gospel, for his followers, 
describing the Messenger of Allah tpbuhl. according u> YuftBnnaa the 
Apostle when he inscribed the Gospel for them from the Testament of Isn 
i he Son of Mary, concerning the Messenger of Allah tpbuhl. that he said, 
"He who hates me bates the Lord. Extept for that I had done in dieir 
presence Ihing^ that no one had done before me, they would have not had a 
sin, However now they are diseontemed and think that they will overcome 
me as well as tlie Lord, but the word in the Revelation must be dene. They 
hated me falsely. But when the Maflhamanna who Allah will -send to you 
and who is a sacred spirit from the Lord* comes, be will be a witness of mc 
and you also because yon were with me in the past, I am telling you about 
this not to have any doubt. "* |J 

Mwihamanna in Synac means Muhammad and he is Famclcte in Creek. 



t Set- iheCjirtprl.lahf i. 15:33-26 



The Mission 

When Muhammad, the Prophet of Allah, (pbuh) became forty years old 
Allah sent him as a mercy to the worlds and bearer of good tiding to 
mankind. AlJjih had made a compact with every Prophet, whom He had soni 
before him that he should believe in Him. verify Him and vindicate Him 
again si whoever disagreed with Him. Ik required of them thut they should 
convey this to everyone who believed in lhcm t and they ail curried out their 
commitment in this regard. 

According to 'AishaJi (may AMali be pleased with her), "When Allah 
wanted to honor Muhammad tpbuh) and have mercy on His servants 
through him, the first sign of prophetkood to the Pruphut tpbuh) was irue 
visions. Whenever he saw a visiun while sleeping ft lumed 10 he striking ly 
tnte. like the brightness of daybreak. And Allah made him love solitude so 
thai he liked nothing more than to be alone. 41 

'Abdul-Malik ibn "Ubaydiilah reported that ihe Prophet tpbuh). at the 
lime when Allah warned to bestow His grace upon him and begin ahe slate 
of) prophethood, would head out for his purpose aad go as far as the 
mountain posses of Makkah and the beds of its valleys where no house was 
seen. There was itol a stone nor a tree thai he passed by, but would say, 
"'Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah". The Prophet (pbuh) would 
rum to his right, left and helund him and would find no more than trees and 
stones. Thus he kepi on seeing and hearing such things so long as Allah 
wi][ed. Then Jibrlt (peace be upon himl tame to ham with Allah's grace 
while he was in Hira^' 1 in (lie month of Ramadan. 

According to *Ubayd ibn "Umayr, the Prophet of AJIafi (pbuh) used to 
stay in privacy in l]M h every year for a month lo practice wfkiwittth 
(worship and devotion away from idols); a religious state known in Quraysh 
in the pre-tslamic period. Every year during that month the Prophel (pbuhj 
would worship in privacy and give food 10 the indigent who came to him. 



t A nioutiium ihfiv; rmk* *w»y fnim MaKkiita, 



<M> 



At I be cod of the month, the first thing he uxicf to do before nclumiiig home 
wus to go to ihc Ka bah iind circumambulate seven times or as often a* 
Allah wished: then he would return to his house. In the ritonlh of Ramadan, 
in which Allah willed to honor bijn with the Mission* the Prophet (prnih) 
went toHiriV as was usual to him, ;md his family was with him. When it was 
the night on which Allah lionmed him with His Message, Jihril came to him 
Wtlh the command of AJIuk The Prophet i pbtih) snid, 

"Jibrit rame u> me white!-} wax asleep m a coverlet of hmcade whereon 
wa% something Wrftt&T, ami said 'Raul!* I stud. 7 dp not read* He took 
me and squeezed me so veh&tuf fitly thttt I iltcmght it wm death: then he 
let me go and said 'Read!' f said 7 do nm read, h He took mv and 
squeezed me so vehemently that I thought it was dtoth: (hen he lei ore go 
and said Ready I said, 'What shaft I scad'*' He took me and squeezed 
me so vehemently that I thought it was death; tiwti Ue said, 'Read/' I 
mid, 'What l then} shall I read?' He said 

4 Read* ftt tftc Name afyottrU/rd. Who has created tail thtuexuti). has 
created Hum from a clot (a piece a/ thick amputated hioattt. Read! And 
wjj/. Lard is the Most Generous, Who ton taught fthe writing) hy the 
pet? l \ has taught man that which he knew not, V 

(Al-"Alaq: I -5 ) 

So t read, and he left me. When I gat up /mm my steep, it was as if these 
wards were firmly written in mv heart. When f went out midway Oft the 
moitfitntn. t heard a mice from the sky saying, '0 Muhammad} You arc 
the Messenger of Allah ami I am JibrfL ' I raised my head up fa the sky it J 
see (whit was speaking} and tt was Jtbrit m the farm of a man with feet 
art ride the horizon, saying, O Muhammad! Van are the Messenger of 
Allah and t am Sihril. I stootl stdt\ staring ot him. neither mining for- 
ward nor backward; then I made my face turn away from him. hat 
whichever directum of the iky i looked. I found him the same. And f re- 
mowed stili neither progressing nor regressing, itntd Khadijah seta her 
messengers searching for me as they reached the highest point oj Mak- 
kah and returned to her while I was still in the uune piuce; then he left 



i , The ftnJ pet sun U\ wiilc *Lii Prophet Jdr Is l LiKvh) 



G> 



me. I renunwt m my family i came la Khadtjidt and spi by her thigh 
fled* in her. Stu; mked f '0 Abtd-Qjfthn, where lutvryou been'' By Afhm, 
I sem my messengers to look for yau. as they reached Makiah and re- 
turned to me. " Then I apprised her tfwhti: I had seen, ant! ihe said. Re- 
}oiet\ O eomirx utuibcfirnu Surely* by Him in Whose Howl U Kh«dtjtth'$ 
stml t hope fully fltink that you will he die Prophet of this rtatwn.' 

Then she put pn (suitable) clothes and went out to her (paternal) cousin, 
Waraqah ibn N awful who had become a Christian* and who read books and 
h?>i<Mied from those of Ihe Torah and the Gospel, She informed him about 
whai the Prophet [phah) had laid her of whut he had seen and heard. 
Waraq<ih tried "Holy! Holy! Surely, by Him in Whose Hand is Waraqahs 
soul if you arc telling me ihe truih, Q Khadljab, tltere has come la him the 
greatest Nautiis <t,e. Jib^ll> who came Mtlsa before, and he is the Prophet of 
this nation, Tell htm to he firm." 

Khadijah relumed to the Prophet (pbiml and UM Him what Waraqah had 
said. When the Prophet (pbuhi hud completed Ihe period of solitude, he did 
as he was accustomed to do in Makkah While there, Waraqah met him and 
said. "O my brother's son, tell me whai you have seen and hear J." After 
xelhng lum, he satd to the Prophet ipbuhh "Sujely, hy Him in Whose Hand 
is Waraqah* suuL >ou are ihe Prophet of this nation. There has come to the 
greatest Nfmiftx, who came to Musa. Surely, you will be called a liar T you 
wilt be hurt, driven out. and fought! If J were alive that day, I would support 
(the religion of) Allah to a victory such thai He knows,'* Then be leaned 
near him and kissed his forehead; then the Prophet tpbuh) returned home. 

The Beginning of the Revelation of the Qur'an 

'Hie Pmphet (pbuhj began to receive revelations in Ramadan. Allah the 
Almighty says, 

* The month of Ramadan in which was revettl&i the QufYm* it gnidatice 
far mankind and viear prrxtfs far die fiuidatife and the vritrrian iitc- 
rwetn right and wrong}, i 

(Aj-Baqarah: 185) 



■ <n> 



* Verity} We have sent it 1thix Quran} down iit the night ofAi-Qadr (De* 
tree). And whtit Wfli wake you know wlutt the night of At-Qtuir {Decree! 
is? The night of At-Qadr i Decree} \s barer than a thousand nu.wtttx (La. 
wvrxhtppwg Altah in dint night fj better than worshipping Him a thou* 
sand nwntln t lit. W years and 4 month. I Therein descend the angek 
and the Ruh [Jibril {Gabriel)} bv Allah's Permission with all Decrees. 
/Vda*/ (Ail that night, mem is Pi'ttvi* and GtMxinesx fnm\ Allah to Hix 
believing staves) tat id die appearance of dawn, k 

(AKQadr: 1-5) 

4 Ha" -Mint. [These tetters are one afthe mirurfes of the QurYai andn/me 
but 'Allah (Alone) knows their nreaning.il By the maaife.fi Book ithi.% 
Quran I tftar make a dung* clear. We sent it Idas Qttr.in} dawn an a 
btexsed night [{i.e. night ofQtulr. Siimh Afo: 97 i in the month of Ram- 
adan, (the ttthituwihof the hlfimic calendar [. Verity, 1*V are ever warn- 
ing [mankind diat Our Torment will reach those who disbelieve in Our 
Oneness af Lordship and in Oar Oneness af worship}. Therein {that 
night) is decreed every matter of ardaittmetas. Amran (i.e. a Co/amaad 
ur this Qttr'na or the Decree of every matter) fram Vs. Verity. We are 
ever sending {the Messengers}, f 

(Ad-Dukhfin: 1-5) 

4„Jfyau have believed in Adah ami in that which We tent dawn to Our 
slave (Muhammad) on the Day of trwrimt t between right and wrong}* 
the Day when die two fan ex met (the Imttle ofBadr), * 

(Al-Aflfai:41) 

This refers to Ihe confrontation betwtren the Prophet (ptnthi and ihf 
jMilyfheiMS in the battle of Badr 

Khadijah, the Daughter of Khuwaylid 
Embraces Islam 

Khadijah. the daughter d* Khuwaylid believed in him Iphuh). She 
verified what find come U> him from Allah- and supported him in his mutter. 
She wm> die first to believe in Allah and His Prophet, and in (he truth of his 



mmm Throuph her, Allah relieved burdens that afflicted His Prophet 
(pbuhf. lit never heard annoying things, as a reason to his message and 
fakirvimi him which ^iddcnetl him, but Allah comforted him wiih her when 
ho rciuiiiea" hurnn- S\yc reinforced him, alleviated his burden, certified his 
truth, and rtetmled men's opposition. May Allah Almighty have mercy upon 
her" The Prophet tnbuhl said, 

"/ nui auwitttmlcti ttt jfi've KhatSjttU the jgfHJd tirimprfit (time made €>f 
canvd pearls wherein wiU be no noise, nor drudgery* 

The Pause in Revelation 

Revelation paused lor a while so dial the Prophet (pbuh) became 
disturbed and depressed. Then Jibril came with Sftrat Ad-DtdiA* in which his 
Lord who had honored biro, swore thai tie had neither forsaken him nor 
haled him- Allah the Almighty says, 

JtBy the forenotm (offer tun-rise I; and hy ihe ntfftif when ii is stilt (at 
darkens); your tj>rd fl) Muhammad ji has neither forsaken you nor hated 
you.f 

1 hiii ts. I have not abandoned youunor hated, you after loving you. 

+ And indeed the Hereafter w better for yon than the present itife oftht.i 
wnfJdl > 

That is. What I have fur you, on your return to Me, is much belter than 
the honor that I have provided you in the mundane world, 

&And wrifo, war Lord will -give vou tatt Le. goodl xa thai vuti shall b* 
welt-pteaxed. \. 

That is, of victory in this mundane world and recompense in [he 
Hereafter. 

iDid He not find yott iO Muhajtvnud} an orptutn and gave you a ref- 
uge .' And He found you unaware { of the Quran, its legal laws, and Pro- 
phetiumd. etc.) and guided yau? And He fnurui \on poor, and made yau 
ruh (self-Sufficient with selj-conttatment, rftj'i 

Allah hence reminds him of how He bestowed him with His honor and 
kindness m early as he was orphan, poor and unguictert. as He saved him 
from all that out uf His mercy. 



* Therefore, treat t\t*r the orphan with iwrrwipn. and rcpah* run th? 

That is. do nor be an oppressor or boastful, or hnrsh and stern towards the 
weak servants of Altah, 

4 And priH twtn ihr C/ritce tifyitur fAttd. 6 

That is. talk about the Grace and Providence of Allah and the honor of 
prophet hood, and call people to it. 

Therefore, the Prophet (nbuh) began to proclaim secretly Allah's Grace 
to him and His servants through prophcthood to anyone or his people 
whom he could irust. 

The First lo Embrace Islam 

The first male to beh'eve in the Messenger of Allah <pbub) t offer prayers 
with him. and lo verify in his divine mess age was 'All ibn Abi Taiib, who 
was then ten years old. ft was Allah's favor and grace on 'All thai the 
Qtiraysh was exposed to a severe crisis. Seeing that AhO Ialib had many 
children, the Prophet (pbuh) told his uncle. A 1-* Abbas, who was one of the 
richest of Bono llashun, "O 'Abbas, your brother Abu Jalib has many 
children and as you see crisis prevails, so lei us go together and (offer lo) 
alleviate the burden of his children so each of us takes one of his sons." 
AK" Abbas agreed They went to Abu Talib telling hirn thai they wanted to 
lessen the responsibility of his children until the end of the crisis. Abu Ialib 
said* "Do what you like so long as you leave me ' Aqtl." So the Prophet took 
"At! and AI-' Abbas look JaTar, 'AH remained with the Messenger fphuh) 
until Allah sent him forth as a Prophet. "All followed him. believed him. and 
verified bis Lruth, 

Some scholar mentioned that when the lime of prayers cume lite 
Prophet (pbuh> used to go out to the mountain passes of Makkah 
accompanied by AIL who went disguised from his father, uncles, and the 
l¥st of his people, There ihcy used to offer prayer until nightfall. This 
continued until one day Abu Ialib came upon them while ihev were 
offering pniyer* and said to lhe Prophet (pbuhh "O my brother's son. whai is 
this religion which I see you following?" He answered, r O uncle, this is the 



religion of Allah, His angcK and His Messengers, and die religion of our 
fuliitT Ibrahim. Allah ha\ scni nie iis a Messenger fo (His) servant, and you, 
my undo, most deserve mat I should advise you and cull you to guidance, 
u nd you are the most worthy to respond to me and lielp mc. H " His uncle 
replied. 'I carmoi forsake the religion of my ancestors which they followed, 
bui by Allah you shall never meet with anything to afflict you so long as 1 
live." 

Afterwards, Zayd ihn IJaniliah ibn Shurahbil ibn Ka k b ibn " Abdel-'Uzza" 
became a Muslim. Hakim ihn Hi^m ihn Khuwaylid came from Syria with 
slaves among which was Zayd Ibn Haruhuh. His paternal aunt* Kbadijah 
who was Lhcn wife of Lhe Prophet (pbuh) visited him. He asked her to 
choose any lhe slaves, so she chose Zayd When the Piophci inhuh) saw 
him. he asked her to dedicate Zavd to him. She did so and he freed him and 
then adopted him. Thai was before the revelation, Then Abu Bakr ibn Ahi 
Quhufah whose name was " AiTq embraced Islam, AbQ QujjOfth's name was 
"UlhiiMD, When he became a Muslim, he declared hi* Islam openly and 
tailed others u> Allah and to Mis Messenger, He was n sociable, easy and 
well-liked man among his people. He knew more about Ihe good and bad of 
Qumys.ii than anyone else. He was a merehani of high morals and kindness. 
His people used to go to him seeking his advice in many matters because of 
his wide knowledge, his experience in commerce, and his sociable nature. 
He began to call lu Allah and to Warn, all whoever lie had confidence in. of 
those who used to come to him and sit wiih him. 

Those who aecepled Islam through Ami Bakr were: "Uihniin ibn * A flan, 
Az-Zubayi' ibnul-'Awwain, Abdur- Rahman ibn 'Awf, Sa'd ibn Abl 
Waqqa^H and Talhah ibn 'Ubaydillah. These were me first eight who 
emhraeed Islam, offered prayer, and verified its tint h. 

After them came: 

Abu 'Ubuydah ibiuri-Jarruh. Abu Salamah ibn Afrdel-Asad. Al-Arqum 
ibn Abe!-Ari]anV n , "Uthman ibn Maz'Cin and his iwo hroihers, Qudamah 
and Abdullah, Uhuyda ibnul-Hariih. Sa'kl ibn Zavd ibn * Amr and his wife 



In 1^ [hjuvc, Pbfch w*i *H> llw hill uf Safft, l Ik fruptiei fpbt*3w uwU lu fp tccrrtU tu ail p»*pt£ 
tu I num. uunl Lhp nmnhe: fif Minima timl became' ftrty with lhe hlircti uf Limn) OnJy ital tliU 
he preach, publiuts 



Fiiiimah. sister of "Unw ibnul-Khajiab, Asma'. the daughter of Abu Bakr, 
'A'ishiih, the daughter of Aba Sakr. v/ho was then still voting. KhahhSh 
jhnuMrati, Umayr ibn AH Waqqas. 'Abdullah ibn Mas' fid. Mas ud 
ihnut Qari\ Siilit ibn ^Arnr, 'AyyOsli ihn Ahi Rabtah ami his wile Asmi, 
Ihc daughter of SalSmah, Khunays ibu H^^hafah, 'Amir ibn Rabfah, 
'Abdullah ihn Jahsh and his brother AbQ Ahmad, J a far ibn Abf lalib and 
his wife Asma\ the daughter of Umays, Hatih ibnuI-Harith and his wife 
Fitimah, the daughter of Al-.Mujallal and bis brother iiaUfib and his wife 
Fukayhah. the daughter of Yasar, Mu'ammar ibnul-Harith, As-SS'ib ibn 
'Uthnian ibn Maz'tin, At-Muuulib ibn Aritar and hi* wife Ramlak Hilt 
daughter of Ibn Ab! "Awl; An-Nahh&n. and his name is Nuaym ibn 
'Abdiliah, Amir ibn Fuhayra, Khatid ibn Sa'id ibnu^As and his wife 
Aminah. ihc dandier of Khalal; H&ib ibn 'Amr^Abu Hutlhwyfah ibn 
"Utbah ibn Rahr;m, Wikpd ibn "AhiliUah, KMHd> fc Amir. 'Aqil. and lyas* 
tlie sons of Al-Bukir ibn And YaliL, ' Auim&r ibn Y&iir. and iuhayb ibn 
Sin An ar-Runtf". 

The Prophets Public Preaching 
and the Reaction to It 

ftrople embraced islam in large groups of both men and women imi.il 
talk ahoul l^laun prevaited in Makkah. Then Allah commanded His 
Messenger to publicize what he had received and to call people to Allah's 
commands. After three years of secret preaching, Allah commanded him to 
declare the religion. Allah the Almighty says* 

• Tlteftforr proclaim tipeatty tAlhihs SIctsage* telami? Mwioifuism) 
that which you are t&mmtiad^dk <atut turn away from At-Mtii'hrtkw (pf*t* 
yttwists. ufafoterp, and dixhtttieven: e{C. - .we V,2: 105).^ 

f AJ-Hijr: 94} 



), fiuhisyh II ah ArJti, hm Itc wta taken aj * captive hy the Humane *o he was fcrtHijhi up wiiti 
litem A man ftvm Kalb bought him and Mri J him In Maktali. AWullah ibd Jiitfa ' jjit bfltighJ tiim 
and then released Irini 



42 ) 



And again, 

iAnrf ivrti7i ymtr tribr fO hftttwmtntuil of m'ttr Urn/nut And he kind titul 
Ittmihiv to ifit* fo'tit'vrrx wlm fnitm ymt. Than ifttwy -dUvhey JHWA Xny, '/ 
am wi\i>ivn\ it} what you tttt.* y 

(Ash-Sh^ara': 214-216) 

When Ihe Prophet l s Companions wanted lo offer prayer, they used to go 
10 the mountain passes of Makkah *o as to conceal iheti prayers from their 
people. One day while 5a d ibn Abt Waqq&s was offering prayer among a 
group of the Prophet's (pbuh) Companions in the mountain passes, a band of 
the polyiheists tame upon diem, rudely interrupting them, mocking at them 
(or their prayers until it tame m blows. Sad smote a polytheist with a 
jawbone of a camel and hurt him. This was the first bloodshed in Warn. 

When the Prophet (pbuh) explicitly professed Islam us Allah had 
commanded him, his people did not forsake or turn against him until he 
criticized their god* and idols. When he did. tttey gathered in denial, 
considering him an enemy, all except a despised minority whom Allah the 
Almighty had protected by Islam. The Prophet's uncle. Abii la lib was kin J 
lo him and supported him. 

When the Quraysh discovered that he would not give up, yet he 
withdrew from them and scorned thdr idols, a* well as the fact that his 
uncle supported him and would no! lei the tit reach him. some of their nobles 
went lo Abu Talib and said. "'O Abu jalifo. your nephew has insulted our 
gods. scorned our religion, demeaned our life style and accused oar 
ancestors. &$ misguidance; cither you must stop him or you must let us get 
htm, for you yourself are in the same position as we arc in opposition to him 
and we will in! you of him." He gave them a polite reply and a soi't answer 
so they left him. 

The Propheupbuhl continued on his way. preaching Allah 1 * religion and 
calling men hi then o. As a result, his relations with the Quraysh were getting 
worse and men withdrew in hostdity. They were preoccupied with his affair, 
stirring up one another against him. Then they spoke to Abo la lib for a 
second Unie and said, ,h O Abu laJib, you ha^e a high and noble position 
among us, and we have requested you to cease your nephew's acts hut you 



have not done so. By Allah* we cannot bear Ih^it our forefathers he revik-d, 
our customs mocked and our gods insulted. Until you rid us of him we will 
light boih of you until one side perishes' 

Abu Xalib sent for the Prophet (pouhj and said. H nephew, your people 
have said so and *o, Spare iue anil yourself. Do nut make me endure more 
than J can M , The Prophet (phuh> thought thai his uncle had changed his mind 
and would abandon him. and had became short of supporting him. He 
answered, "O my uncle, by Allah, if they put Ihe sun in my right hand and 
the moon in my left on condition that I abandon this matter (i.e. Lslam), until 
Al].uh ha& made it triumphant, or I perish therein, I would not abandon it." 
Fhen the Prophet tphuht wept and <>iood up. As he turned uway his uncle 
called him and said, "Come buck, my nephew," and when he came haek. he 
said. "Go and say wliutever you like, for by Allah I will never give you up". 

When the Quraysh perceived that Abfl Talio huij refused lo give the 
Prophet tpbufti 10 them, and that he was determined to part company with 
ihcjiu they went to him with 'Imuran ibnul-Walid and said, "O AbCi Jalib, 
(his is 'Imarah. the mightiest and most handsome young man among the 
Quraysh. so take him and you will have the benefit of his intelligence and 
support; adopt him as a son and give us your nephew* who has gone against 
your religion and the religion of your ancestors, disjoined the unity of your 
people, ridiculed our life style, so that we may kill him. This will be man for 
man." He replied* "By Allah, ibis is an evil bargain, would you give me 
your son to feed him for you. and I give you my son in return to kill him? 
By Allah, this shall never be" Al-Muiim ibn Adiyy said, "Your people 
have been lair with you. taking pains to abstain from what you dislike. I sec 
thai you do not want to accept anything from \licm" Abu 13lib said, "By 
Allah, they have not treated me with justice, you have approved of bet raying 
me and helping the people against me. so do whatever you like," So 
condi Lions dfeterioratcd. ihe fig hung became fiery and people were split up. 
and clearly displayed their enmity to their opponents. 

Then the Quraysh incited people against die Companions of the Prophet 
(phuhJ who had become Muslims. Every trine tell upon the Muslims among 
I hem, beating them and enticing them from their religion. Allah protected 
His Messenger from ihem through his uncle who. when he saw what thu 



Quraysh were doing to Banii Hashim and Banu Al-Mujlalib. he inviied ihem 
to stand with him in protecting tile Prophet (phuhK They agreed to do so. 
except Abu Lahab, the accursed enemy of Allah. 

The Words of Al-Waljd ibnul Mughirah 
about the Qur'an 

When the season of pilgrimage was due. a numher of the Quraysh went 
tn Al-Walid i haul -Mughirah, who was a man of some standing among them. 
He addressed them saying: "G Quraysh, here is the season of pilgrimage and 
deputations of the Arabs will come to you and they will have heard about 
tlu* fellow of yours, so agree upon a unanimous resolution I bat could enjoy 
the approval of them all wiihoul dispute, so lhal none will belie the other." 
They replied. * r Givc us your opinion about him," He said 1 "No you talk and I 
wtll listen." ITiey said. "He is a soothsayer''. He said, "By Allah, be is not 
that, for he has not the murmuring and rhyming of sooihsaycr's speech." 
'Then he is possessed by Jinn." They said. 'No, he is not diat,' lie said. 
'We have seen possessed ones, and no insinuations peculiar to that state of 
mind were deieeted." "Then he is a poet/ They said, "No he is not a poeu 
for we know poetry in all irs forms and metres.' "Then be is practicing 
witchcraft. 1 ' They said. "No. we have seen sorcerers and their witchcraft and 
he has never been involved in the praclice of blowing on the knots." He 
said. "Then what arc we to say. O Abu l Abd Shams'?" They asked. v1 By 
Allah, his words are sweet, well based, and fruitful, and all what you are 
repeating about him is established to be false. Yet. the most proper thing 
you can say about him is that he is a magician who has brought magic 
words with which he separates between brothers, spouses, and families " He 
said. At this point they left him. and began to sit on the roads which men 
take when tlray come to the fair. They warned everyone who passed by Lhem 
about Muhammad's deeds- Then Allah the Almighty revealed concerning 
Al? Waiid. 

4 Lame Me Afvtie (frr draff with whom t created Akmc (wittiput any 
means, i.e. Al-Walid ihnut-Mughirahtf And then granted hint matures 
in abundance And cidhlren io In- by tux sutet And made Uitr smooth ti/td 



nQinftmaMe far him! Afitr nil that he tlesires that i should give more; 
Nay? Vtrilv. h? has hctn stubborn ami apposing Our Avar tpfttafr c\>* 
ulftu^y wwi. lessons, stffljtt, rcvfiuuttna, errj. 4 

(Af-Muddaihihir: iMdj 

So these men began to spread this report about the Prophet fphuhl to 
whoever Qiey met so that the Arabs Icfl thai (air knowing nhoui the Prophet 
tpbuh). und his reputation WIS then spread throughout the whole of Arabia. 

How the Prophet (pbuh) 
was Treated by his People 

When the Quroysh became disiurbcd by Lhc troubles triggering enmity 
between )he*n and the Prophet tpbuh t and [he Muslims, they incited against 
him foolisfi men %v ht> called him a liar, hurt him, and accused him of being a 
poet, sorcerer, a diviner, and of being possessed. However, the Prophet 
tpbuh) continued to proclaim what Allah had ordained him to profess, 
concealing nothing, and exciting their dislike by condemning their religion, 
w undrawing from their idoU, and abandoning them for their dts belief. 

Abdullah itm ' Amr tbmti-^As. reported, 'I was with them one day when 
the notables had gathered in the Hijr and (he Messenger of Allah tpbuh) was 
mentioned. They said thai ihcy had never known anything like the difficulty 
they hart endured from this fellow; he had ridiculed their way of life, and 
cursed the idols they had taken sis aods. They also suid that what ihey had 
borne was exceeded all bearing. While they were ihus discussing himu the 
Prophet l pbuh J approuehed them and kissed the Black Stone, then he passed 
by them as he cbrttmamfmlated the Ka'bnh* As he passed they harassed him 
with words, I observed this on the face of the Messenger or Allah (phubj* 
He went on and as he passed by iheoi the second time they repeated the 
same thing. Again I observed this on the face of the Messenger of Allah 
(pbuh J, Then he passed the third time, and they did the same- He slopped 
and said. "Will yoit listen to me, O Quraysh? By Him in Whatv hand is my 
xttut, t have brought yoit slaughter {i.e. destruction, if you do not believe)." 
This word so thrilled the people that all of ibem stood silent and still; even 



ilms* who hiiii hitherto been most violent spoke to him in I lie kindest way 
|>i>Hsiolc suyin« . 'Co, Ahul-Qiisim, for by AIJah you have never been 
ignorant." The Prophet tpbuhi went away, and in the morning (hey gathered 
in the Uijr. J whs there too. and they reminded each other of what had taken 
plate between them and the Prophet (pbuh) and how ihey left Iiim alone 
when he displayed something unpleasant. While f.hcy were [here talking, the 
Prophet iphub) showed up, and they leaped upon htm as one man and 
encircled him* saying. "Arc ynu the one who says so-and-so against our 
pods and our ccUgion^"' The Prophet { pbuh J said. "Yes. / am the one whv 
xuys tluit." 1 saw one of them seizing; his clothes. Then Abu Bakr interposed 
himself weeping and saving. "Would you kill I man for saying Allah js his 
Lord?" Then they left him. That is the worst ihing that I ever saw the 
Quraysh doing to him." 

Hamzah Accepts Islam 

A man of A si am* who had a good memory. io!d me that Abu Jnhl passed 
by the Prophet <pbuh) at As-£ula, and injured him. ma He jo u sly offending 
his religion and Lrymg to ridicule hU cauw. The Prophet (pbuh I did not 
speak to him. During this, a nmwkth of "Abdullah ibn Jtufan was in her 
hou&c listening to what was going on. Then he left him and went to an 
assembly of the Quraysh at the Ku'bah and SIS there. After a JUtle while. 
Matn/^il] ihn 'Abdel-Muiiilih approached* with his bow hanging on his 
hhoulder haek from the hunt, for he was fond of hunting and used to go out 
shooing. Whenever he returned liorrt a chase he used to salute every 
assembly of the Quraysh he iiiet and slop to Mpcak with them. He wa> the 
dearest and strongest man of the Quraysh. (At that time the Prophet (pbuh) 
hud gone homer Ham/ah parsed by this mitwlah t who asked Iiim, "O Abu 
Imurah, have you not heard of what A»ul-Hakani' n ibn Hicham has just 
done a short while ago to your nephew. Muh am triad? He had found him 
•dUing There, so he injured and insulted him. and treated him badly, whereas 
Muhammad did not utter a word." Hai* 1 *^ was enraged , for Allah wanted 



t. AhuEvrMara if jmnther cj> itlwt to AWi lahl. H<* name U Arm iSnul-Mughjrjih ibn Abdullah ibn 
MiAh/fim 



rti honor ftim. so Ifc wem oui U a run and did aoi stop to greet anyone, 
intending to quancl with Abu Jahl when he met him, When he entered the 
nuisqut \K saw him sitting among the people, and went up to him until lie 
stood beside him. then he drew up lus bow and hit him a violent blow with 
iL, saying. "Do you hurt him while 1 follow his religion, ami say what he 
says'' Strjke roe" back if you can!" Some of lianu MakbzGm goi up to help 
Abu Jahl, but the latter said. "Lei Abu Iniarah atone lor. by Allah, 1 injumd 
his nephew deeply" Hamzah's Islam was complete, and he followed the 
Prophet's tpbuh* teachings, When he embraced totem, the Quraysh 
recognized that the Prophet tpbuh) bad become stronger, and that Hamzah 
would protect him t and so they gave up some of their harassment against 
him. 

The Words of 'Utbah Ibn Rablah 
about the Prophet (pbuh) 

*Utbah ion RabFah, who was a master, said one day while he was silling 
among the Quraysh assembly and ihe Prophet (pbuh) was silling in the 
mosque alone. 'Why should I noi go to Muhammad and make some 
proposals to him which if he approves some, we will give him whatever he 
wants, and he will leave us in peace?" Thai was alter Hamzah had embraced 
islam and after the numher of We Prophet's (pbuh) followers had increased. 
They accepted. XHbuh sat by the Prophet (pbuh) and said, "O my nephew, 
you arc one of Us as you know, of ihe noblest of the elan and hold a worthy 
SOrtuS in genealogy. You have brought your people an immense mailer, 
dividing their unity (hereby and ridiculing their way of life, and declared 
ihat their ancestors were disbelievers, so listen to me and 1 will make some 
suggestions, and maybe you will be able to agree with some of tbenV The 
Prophet (pbuh) said. "Sey t them 1,0 Ahtit-WaM lam ppSfc* He went on. 
"If it is money thai you want, we will gather for you of our properties so thai 
you mav be the wctflthicKi of us: if you want honor, we will make you our 
head so that no one can determine anything without you. If you want 
sovereignty, we will make you king, and if ihis jinm which you see, is such 
that you cannot get rid of him, we will find a physician for you, and drain 
our funds in getting you recovered, for a faimliar spiriL may get possession 



of a man unlil he can be cured of it." The Prophet listened patiently, and 
!hcn said. Have you finished* O Ahut*Wu!id?" He replied in the affirmative, 
so the Prophet (pbuh) said, "AW listen to me, " He said, "Oli." The Prophet 
iphuh> said, (reciting from the Qur'an), In ihe Name of Allan, the Mitel 
Beneficent* the Mosi Merciful, 

4i£d^Mim. lti A revelation from Allah, the Most Bentrfttmi, the Mast 
Aterriftd. A BwtL whereof the Versus are explained in detail; a Qur'an in 
Arahu fin penple who know. Giving glad tidings \of Paradise to the title 
who helieves in the Oneness of Allah t andfean Allah much f abstains 
from all kinds af sins and evil deeds! and lows Allah much {performing 
all kinds of ga</d deeds whit.h He has ordained)}, arid wu filing {ttf pun- 
ishment in tht fieli Fire to the one who disfwfieves in the Oneness of Al- 
lah J. but most of than turn way. so thev listen not. And they ± m ay; Our 
hearts are under coverings (screened! from that to which you invite 
us,., ^ 

(Fussilat: 1-5) 

And die Prophet (phuh) continued to recite it ti.e. St'irat Fusjtilai) to him 
When TJtbah heard this, he listened carefully, putting his hands behind hLs 
back and tanning on them as he listened. Then the Prophet: iphuh) ended at a 
verse of prostration in the Surah^* and prostrated hi nisei r, and said, 'Tfok 
tiave htfard whnr voa have heard, O Ahul-Wattd, arid it is up l& vim," When 
Utbah went back to his companion* they observed that the expression on 
his face had completely changed, and they asked him vvhul had happened. 
He said, II have heard words such as I havt never heard before, which hy 
Allah were neither poetry, magic, nor soothsaying. O Qunaysh, take my 
advice and do as I do, leave this man utterly, for by Allah, the words which I 
have heard from him will become of great reputauon, If die Arabs kill him, 
yon will have Ihen got what you want, and if he ±:ei> ihe better of the Arabs, 
his sovereignty will be yours, his power be yours, and you will be live 
happiest through him," They said. "By Allah he has bewitched you with his 
tongue." He replied. " Ytiu have my opinion, so do what you see fie." 



] . Thru.- teum MX Cute nftfct mi rado of ihe Quim. owd noiichut Allah lAIwlc; Wwv \hc\i inamluss 
2 Thit. n ihf vtttc thir imcK * And fnm timing Htt Sign* <nv the mfftt and the day, and thr -mn 
tirui {titmium Pttmtuit *mr Hi dir m« 'w* Hi thf mwtt. but pwtirutt lt*At!tdi Witt* frtutwl thttn. 



Negotiations between the Prophet (pbuh) 
and the Chiefs of the Quraysh 



Islam kept on spreading in Mofcknh among men and women of the tribes 
or the Quraysh, although they continued to imprison and seduce as many of 
ilic Muslims as they could The leading rata of even 1 clan of the Quraysh - 
' Utbah ibn Rahi ah. Shay ban his brother, and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, and 
An-Nadr ihmii-HSriili. Abul-fJakhturi ibn Mis ham. Al-Aswad 
thmil--Mu.it alib. Zam'ah ibnul-Aswad, Al-Walid ibnuJ-MueJilrah, Abu JahJ 
ibn Hishim. Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyah. and AiAAsi ibn Wail. Nubavh 
mid Munahbah. the two sons of Hajjaj. and Lliimyyah ibn Khalaf - all 
gathered together after sunset outside the Ka'bah. They decided to send tor 
Muhammad lb negotiate with him so thai they would uoi be held to blame 
on his account in the future. 

When they sent for him, the Prophet (pbuh) came quickly thinking that 
what lie had said earlier to them had made an effect. He was keen for their 
welfare, and their corrupt way of life upset him. When he sal down with 
them, they made it clear lo hint that they had tufted him to talk Together. 
"For by Allah none of the Arabs had ever insulted his people as you have 
done", and they restated ihe accusations which have hcen mentioned before. 
"If ii is weallh that yon want, we will make you the wealthiest of its all; if it 
i?* honor, we will make you our chief; if ii is kineship, we will make you a 
king; if it i« a jinn which has taken possession of you, then we will spend 
our money to find the medidne lo cure you," The Prophet (pbuh) replied. 

n Nfythmg of what yrcii my ix tme. What t have brought is not to seek your 
property, nor honor tinning you, itar being yottr king, bur AU<th litis xe*\l 
me as a Afr4BE^jtfi5 m eetkd a Hfrok to me. commanded pie m hear gvotf 
tiding* to you and to warn v^jl ? itave Utjhnned ytm rite messages of my 
Lttrtl and fiiven you Rood advice. If yon accept that which J have 
brought you. thru ytm witt haw a -fmrtiou in \hh \nrrtd and tht Here- 
after; and if you reject it. / can only be patient until Atltdt judges he- 
nteert me and ww, " 



'"Well Muhammad," ihcy said, 'if you do not aeeepi any of our offers, 
you know thai no people Imve shortage of I ami and watc** and live a tougher 
life lhan wc do, so ask your Lord. Who has seal you, to move for us these 
mountains which enclose us, and iu flatten out our country for us, and lo 
make mer* flow in it like those of Syria and Iraq, awl to resurrect for us our 
ancestors, and !ci there be among those thai arc resurrected for u* Qusayy 
ibn Kilah, for he was a true Sheikh, so ihai wc may usk tai whether what 
you say is iruc or false. If they say you are shaking the truth t and you do 
what we have asked you, wc will believe in you, and we will know what 
your status with Allah is. and ihat He lias actually sent you as a Messenger 
as you say. J He replied, 

7 fail* not been tent to you wdt sitrh thing*, t hare only brought you 
wfutt Allah hm sent me with, ami I kn'e prmlaiowd it so if you accept fa 
then >vw will tm^e a portion in this world ami the Hereafter: and if you 
reject it, I can tmty be patient unfit Allah the Aimiitht\ judges lieryeen 
me and von." 

They said that if he would not do that for thciTu let him do something for 
himself. "Ask your Lord to send an un^el with you to confirm what you say 
and lo reiuic us; ask Him lo make for you eiirdens and castles, und treasures 
of gold and silver lo fulfill yuur wants, because you go to the markets as wc 
do and earn your livelihood as wc do, m> thai we may know your merit and 
position with Allah, if you aix- a Messenger as you uJJc^jc^ 

7 wilt nttt do tlvit, "said tit? Jtf&jettjfffr of Allah "lam tun the one to ask 
Ins L&rd tor such tbinU-%. /»r / was rtovsem to rf<? so, hitt Allah box xent 
me ax 4i bearer of jfiW lidhiRi and a mwitut. So if you nerept what t 
have brought you, then you will ttave a portitm in thi.v world and the 
Hereafter; and if you rrijert it. I am only be patient until At tab the Al- 
mighiy jutixax itetwrttt me und vatt-. " 

They said, "Then cause Ihe hc-aven to fall upon us tn pieces, as you have 
asserted thai your Lord can do so/' The Prophel <pbvih> smd, "This is up tt> At- 
tutu if He iiantt fit do k with you. He wftf do it. " They said, M Muhamn>ad. did 
your Lord no: know mat we would sit with yon, ami ask yoti these 
quest ions, so thai He nii^ht come to you and teach you how to argue with 
us. and inform you of whiii He would do to us. if we would not accept your 



message? We knew that you are taught by a fellow in Al-Ynmamah. called 
Ar-Rahm^n 1 ' K and by Allah wc will never believe in Ar-RaJuMn. Now we 
have imdc all excuses to you O Muhammad By Allah, wc would not leave 
you treating us us you do, umiJ either we destroy ynu or you destroy us." 
Some of them said. "We worship the angels as they are the daughters of 
Allah.- Others said, "We will not believe in you until you bring Allah and 
the angck before (us) face to face.** 

When rhey said This. The Prophet fpbuh) £01 up and left them. 'Abdullah 
ibn Abt Umnyyah ibnul-Mu£Jtfrah' :i , the win (if his paternal num. went with 
Iiirci and said, "O Muhammad, your people have made you certain 
propositions, which you have refused; then they asked for themselves thing!* 
to know if your status with Allah is as you say, so that they might believe m 
you and follow you. unci you did nothing. Afterwords they asked you to 
have something for yourself, by which they might know your superiority 
over them and your standing with Allah, and you did nothing. By Allah. 1 
will never bet ieve in you until you get a ladder to the heaven. and mount it 
until you reach it. while I am looking at you, and then you come down with 
four angels to testify that you are speaking the truth, and by Allah, even if 
yon did that 1 do not think J should believe you. " Then he went away, and 
the Ptophci fpbuh) went to his family, sad and depressed, since his hope that 
ihev would have accepted his cachings was in vain, and because they had 
distanced themselves from him. 

An Act of Abti JaW 

When the Prophet iphuht had gone, AbO Jahl spoke, making the usual 
charges agamsi him, and saying. "I swear by Allah thai 1 will w*ait for him 
tomorrow with a stone which I can hardly carry. When he prostrates himself 
in prayer I will crack his head with it. Betray me or defend me. lei Band 
" Ahd Manaf do whatever they please after thai " They said that they would 
never betray him on any account, and he could go ubcad with his aim. In the 



1 Muu) furtuh ttyl fclatfb ,11-HiiHJifi. km»*T a\ Musc^ljmili <&e Linf He aiikd funnel! Ar-RuhmAn 
fnwaji.mj3 " iIk- All-Mfiiulur") m ifre prebiuniu, petiuil 



morning, AbQ Juhl took a stone and sat in waiting for ihe Messenger of 
Allah ( phahj. who while in Mukkah used to face Syria in prayer. When he 
come to offer prayer, he used to stand between the Yemeni corner und the 
black stone, putting the Ka bah between himscIT and Syria. The Prophet 
(phuh) rase to offer prayer while Lhe Quraysh sat In their assembly, waiting 
for what Abu Jahi was going to do. When the Prophet (prmii) prostrated 
hintseU". Ahi'i J a hi carried the stone and approached him. until he got clow 
to him and then he turned back, pale with tenor, an J his hand had shriveled 
upon the stone. so he threw it from his hand. When the Quraysh asked hini 
what had happened, he replied, "When 1 got close lo him a camel stallion 
got in between us, By AT Jab- f have never seen anything like the head neck, 
shoulders, an J teeth of that stallion, and he looked as if he would eat me." 

The Story of An-Na^r lbmil-Jj£rUh 

When Abu J ah J lold them what had happened. An-Nadr ihmil-Hanth got 
up ami said, "O Quray&h, you are in a situation which you cannot deal with. 
Muhammad was u young menu most liked among you, most truthful in 
speech, and most Trustworthy, until, when he grew up. and brought you his 
message, you said he was a sorcerer, bnl by Allah he is not, for we know the 
sorcerers nud their spilling und their knois. then you said, a diviner, but by 
A Hah he is not. for we have wen The behavior of such people an J we have 
heard their thymes. Ami you said ihat lie is a poet, but by AJlah he is not a 
poet, for we have heard all kinds of poetry. You also said he is possessed or 
insane, but by Allah he is not, for we have seen the possessed by jinn* and 
he show*, no signs of their gasping, whispering, or hallucinations. O 
Quraysh. look to your affairs for by Allah, it is a serious matter thai has 
befallen you," An-Na^r ibnul-Harith was then one of the devita of Quraysh, 
und he usee to harm the Prophet (pbuh) and show him animosity. He had 
been to AJ-JifraJi and Icarm there the stories of the kings of Persia, and die 
tales of Rustum and Jsfanthyar. When the Prophet (phuh) held a meeting in 
which tie mentioned Allah, and cautioned Ills people of what [tad happened 
to bygone nations as a result of Allah's wrath. An-Nadr rati down when he 
departed, saying, M l can teli a better story- than his. Come to me." Then be 
began to tell ihem about the kings of Persia. Rustam and Mandiyilr, and he 



would ifieji say, ' Jn wJun way is Muhammad a hater story-teller thun I am? 
Ibn * Abbas said thai etghi vtrrscs were sent down concerning him: AUuh's 
I lie AJ mistily saying. 

£ Wht*n Our Verse* faftht Qttt'ttn) are retired fir him, tv says, Tatrs nj 
the men of old!' * 

(Al-Qalam; 15) 
and all such taio mentioned concerning him in the Qui'uii. 

The Polytheisrs 1 Animosity 
Cowards the Oppressed Muslims 

The Quroysh displayed their animosity to all those who followed thcr 
Prophet ipbuhJ: every elan attacked their Muslims, imprisoning and 
mm tiring ihein by hunger and thirst and exposing them EO the burning heal 
erf Makkah, so as to draw them away from their religion. Some surrendered 
under pressure of persecution, and others ensured, being protected by Allah. 

Bitat. who was later freed by Aba Bakr. at that time belonged to one of 
Barm JumaJi. and he was born as a slave among them. He was a faithful 
Muslim and pure of heart. 1 1 is fathers name was Rafrah and his mother was 
called JJamamah- LTmayyali ibn KhaM used to fas him on his back in the 
open valley at the ho ties! time of day and put a great rock on his chest; then 
he would say to htm, "By Allah, you will remain like this until you die, or 
deny Muhammad and worship Al-Liil and Pi\-'tJz?JL" BilaJ used to say. 
enduring this hardship, "One, QncT 

Waraqah ibn Naufal passed by him while he was being tortured and 
saying. 'One. One! 1 and he said. 'One. one by Allah, O BilalV. Then he went 
to LI may yah and those of BaiiO JumaJi who were hud thus maltreated lum, 
and said, "I swear by Atlah that if you kill him in this way 1 wij} take his 
(tomb) as. a place of blessing." One day Afofi Bakr passed by while they 
were torturing him. He said to Li may yah, "Have you no fear of Allah of how 
you treat this ptior fellow like tbia? L'ntil when will you do ihi*? 11 He 
replied. "You are the one who spoiled him, so save him from his difficulty 
that you .see," "I will." said Abu Bakr. "I have got a black slave, tougher and 



stronger than he & who is a pagan, I will evehangc him for BiliuV' 'Hie deal 
was carried ouL and Abu Bakr took him and emancipated turn. 

Bitai was the seventh stave to be freed by Abu Baki before he emigrated 
to Madinah. The niher si* Muslim slaves wens ^Amir ibn Fuhayrah. Irom 
'Uhays and Zinnirah, who lost her wghl when be emancipated her and the 
Quruvsh said, "Al-Lai and M-'U'tA have taken away her sight"' but she 
said/* 1 By the House of Allah* you lie. Al-Lal ami Al-'Ltau neither harm nor 
profit ," so Allah gave her sight back. 

He also freed An-Nahdiyyah and her daughter who were mistreated by 
their in i stress, a woman of Banu 'Abdud-Dar He passed b> J hem when she 
had sem them with some Hour of hers, and she was saying, "By Allah. I will 
never release you." Aht'i Bakr, said. "Wiihdraw your oath," She said, 
"Wilhdraw it? You spoiled them, so you emancipate them/ 1 They agreed 
upon the price, and he said. "I take them and iliey are free. Give her flour 
hack (o her/' They said, "Ought we not to finish Hie grinding arid then take 
it hack to her?" He said, "ft is up to you/ 

He passed by a she-slave of Banu Mu'ammaL who was Muslim. *Umar 
ibnul-Khaiiah, then a polyihci&u was torturing her to make her give up 
Islam, He beat her until he was bored and said, "I have only ceased beating 
you because of boredom/' She said. 'May Allah treat vol the same " Abu 
Bakr bought her and set net free. Ahu Qubafah. Abu Bakr's father, said to 
him. 'My son. I see that you are freeing weak slaves. If you want to 
manumit, do it with powerful men who could defend you and protect you?" 
He said. "1 am doing this fur Allah's sate." 

Banu MakhKum used to take * AmmaY ibn Yasir out along with his father 
and mother, who had all embraced Islam, m the beat of day and make ihem 
he on i he burning sand of .Makkah, The Prophet ipbohl passed them by and 
said. "He fttttient. O family nf Yasir! fttitr mating -ptui'e will he in Paradise" 
They killed his mother for she refused to give up Islam 

It was the vile Abu Juhl who inched (he people of Mukkuh against 
Muslims. Whenever he heard of a new convert, if he was a man of noble 
position having relations to defend him. he reproac lined Him and scoffed m 
him, saying. "You have abandoned the religinry of your father who was 
belter than you. We will declare you a dullard and falsify your opinion, and 



corrupt your reputation." If he was a men: hunt lie would suy. "\\x Will 
recede your commerce and hatikmpt you," If he was a weak person, he 
would beat him and stir up people againsi him. Said ibn Jubayr said, *l 
asked "Abdullah ibn V\bbas, Were the polylheisis maltreating (he Prophet's 
(pbuh) Companions tn the extent that apostasy was excusable?" 'Yes, by 
A Huh/ he said. They u.wd lo beat each of them, depriving hmi of food and 
drink to ihe extent thai he could burdl} sil upright because of the adversity 
afflicting him- so that he may say what they asked him io say. They would 
say to him. 'Al-Ut and AI^L'z^i your gods run Allah? He would say, 'Yes.' 
And a beetle might paiS fry them and they would say to him. This beetle is 
your god not: Allah?" He would say. "Yck\ in outer to^et rid of ihc tortures 
hcing inflicted upon him." " 

The First Migration to Abyssinia 

When the Prophet (pbuh) saw thai he could mil protect bis Companions 
from exposure to persecution and mat he was spared of if because of his 
rank wiiL Allah and his uncle Abu Talib, he said to them. "Yon twy £6 u> 
Ahyssmia. far the fiin$ there is fat r and vriil urn cause injustice m anyone and it is 
tifrirmtty ttmntry. {so you may stay there) unlit Allah mil retire yatt from wur af* 
/fiction" Thereupon his Companions went to Abyssinia, being afraid of 
seduction and fleeing to Allah with their religion. This was the first 
migration in [slum. 

The first Muslims to go were: "Ulhmfri ibn 'Affan With his wife 
Rumtyyah. the daughter erf (he Prophet (pburi); Abu Hudhayfaf ibn T.Jtbah 
with his 'wife Sahlah, the daughter of .Suhuyl; A*-Zubayr ibmiJ-*Aww3ni; 
Musab ibn Unriayn \Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf: Abii Safomah ibn 
'Ahdel'AsfUl with his wife Umm Sulamah, the daughter ol Abu L'mayyah; 
"Uthman ibn Muz'un: Amir ibn Rabt'ah with his wife Luylu, me daughter 
of AhO Badimah; Abu Sabrah ibn Abi Kuhm; and Suhayl ibn Bayda\ 
Afterwards* Ju far ihn Abi Xulib went, and Muslims followed one after the 
other until they assembled in Abyssinia. Some took their families and others 
went alone. Eighty-three migrants was the tola I number who went to 
Abyssinia, apart from little children whom they took or who were born to 
ihem there. 



cs> 



The Quraysh Send their Delegates 
to Abyssinia to Extradite the Migrants 

Wm the Quraysh saw that the Prnpiwt's (pbuh) Companions had found 
a secure haven in AbysMnia. they dispatched tw T o staunch men to the Negus 
to demand their extradition, so !ha< dicv could reduce them from thcir 
religion and take them out Of llielr peaceful dwelling. They sent Amr 
ibnul-AAj anil Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah, before they had embraced Islam. 
They look with them valuable presents to the king and his patricians, anJ 
they could win some of the courtiers over to tbetr side. 

Limm Safamah. the daughter of AbO Umayyah reported. "When wc 
reached AbyssinU the Negus gave us a kind refuge. We safely practiced our 
religion, and we worshipped Allah. without harm or insult. When the 
Quruysta knew, they decided to send two staunch men to ihe Neguv and to 
give him selective ami luxurious presents from Makkab. Leatherwork wa* 
especially attractive there, so they collected many skins so thai they were 
able to give to alt hia patricians. They sent 'AbdulIMi and "Amr 
commanding them to give each patrician ht& gift before speaking to the 
Negus about the migrants Then they would give their presents to Ihe Negus 
and ask him to make the migrants return before lie spoke 10 them. Thus, 
Lhey said to each of the patricians, 'Some foolish persons from our people 
have taken asylum in the king's country. They have abandoned the religion 
of I heir people and have not accepted yours, but have brought in an 
innovated religion which neither wc nor you know anything about. Our 
nobles have .sent u.v to the king io help us to have them back, so when we 
talk to him about them, suggest io him to give them up to us without 
speaking to them, for their own people have the sharpest insight and know 
best about their faults." The patricians agreed to do so, 

They delivered ihe presents to the Negus and when he had accepted 
them, they said to him the same words which they hud already *aid to the 
patricians about the Muslims, Nothing was mure undesirable ret 'Abdullah 
and Ann i han that the Negus should hear what the Muslims would say. The 
patricians said thai ihe men hud spoken the truth, and their own people were 
the bci>t in know the truth of the migrants. They advised him to return them 



<s> 



lo their own people. The Negus become angry turd suld, "No. By Allah I wjlj 
not relinquish I hem. No people who hove sought my asylum, dwelled in my 
country, and selected me rather [ton others, shall he betrayed, until I call 
Ihcm and ask them about what ihese two men claim. If they are a* they say, 
I will send them back to Iheir own people; but if what they say is wrong, I 
will defend them and they will receive suitahte hospitality while under my 
guardianship. 1 

Then he summoned Hie Prophet's Companions, and when his messenger 
came they gathered, saying one lo another. "Whai will you tell the man when 
you meet him'-'* They said, We shafl say what we know and what our 
Pmphet (pbuh) ordered us. Lent be as it goes.* When they went to the king 
they foumi ihai he had called his bishops with tltcir sacred books nil 
displayed around liun. He asked Them what their religion was fur which ihey 
had abandoned their people, without embracing in his religion or any other. 
Ja* far ibn Abi laKb stood up and said, 

"O king 1 We were plunged in the depths or ignorance, and we were 
idolaters We used to eat corpus to commit abominations, to severe blood 
ties, to neglect our duties of hospitality and neighbor! incss, and to use only 
the law of the strong, That was our life until ANah raised among us a man. 
whose lineage, truthfulness honesty, and purity we knew, He called us to 
the Ojumos of Allah, and Taught us not to associate anything with Him. He 
forbad us the worship of idols, and enjoined us to speak the truth. tr> he 
faiihful to our trusts, to be merciful and to regard the rights ofihc neighbors; 
m well as kith and kin, and To refrain from crimes and bloodshed. He 
prohibited us fmm committing abominations, speaking tie*, devouring ihc 
property of orphans, and vilifying chaste women. He commanded us to offer 
prayer?;, to render alms, and to ohservc fasts. We have bcheved in him. have 
accepted his teachings, and have followed him. We have allowed what He 
has allowed, and have prohibited whai he has prohibited. For this reason, 
our people attacked us, and persecuted us in order to force us to abandon the 
worship of A Mali and return to the worship of idols and to regard as lawful 
the evil deeds we once committed, When ihey had tomired and encircled 
our lives, until finding no safety among them, we have come to your 
country, and hope you will protect us from oppression while we arc with 
you. O king.* 



The M$ea BsfcStl » ttj^t ^ d *** lbflm W%l of Allah ' s ww^ion. 
When Ja far said that he bad. the Negus asked him to recite it to him, SO he 
reeled the opening verses of S&fli Atorwm. Thereupon, by Allah, the 
Ncg'i*. along with the Bfchops, wept to Ihe extent that the king's tears wet 
his beard and ihose of the bishops wet their scrolls Here, the Negus 
exclaimed. It seems us tf these words and those which were revealed to 'M 
are the ray's of the light which have radiated from the same source. Turning 
to the two envoys of the Qumysh. he said. Go! By Allah- 1 cannot give you 
back these refugee ^ mid they shat! not be betrayed/ 

When the two had gone, * Amr said ? Tomorrow 1 will all him something 
that will uproot them all/ "Abdullah, who cared more about u* (Muslims), 
said. Do not do it. for they are still our kindred though they oppose us.' He 
said! "By Allah, I will tell him that they claim that Jesus, the son of Maryam. 
is a slave/ The next day. he told him thai they said an evil thing about Jesus, 
the son of Maryom, and mat he should summon Item to ask about it. He did 
so. Nothing of (he kind had happened lo ihem before, and (he people 
gathered together asking one another what they should say about isft when 
they were lo be asked, They decided that they would say what Allah had 
said and what the Prophet {pbuhl had brought. So when (hey went into the 
king and the question Was tailed to Ihem. J**fur- answered, "We say about 
him itiiit which our Prophet <pbuh) has brought, saymg, he is the servant of 
Allah, His Prophet, His Spirit, and His Word, which He breathed into 
Mary:tm the Virgin." The Negus took a stick from the ground and said, "By 
Allah, Jesus- the son of Maryam. docs not exceed what you have said by (he 
lengihot Ibis stick/' His bishops round him got angry when he said ihis. and 
said, 'Even i hough they gnaw, by Allah! Go, for you are safe in my country. 
Whoever insults you will be punished. Whoever insults you will be 
pimUhed Not even tor a mountain of gold wilt 1 allow ihat any man of you 
should he hurt'. He returned the presents lo them and so Uiey left his 
presence, downcast, taking away their rejected presents, while we lived 
unmolested in the best security. 

While we were living thus, a revolt arose to overthrow him. and 1 never 
knew ericf as we did at thai, fearing thus the rebellion would remove Ihe 
Negus, and that a new ruler would come who did not know oar case like the 
Negus. He went out again si him. at the banks of the Kile. Az-Zubayr 



mrwf-Awwfim vn/timeeraJ. wfen rhr fYophcrs tohtLlii CoiU|«Lmiiui* ucu" 
looking for someone w go io the battle and bring back news. Ho was the 
youngest mn we had, We ballooned a watei skin mid put n under his 
breast, us he swam across until be reached the mcctrflj! point of llic armies at 
the Mile. Then Kc continued until he mcL I hem. Mean while we prayed to 
Allah \o give me Negus victory over his enemy and to empower htm m his 
own land: and as wc were doing so, waiting for what mighl happen, 
A/ Zuhayr appeared running, waving with hts clothes as he said, 'Hurrah. 
Ihe Negus has vanquished and Allah has beaten hi> enemies and empowered 
him in his land.' By Allah, I never knew ourselves as happy as wc were 
then. At the lime we tived m the best conditions untd we returned to the 
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in Makkah," 

'Umar IbnuJ-Khaii&b Accepts Islam 

' Amr thnuKAs and Abdullah ibn "Abi Rabfah returned to the Quraysh 
unsuccessful after having received a sharp rebufT Tmm the Negus, and then 
"Ulnar became a Muslim. He was of a dauntless courage and resolution, 
rioth Tcared and respccied and the Prophet's i phuh h Companions were 
securely established by him and ttamzah, 'Abdul kill ibn Mas'ud said. H We 
were not able to perform prayer at the Kabbah until " L T mar accepted Fslam. 
After i hut he foughi the Quraysh m orcter to perform it there and we 
performed it with him,"" 'ilmar accepted Mam after the migration to 
Abyssinia, 

'Omar's conversion to Islam, as I had heard, was as follows. His sisret 
F&£imah. rhe daughter of Al- Khakis cmbraeed Islam together with ber 
husband SjjftNl ibn Zayd t hut concealed this fact from *Umar. Ntf ayrii itm 
"Abdullah an-Nahfcam, front Banu 'Adiyy ihn Ka'h had Income a Muslim 
in secret our of fear of his people. Khabbuh Jbnuf-Aratt often used to come 
to Fatimah tO recite the Quran to her. One day 'Umar carnc oui t girt with 
his s-word. heading for *he Prophet tpbuhu and a group of his Companies, 
after being informed that they had met in n house at Aa-£afa. hi afl there 
were about fony men and women, There, with the Prophei fobuh) were his 
uncle fjanuah, Ahu Bakr. and All from among the Muslims who had not 
migrated to Abyssinia and had stayed with the Propber rpbuhj. 



Nu W met 'llmnr M .nlwd him where he was going. "I am going to 
kill Muhammad, Hie one who h* rejected w .tlfeiim. dmded up the 
n,jr ivsh ridiculed ihcir traditions, insulted their religion and gods, l-njar 
said "'You deceive vcurself. 'Uiuar/ he answered. Do you mink thai Bt»u 
: Abd ManiC *& i* tfW «* - *c ea*h after you kill Mutom^ Why 
do vou not lak* w of your own family first and se l them nght : Wiumj 
SLS wnn my own family- he asked, "Your HtiM taw Sa & ..J 
your sister Ftimah. have boih emhraccd Islam and have foiled 
Muhammad in his religion, so you had belter deal with tan." te W»L 
Thereupon *Umar turned lo his sisFer and brother- in law. Meanwhile, 
KhabMh was with them reciting Ihe manuscript of Mm/ Taka. When they 
heard "Ulnar* fb**#fc Khabbab departed to adwcL and Fatmum took (he 
pw and hid it under her thigh. Having heard Khahbab, redumon as he 
came dose to .he house. ' Umar said, "What is this senseless sound I heard? 
"You heard nothing/ toy answered. "By Atluh. I have," he said, 'and 1 
have hecn informed Lhat vmt have followed the religion of Muhammad; 
and he severely heat tus broiber-in-bw Said, and his sister Fatimah rushed 
to rescue her husband, and he struck and wounded her also. When he did 
that, they said tu htm. "Yes, we have embraced Islam, and we believe in 
Mlah and His Messenger, so do whatever you like: 1 When Umar saw the 
blood on his sister he felt sorry and said lo her. "Give me what I heard you 
reading just now so thai I may see what it is which Muhammad has 
brought/ v Umar knew writing. When he sasd so. his sister mid him thai she 
did noi inisi him wilh fc He said, "Do not lie afraid. " and he swore by his 
g«N that he would return u when he had read it. When he said that, she was 
ea^ei that he should become a Muslim, and said to hum. "O hrutner. you are 
impure because of vour polytheism and none but the pure may touch it. " So 
■ Umai washed himself and look the page from her in whfcft was Surat Ti'M 
Having read the opening verses. " Umar said. H, How fine and graceful is this 
speech-" When ifc heard that, Khabbub emerged from his concealment and 
said. T>. *Umar, by Ailah. I hope that Allah has selected you by Bis 
Prophet's supplication, for just last nigiil I heard him saying. O Allah, 
support Islam with ' Abul-Hakam ihn Hisham or with Umar ibnuI-KJmttabr 
Allah. Allah. O 'I'tnar." Here lOfrttl said. 'Guide me lo Muhammad so that 
i may embrace Islam." Khabbab answered that he was in the house at 
As-Sufu along with his Companions, 



So 'Um;ir gin wiih his sword, headed to: the PjojjIicL ipbull) and Ills 
Companions, and knocked at their door, When they heard his voice, one of 
ihc Companions peeped ihiough a chink in the door, and when lie saw him 
gin with his sword, he went to me PropheHpbuh) in fear, exclaiming, "h is 
'Umar with his sword!" JJamzahh, said. Tct him in. IT his intention js'j-uod. 
we welcome him. while if ii is evil, we will kill him With his own sword," 
The Prophet i.phuhi advanced wid met him in the room, caugni him roughly 
by his garment and scabbard, and asked. 'What has bfvitght van. ton of At- 
khtitt&h? Far hx Allah, f do not think wu wjfl smp tywir jtersttmhto} until A Unit 
muis tfown n vatemHy tm yon." ^Umar replied. "O Messenger of AUah, I have 
come to yon 10 believe in Albh and His Messenger and that which he has 
hrought from Allah," The Prophet ipbuh) exclaimed abud. 'Attilm Akhur" 
so I hat the whole household knew dial Umar had embraced Islam. The 
Companions E'cJi more self-confident with the conversion of botrTUnw and 
Hamzah to Islam as they knew thai they would protect the Prophet (nhuhJ. 
and that they would get their right from their enemies. 

l Umur said, "When I embraced Islam tliat ntglit I thought of the man 
who was the archenemy of i he Prophet tpbnh) among she people of Makkah 
and 1 wanted to tell him ahout my conversion to Islam, 1 remembered Abu 
JahL In the morning [ knocked at his door, wid he came out and said, 
'Welcome my uephew< J ', what has brought you?' I said to him directly, 'I 
have come to leH you thai 1 believe in Allah und Kis Messenger Muhammad 
and have testified m the truth of what he has brought, "He fiercely jammed 
the door in my face, saying, 'Allah damn you, and damn what you have 
broughi; " 

The Boycott 

A scries of events baffled the Quraysh: the peaceful settlement of the 
Prophets (pbuln Companions in Abyssima under the protection of the 
Negus, the conversion ofUmar and Ham/ah to Nam. and the spreading of 
Islam anrnm; the tribes. They behi u meeting and decided to wtiie a. 

I Urtiur\ nkHtwt h,,jv ilkirtr^miiJi, <te dMi^hfcr of Hi^haEn i.hfiiifi-MiffilinBh jj;hI ihc *j*tiir of 

A&oJaM, 



document of boycott on Bnnft H^shim and Banu Al-Mitffclih. The articles of 
the boycott were: not to marry their women nor give their women to them to 
marry: neither buy from them nor sell to Ihcm. Then diey seriously 
approved >ni the points and ^uvpuided the document in the middle of the 
Kabah as a reminder of Their commitment. The writer ut' the document was 
Mansur ihn W8M& *&&$ wnom ,he Pr () phci (phali) supplicated Allah so 
some of his fingers became paralyzed. 

WbLMi Lhc Qiiraysh did thai. Hie two clans of Banu Hfishim iuid Banu 
AkMutjulib held a meeting with Abu lalih to join him in defending his 
nephew. Abu Lahab " Abdul *"Uzzo split from Banu Hashim to support the 
Quraysh, He used to say, "Muhammad U promising things which I cannot 
see. He alleges that ihey will happen after death; what has he put in my 
hands after thai'?' 1 Then he blew in hi* hands and said, 'May you be cut. I 
can see nothing in you of me things which Muhammad says/ So Allah sent 
down concerning him the Quranic words, 

i Perish (he ftytf hands ojAtnt Laiwb. mid iterixh Hfi! V 

(Al-Masad: l) tlJ 

They persisted m these conditions for two or thiee years until ihey 
became fatigued and only some meager quantities of food wurc secretly 
smuggled in by sonic compassionate people of Makkab, 

TJie Maltreatment that the Prophet (pbuh) 
Received from his People 

Hi* uncle and the rest of flnnu Hashim assembled round the Prophet 
fpbuh) tii immunize him from (he offensive altitude of the Quray^ When 
the latter saw thai they could not get at him (physically). Ihey winked. 



1 , tti'WH lttitf ihw ih« cm-awni! rf ihs rc^ctnUiflTi ot this inroA was thill *heo Altitli sail itewn.mMd 
urn* vourmb* \0 Mvtuvmtffd) vf n*at khniwl f tAih-Shii'ttft 21 41. ^ Wifl*t fpbutti wcw 
nuc Mti tltmb&J ita mnmii As-fat*. He trial Hit Juwklj. *# Hk>' all jiiutwriiJ to Wm. ihen I* 
Mtid. 'iff Triifyau that ltT»rvi tit thr mltry wv// imttdf iua ppifflW pftj irJVntf mr*~ t^ey Naicl. 
"Ycm wem titVCf i Hat," He Mfd, Thru t *»» a warorr to yob tmd bvfiv&M my iumds ts u wrr* 
tlmtawmttt * Aial IjOuh rurm rente*! Pa^h vow? K ii Kir tin* ituri ym gathered inT TIihi 
Allah I he AWghtJ »*ni ilflwil, ^i^/ii'r ihc ni-u luitab uf Aim Lttfoih, ttmiprrith hr ' , 



r<\) — 



bickered and tmered sarcastic remarita w him. The Quranic verges smried 
la be reveled on the wickedness of the Quraysh and those hostile eo him; 
some we're referred to by name and sonic to the disbe lie vers whom Allah 

mentioned in gcnerul Of those named ucre his uncle Abu Luhah and his 
wife Umm Jamil, the daughter wf H^k ihn I 'may yah, • iWio carries wooii\* 
Uiuiu Jamil Uiud lu cany thorns and throw them in I lie way ol (tie Fmphel 
(pbuh) where he would be passing. So Allah sent down concerning die brnh 
of them, 

1 Pettish the Mb luttute tfAbft Labab, ami parish hi*.! His wealth owl his 
children fete.) writ not benefit him* He will be burnt in a Fire uf Mazing 
flatties! And his wife um, who tarring yvtmd (rhfirns of Sudan}, hi her 
neck, h a rwLtted rope of SUmtdijmhn fibre). * 

(Al-Masad; 1-5) 
Ton fshnq said, "If was mentioned to mc dial when Umm Jamil lieaid 
uboot the Qu rante verses concerning he/ and her husband, she wem m i he 
Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in the mosque at the Ha" hah, where he was 
sitting with AhCi Bakr She bore with her a stone and Allah made her not see 
the Prophet tphuh). So she asked Abu Bakr where the Prophet (pbuh) was 
and added, 'I have been informed that he is ridiculing me, and by Allah, if 
he is here now I would have struck liis mouth wiih tins stone/ Then she left, 
Abu Bakr said. "O Messenger of Allah, do you think she saw you?" He 
replied that she did not because Allah imd blinded her from seeing him. 

Whenever Umayyah it>n KhaJaf saw i.he Prophet I pbuh) he slandered 
and defamed him, so Allah revealed concerning him t 

• Woe n> e\ery slanderer and backbiter: wtw hat gathered wealth and 
emmted it. He thinks thai his wealth will make him last forever' Ntty? 
Vrfih. he wit! he thrmn into the crashing Fire, And what wdl make ymt 
know what the crushing Ftre M Tlie fire &f Allah, kindled* which fcapy 
up *jy# the hearts Verity, it shaft be chscd in on them, in pillars 
xtreiched forth Hv they will be punched in the Fire nith pillars, etcj. f 

£A1-Huniazah: t-o> 

Khnbbab ibmil-AniLl, the Prophet's (pbuhl Companion, was a 
sworU-muker in Makkah* AI-'As; ibn W3'il bought some from hint without 



(7T) 



paying their price. When Khabhuh acketi for his due payment, he said. O 
KhahbSb, is it not lhai Muhammad, your friend, whose religion you follow, 
alleges that in Paradise there will be all which are desired by pettple ol gold, 
silver, cloihes. and scrvantsr 1 ''Certainly," answered Khabbab. Then give 
iTtc a ruspiic 10 the Day of Resurrection until 1 go there (Paradise » and pay 
your dchl There, for by Allah, you and your friend will never be mote 

preferable .n the sp of Allah than m W wiU W hilve S rca,cr sfm m 
iTiis than me t HH said Al-V\£, Then Allah sent down concerning him. 

i Have yon seen ftfiw **<? diMirwd in Our Aytit (this Quran and Mm 
Immmml) and iyttf #&& 1 *hutt certainty to? fliWrt »^* <""' < *' rfmt 
{ift%iiM be alive, tagam)!-' to he knwrn the im,wm </f /«" /)«■ lfl*«l « 
rr«-*v«wif /mm the htmt Beneficent iAttnhi? M#l Hfe 3#$ «ttW wfoit 
/»i* «m. «rtri l*> */iwtf initf&m his lormem tm die HeHh and We ahull 
inherit f mm him (at fas demhi aU that he talks of fU. wraith and vh*!- 
tlrrtt ivhkk We haw hutfnwf Up*™ h ini in this wurld). and fa' shall 
onmr 10 Vs alone- ^ 

(Maryam: 77-80) 

Abo Jahl met the Prophet (phuhh und said to mm, "By Allah. O 
Muhammad, either you cease to insult our gods or we will insult yours." So 
Allah revealed concerning thai, 

• Avrrf limb AM dune whom ihey {disbelievers} warship httsidrs Allah, 
lest rim- insult Aifah wnwrfidiy without knowledge. ♦ 

Cjy-M'am; 108) 

I was told that the Prophet ipbubj abstained from insulting their gods, 
and began to invite them to believe in Allah, 

An-Niidr ihnuUHarith ibn Wlqamah ihn Kaladah ibn "Abd Man&f ibn 
'Abdud-Dar ibn Qusayy, whenever the Prophet tpbuh) sai in a gaiherihg 
calling peeiplc to Allah, reading from the Quran, and forewarning them of 
whai happened lo bygone nations, followed him after be had left and 
narrated >tories aboui Rustam Ash ShW. Isfajidiy% and the kings of Persia, 
liven he would say. "By AUah. Muhammad caunoi tell a better Mory lb an 
mine and his words are ju*l tales of the ancient*, which he has written down 
as I have," So Allah revealed the following concerning him. 



+ AwJ they sav: Tales of the ntirtettts, whieh he has wmwn down, and 
they are dtetated to hint morning and afternoon*' Say: 'ft {this Qur'an) 
has been sent down by Him fAtlahl {the fool Loid of the heavens and 
north) Who knttwt die ui-tet of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is 
Oft-Forgiving. Most MercifulJ ^ 

tAL-l : urqan: 5-6) 



;ij)lI. 



4 When Our Verse* \ofihe Quran) are recited to him, he soys: Tales of 
the men of old*' ^ 

(Al-Qalom- 15) 
and. 

* Wot to every sinful liar t who hears the Verses of Allah (being) recited 
to him, yet persists with pride ti,t if lie heard them not So announrt to 
him a painful torment! » 

<AWatfiiyah; 7-8) 

Al-Akhnns ibn Shurayq ibn Walib Ath-Tha<jufi was one of the notables 
who had influence on his people He was, again si the Prophet iphuh) and 
iivfci to harass him by wards, so Alfah sent down about him. 

*And obey not everyone who swears much, and is considered worthless. 
a slanderer, gouts idumt with lahtmntex, hinder er of the good, trans- 
gressor, sinfuL cruel dfier all that bmie-ham (of 'illegitimate- birth}. } 

(Al-Qalam: 10-!3t 

AI Waftd ibnul-Mughirah said, *Is it revealed lo Muhammad und I am 
ignored, though I am the chief and master of the Qunaysh, and Ahu Ma.CGd 
\\mr ibn 'Umayr aih-Thnqufi, (lie master of Thaqff. is- ai±k> ignored, though 
we arc the masters of the two towns? 11 Then Allah sent down concerning 
him, 

4 And they my: 'Why is not this Quran sent down to some great man of 
the two towns [Makkah and Td'ifi?' Is if they who would portion out. the 
Merty of your Litrd? It is We Who portion flat befln'efn them their the- 
lihavd in this world, and We wised some of them ahove others in ranks. 



to thai mm* may employ others in ihetr nark. But the Metcv {Paradise} 
Of your Lard {O Muhimmud) is better than the (wtitth of this wortdl 
which ttwy amass, ^ 

(Az-Zufchrof: 31-32) 

Uqbah ibn AbT Mull once sat with the Prophet (pbuh) and listened to 
his preaching of Islam. When his claw friend Ubayy Ibn KhaM heard of 
that, he Haiti to him, "1 have heard (hut you have sat with Muhammad and 
Ustenedto him? I swear 1 wW never see or talk to you again - and he swore 
a gieat oath - if you do it again, or if you do not go and spit in his face/' 
'Uqbuh, the enemy of Allah and may Allah curse him. did this. So Allah 
revealed about both of them, 

* And (remember) the Day when ttte 2£l~tm (wrong-doer, oppressor, pot- 
ytheisf, etc.) wtil bite at his hands, ha wilt say: 'Vitf Would thai 1 hud 
taken a path with the Messenger (hlnhammod)! Ah! Woe m me! Would 
dun I had never taken so-and-so as a friend! Hr indeed led me astray 
from the Reminder (this Quran) after it tmd come to me. And SiuiytSn 
t Satan) is ever a deserter to man in the hour of need* # 

(Al-Furqan; 27-29) 

Ubayy went to the Prophet tpbuh) with a decomposed hone, ground to 
pieces, and said. "O Muhammad, do you allege that Allah can revive this 
after they are rotten?* Then he crumbled it in his hand and blew the powder 
towards the Prophet's fpbuh) face. The Prophet t.pbuh) answered, "Km; / say 
that, Allah witt resurrea \t and yna, after you have become tike this, then Allah witi 
make you enter Hell u So Allah re vcokd concerning him, 

i And he puts forth far Us a parahte. and forgets his own creation- He 
says: 'Who u i// give tife to these Itunes wtJHtn they tuive rowed away tmi 
iuive become dust 7 ' Say iO Mtdiammod), He wilt give life to them Who 
created them for the first time! And He is the Att-kfflmt ofewry trea- 
tionl He. Wtm pmtlmxsjar you fire am of the green tree, when behofd? 
You kuuile therewith. * ? 

(YMn: 7H-SQ1 

The Prophet tpbuh) was circumambulating the Ka'ba when Al-Aswad 
ibnul-MuUalib ibn Asud ibn 'AbduKUzza, Al-Walld ibniil-MugMrah. 

— <£> — 



tlmayyah ibn Khalaf, and AKAs ibn Wii'il aft-Suhnfi, men of standing 
among t|h;i r people, approached him and said. "G Muhumrnad. Icl lis 
worship thai which you worship, and you wurvhip that which we worship, 
Vuu mitl wc will tUMjeiule togethci on the bsue. If thai which VOU worship 
is h^ucr than rtlaJ which we wo^hip we will take advantage of it, and if that 
which we worship is he iter than (toil which you worship, you will lake 
advantage of that." So Allah revealed contenting litem, 

J Say (O Muhammad t to fftare Mmhriktln and KtWriink 'Q Al-Kttfitttn 
IttitMuwr* in Attah. at Hii Onratr.ts. at Hi* Attgefj, in Hi* tfcwA.t. in 
His Messenger*, in the Day nf Rexnrreciioa. and in At-Qiahr, th\\! I 
worship nat ihtil which y<*it w/rship, nnr mitt \au worship that which t 
worship. And / shaft tun wtnhip tftttf whkh ytm are worshipping, nor 
will yt>u warship that which I nwrxhip, To ytnt he yuur reiigifm, tuid ta 
me tiiy reti^iiiti \ Islamic Mmwthvismy"^ 

(AUUrtrfln: US) 

After Allah had mentioned the tree of Az-Zttqtjmn lo frighten the 
poly the ists Abu Jahl ibn Hi shim said, **0 Quraysh. do you know what the 
tree of AzZaqqiirti is with which Muhammad frightens you?" When ihcy 
said "No", he said, "ft is* Yuthrib buttered date*. By AJJuh, ii' we gel hold of 
tbcm we will take them in one draught!" So Allah sent down concerning 
this, 

4 Verity, the tret t/j ZnqtpHn will he the frntd af the xiwten. like hailing 
oil, it witl fxtil in the bttttes. hke the trailing af tvaldhtg water, f 

(Ad-Dukhan: 43-4*) 
i.e, not like Abu JahTs allegation. 

Al-Walid ihnul-Mugrurah was talking to the Pmphc! (pbuh) who was 
eager to revert him to Mam when Ibn Umm Maktum, a blind man, came 
;ind ask the: Prophet (pbuh) to recite jhe Quran to him. He persisted on his 
request to the extent thai the Prophet (pbuhi became annoyed, because he 
diverted him from Al-Walid and spoiled the opportunity of his talk; and 
when the man felt lhal he wa% importunate \\t tuned away frowning and left 
him. So Allah sent down on the Prophet (pbuh). 



4 lThr Prophet) jmwned and tttrmriamy* beatusi 1 tkvre vatne m M* 
the blind Hiuft.^ to 4ttt gj in Jtounb HeMl&wsW) m hmmr> (U* 
lawh M^Muhfit-J: mtiedim dignity), purified. V 

fAbasa: 1-14) 

i.e. I sent you only lu be u bearer of good tidings antl a wanier. so do nol 
prefer one person at Lhc expense of another, thus preventing (the message) 
from the one who seeks iL and waMing time with one whn does not warn it. 
The people who used to harm the Prophet tpbuh) in His house were: Abu 

Lahatx At-Hakam ibn AbelwW IggpH ibn Al>1 !£8ft * Adi ^' ibn HP** 1 ? 
aih-Thaqaiu and Ihiiul-Asdff al-Hudhlf. They were his neighbor?, atrd from 
among Ihem all only Al-Makam ibn Abel-" Ai embraced Islam later. One of 
them threw the entrails of a goal on his hack while he was performing his 
prayers. Another used to throw it in his stony vessel. As a result the Prophet 
(phuh) resorted to a wall to be concealed during prayer. Whenever they did 
that to him he Ito&J to take such filthy things and SW»4 at the thrower's door, 
saying. "0 fltoffl Abd~Mtmi*f. what is this iuvbecwningl fivi$hkorh<HHl? Then 
he {pburO would east it away. 

The Return of the Migrants to Abyssinia 

False news reached the Prophet's (pbuh) Companions who had migrated 
lo Abyssinia that the people or Makkati had embraced Islam, so they 
decided to return home. When they approached Makkah they knew thai ihc 
report was untrue. Likewise, they entered lhc town either under the 
protection of a local notable or by stealth. Thirty-three men was the total 
number of the Companions who came back to Makkah from Abyssinia, 
Among them were: Uihrnita ihn Ma^On proved by Al-Walfd 
ihnitl-Mughlrah; Ahti Sal amah ander the protection of Abu Tjilib who was 
his uncle, Abu Salamah's mother being Banrah. the daughter of 
v Aodul-Mutialib, 

The Annulment of the Boycott 

According to the document written hy the Quraysh the I wo elans of 
Bunti Mas him and BanO Al-Mu[taUb were still residing in Lhe man mam 

— <5D — 



e 



passes of Mukkarn when a number of the Qurayshis moved lo repeal «h 
boycott against mem. Hisham ibn Arnr endured me most hardship in this 
task, since he was the son of a brother to Nadbh ibn Hashim ibn *Abd 
Manat hy his mother and was closely attached to Bauu Hashini. He wus 
highly respited hy his people. He used to take a camel laden with food by 
night lo these two el am in their residence. When he hud laken it to the 
beginning of the alley, he took off its halter, gave it a (hump on the side, to 
let it walk into the alley to them. He also used to send clothes n> them in ihe 
same way. 

Hi sham went to Zuiitiyr ibn Abi U may yah ibnul-Mughirah. the son of 
'Atikuh. the daughter of ' Abdui-Muiialib and said, "Arc you pleased to eat 
food, put on clothes, and many women while you know of the distress of 
your maternal uncles? They can neither buy nor sell, nor many, nor give: in 
marriage, J swear by Allah thai if they were the (maternal uncle* of 
Abut-Hakam ibn Hi sham and you asked him to do lo them what he bad 
asked you to do, he woukl never do it," He naid. "t i ih und you, Hisham. 
whai can 1 do? I am only one person. By Allah, if I had Another man to 
support me I would soon repeal it- " He said, "I have found a man. Myself." 
"We need u third one," said he. So Hisham spoke to A1-Mufim ihn 'Adiyy 
and said, "Arc you pleased that l wo clans of Banu * Ahd Munaf srmuid die 
while you are a witness and approve to follow the Quraysh? By Allah, by- 
encouraging them to do so. they will soon do ihe same to you," He agreed to 
help them but, like Zuhayr, he demanded for a fourth person. He went lo 
Abul-Bakhtar! ihn Hisham who asked for a fifth man and then to Zama'ah 
ibnul-Aswad ibnut-MuHalih ihn Asad reminding him about ihcjr kinship 
and their rights. 

They met at night at the nearest point of Al-Hajun above MaJckah. They 
discussed the question or the docuiueni to secure its annulment. Zuhayr 
demanded to he the first to -.peak and act. In the morning, when the people 
met together Zuhayr. after euvumumbuiaiing the Ka'bah seven times, 
approached Ihe hosts of people there and said. "O people of Makkah. are we 
to eat and dress while Banu Hashim die. and cannot buy or sell? By Allah 1 
will not iit down until mis unjust boycotting document i* pulled out!" Abu 
JahL who was ai the side of the mosque, cried out, "You lie by Allah. It 



.hall not be torn up," Zama'ah sakf. "You are a greater liar, we were not 
pleased with the document since it has been written/' AbuIBakhtari said, 
"Zama'ah is right. Wc arc not satisfied with what is written and we do not 
ad mil it." Al-Mufim said. "You are both right, and any tine who says 
otherwise is a liar We call Allah to witness thai wc free ourselves from all 
[hut is written in the document/' HisMm spoke in the same sense. Abu Jahl 
said. This is a decision taken overnight, which you have been discussing 
cisewhere/' Abit IS lib was sitting at the comer of the mosque- When 
Al-Muf im went up to die document <o tear it to pieces be found that worms 
had already eaten it save the part that contained, "In Ihe name of You. O 
Allah". The writer of the document was Mansjk ibn "Iknmah, and hi* hand, 
as it was said, hud been paralyzed. 

The Story of the Ir&shi Man 
Who Sold his Camels to Abfi jahl 

Ibn Ishaq said tnuT "Abdul-Malik ibn "Aodullah ibn Abu Sufyan 
alh-Thaqafi who bad a good memory, told him lhat a man from Trash sold 
some of his cam* Is to Atrfl Jahl in MtiklcaU. NevertheJcss. he withheld me 
money, so the man went to the assembly of ihe Quraysh when the Prophet 
tpbuh) was sitting at the comer of the Mosque and said. "Who among you 
can help mc get my due payment from Abul-Hafcam ibn Hisham? 1 am a 
stranger and a wayfarer, and he has taken my right." They said. Do you see 
that man sitting over there?' 4 and they pointed to J he Prophet (pbuh). aiming 
to make a joke of him fof they knew quite welt of the hostility between him 
and AM Jahl They added. "Go to him. and he will help you to gel your 
right." 

The Irashi man went to the Prophet tpbuht ami said* "0 servant of Allah, 
Abul Hakam ibn HLsharn has withheld the muney he owes me, I am a 
st i anger and wayfarer. When I asked these men lo tell mc of someone who 
would help me lo get my right they advised mc to come to you, so go and 
bring rue my money from him, may Allah bless you " The Prophet ipbuh) 
said. "Go to him" and they went to him together. When the men saw this, 
they sent a man to follow them- The Proplwt (pbuh) went and kniKked at 



Ahfi Jabl's dwr, and when he asked who was there he said. "Mittwunud! 
Come out to m?.*' He came out to him pale with terror and the Propyl 
tpbuh) said, "Guv thi\ num his flue* "Do not leave LtfifiJ I ga him his 
money,' be said, and went inside and came out with [lie due payment and 
gave it to the man. The Prophet (pbuhi went away saymgi "Go favour bust* 
ncss." The IrSshl man returned to the assembly and said. "May Allah reward 
him, far lie has got me my right." 

The man. who went after them reported, "h was something unusuiit," he 
said. "Hardly had he knocked at ms door when he came out bloodless with 
fear." lust after re luting what had happened. Abu lahf himself appeared and 
they said, "What has happened to you? We have never seen you doing like 
what you have done." "Confound you t " he said, "By Allah, as soon as he 
knocked on my door and I heard his voice I was tern lied. Then I went out to 
him. A camel stallion was high above his head. I have never seen such a 
MaJlion before with such a head, shoulders and canines. By Allah, if J had 
not paid him. the stallion would Iwvc devoured mc* 

The Night Journey 

Islam prevailed in Makkah among the Quravsh and ail the nines, when 
(he Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was made to set forth by night from the 
Inviolable Mosque at Makfcah 10 AJ-Aq&a Mosque 1 ". As I was told, 
"Abduilah ibn Mas'Qd said. The Burdtf r the animal whose every stride went 
us far ai its eye could reach, and which was ridden by the previous prophets, 
was hrought to the Prophet i phuh). He Ipbuh) was made to mount on il and 
lie went out with his companion (Jihril] to sec the marvels between the 
heavens and Ihc earth, until Ik* reached Al-Aqss Mosque in Jerusalem. 
There be found (Prophet I Ibrahim, the intimate friend of Allah. He aiso 
found Mush and Isa gathered in a company of some Prophets. He Jed them 
in prayer, then he was brought three vessel s. containing milk, kktmtr, and 
water respectively. The Messenger of Allah (phuii) said, 

"I tietmltr voice saym\$ when these were njjfered m mr, 'if fie chooses th? 
narer he wilt for drmviwdiu weft as hh nmion; if chaoses the khamr he 



I A^ .Suhj} It viiU itiii happened «w >ciw bcftirc (lie tfytttk. 



willb* mhmhd rawetf os fifc S$Htf wtjt fy cfatwr* ffe milk he 
wdl he rtstoty &fM w «P (W '"* niliifm - ' & ' W6k ihe l ' ww/ a f miik 
ami dnotk front il So Jihrtt. petti* be tifnm him. solo 1 to m* 'You turn 
hn'n rijihih punted ond xo will vwiir tmlttm he, O Muhomtmid, ' 

Jbn Isjjaq iai ^ h* wa * io,d on tnc authority of Al-Ha^n thui the Prophet 
fpbuttj said. 

"White l was ihwpinsi in the Hjjf. Jihr'tt came ami spurted me with his 
fboL f sat up ami mh' nothing so I rfept ay tin He tame u iwtmtl time 
ami spurred me with his foot, t sot up and saw nothing so t stepi again. 
He tome to rue the thirtl time ami spurred mv with hisfout. t sttt up. he 
took hold of my arm anil I stood heside him, Then he took me ma to the 
door of the Mosque, Otter ttimt a «Wte beast, half mule, half donkey. 
with nm wittfts Of its thigh to propel its feet with thetn, putting down 
each forefoot at the Umit of its rfjftfc He fww me onto it then he went nut 
with me Keeping close to «£-! 

Al-Hasan continued, "The Prophet ipbuhi arid JihnI went their way until 
they arrived ftJ Al-Aqsa Mosque, There he Found IbrSliim. MQsaVand Msa 
among a company ofthe Prophets. The Prophet ipbuh) was their Imam in 
pravers. Then he was brought wo vessels, one of kttamr and the other of 
milk The Prophet (pbuh) selected the milk and drank from it. leaving the 
khiimt. Jibrtl smd. You have been rightly guided to (innate) nature and so 
will your nation be Muhammad, and kftwrir is prohibited to you." The 
Prophet (pbuhl returned to Makkah, In the morning, he told the Quraysh 
about what had happened. Most of ihcro &aiu\ 'By Allah, this is clear 
nonsense! A caravan takes a month to go to Syria and another to return, did 
Muhammad go and return in otie ajglu? k Many apostatized after they had 
embraced Warn: some people asked Abu Bakr, 'What do you think of your 
friewl AbO Bakr? He alleges thai he went to Ai-Aqsa Mosque last night, 
offered prayer in u, and returned to Makkah." He answered that they were 
lying about the Prophet (pbnhi. but fltcy asserted tl and said that he was then 
iit the Mosque telling the people about it. Abu Bakr said r By Allah, if he 
says so then it i* true. And what is anwmc in thai? By Allah, he tells me 
thai a revelation from Allah comes down to him from the heavens to the 
earth in an hour of a day or night and I do believe him, and thai is more 
uncommon th;m thai at which you wonder!' He then went to the Prophet 
<pbuh> and knew that these reports were true. Ahfi Bakr said 'O Prophet of 



Allah, have you told the people ihac you went 10 AI-Aqsu Mosque last 
nighl?' The Prophet (pbuh) answered in the affinitive, so Aba Baki said, 
'O Prophet of Allah, describe U to me, for I have been there. 1 (AJ-Hitsan said 
that) The PropJtcl fphuhfc said, ft has been elevated to mr sa as to be able tit sec 
it: He <pbuh) kept on describing it, while Abu Bukr said, That is mie, [ 
verify that you arc ihc Messenger of Allah' until he had finished tbfl 
description. Then ihc Prophet fpbuh) Sttid, VW yah. 4/w Mr, «wy A^Sithfttf 
(the verifier of truth i' Since (hen he was entitled AsSiddiq* 

tt is narrated on the authority of Sa id ibnul-Musayyah thai the Prophet 
(pbuhj described to his Companions Ibrahim, Musa\ and "IsA. as he saw 
them that night, saying. 

"7 hqve n ever yean a man nwst resembling me as Ibrahim tint a man whom / 
most resemble like him Musa was a brown mart, toft, with light flesh, 
early hair, ami hooked nose, us if he were a man of the Shanuah. 7j£ 
the san ofMaryam. was a reddish man of medium height. Uink hair, with 
many Mack amies tm his face, as if he had just came from a Iff ah. One 
would tfunk that hrs head was dripping with water. Ttie one ajnong you 
Who ttwks like him mmt is "'Unvah ihn Mas* lid ath-Thaqafi. " 

The Story of the Ascent 

Ibn Lshaq said it was narrated that Abfl Sa'Id al-Kudri reported. "I heard 
the Prophet (pbuh) saying. 

'After the event* in Al-Aqsa Masque, a m'Craj i stairway} was brought to 
mt which I have never seen us fine as such heft ire. It fa that at whieh the 
dying person among you stares when death approaches. My companion 
tJibrlh helped me mattnr it (and ascended with me) until we reached one 
of the gates of heaven called the Gate of the Prcxen'ers, An angel *:aiii<d 
Ismail was in charge of it. and under his control were Twelve thousand 
angels, under each of them another twelve thousand ungels, ' 

Here (he Prophei (pbuh) recited, 

ri And none am know the hosts of your Lord hut He, ^ 

(AI-MurfiMhrhir 311 



I Hit- Prophet continual 

When Jibrtt brought me in, Ismail atkfiL Who is he, O JIbrii?' He stud. 
<H, IS Muhammad ' He asked iff had been given a mission md on hear- 
ing \es' he prayed for me. 

When I entered the first tteavm tfa* worth ore (mm the Pruphei iphuhH, 
I saw a man sitting and before hint the mth of the sons of Adam were 
presented Tu some he would iw good and would he pleased with, sap 
ing, 'A good void from a good body' and of others He would toy to ii tt 
word of disrespect andfrawn t and say, 'An evlt soulfrOm an evil body\ 
When tusked JihrU who this man iWis; he told aw that he was our father 
Adorn before whom die smdx of his progeny are presented; the believer's 
soul rejoices torn, and he would say. A good sold from a sood body' 
white die disbeliever's sotd makes htm disgusted and he dislikes it so that 
he would say. 'An c\'iI$oulfrum an evil body\ 

Then I son mm with lips tike those of camels; m their hands were pieces 
of fire simitar m stones that tltey would rust two their months and they 
would come out of their rears t asked Jihril who those men were and he 
told that they were those who mtwith justice devoured the wealth of the 
orphans. 

Then ( sow men in the path of the people of Pharaoh with such bellies 
tike which I have never seen before. They iihe people of Pharaoh) were 
passing over them tike thirsty comet* while they were being exposed to 
the fire, treating dtent down and they were not ahte to divert away from 
their place, f asked Jibrit who those man were and he told me thai diey 
were those who devoured riba. 

Ttien I sow men before whom there was good fleshy meat sided by lean 
rotten meat, and they were eat inn of the lean rotten meat and leaving the 
goodjU.dry one. i asked Jibrtt who those men were and he told me that 
they were those who oltondoned the women whom Allah hod made law- 
fid for theoi and pursue those wtrmen whom He hod prohibited for diem. 

Then I saw women hanging try their breasts. / asked Jibrtt who those, 
wtnnen were and he told me that they were those women who attributed 
to their husbands chddren who were not theirs. 



Then he ascended with >ne to ihe second heaven where were the two ma- 
tenutt cousins ha. the son ofWutyam. and Ytthya t the son of/akariyy! 
Up la the third lieaven t saw a man who looked like the full irtoon. t 
asked fibril who tfuit man was ami he udd me thai he was my hmiher 
YftSltf, the ton of Ya tfah. Up to the fourth heaven. I met a man and I 
askfdJihtd who that man was and he told 'tie dun he tfttf IdtixJ 

The nanfljor said ihe Prophei ipbuh) rmtcd. 
4 And We mixed htm to a high wttion. « 

(Marvam: 57} 

m t 

(The Prophet (pbuh> crinnrnied.) 

Then he ascended with me to the fifth heaven where there was an old 
man tifa* had a white hair and a imig big beard; f had never seen a 
more handsome old man than he was. t asked Jibril who that man was 
and he to!d me that he hvm the cherished among hix people, Hdrtm. the 
ttm of 'Imrdn Then he ascended with me to the sixth heaven where I 
found o dark long man with a fuwked nose as tfhe wan on? of the men of 
the Shannah. On asking him abmtt that man JibrU told me that he was 
my brother Masa. the v«it of Itnrdn, Up to the seventh heaven there wan 
an old man fitting on a chair beside Al-Bayt at-Attt'mar 1 ^; every day 
seventy thousand augets enter it ami do nttt return to it until ihe Day of 
Resurrection. I have never seen a man most resembling me m he was or 
a man whom / moat resemhie like him. I asked Jihrlt about him and he 
told me that he wax my father Ihrdtam, 

then he entered with me to Paradise wlurre I saw a female wilh blackish 
tips, f asked her to whaoi she fafonged, as she pleased me when f saw 
her. and she told me that .die belonged to Zayd ibn Ufirithah. 

The BsndftK said that fon his return*, the Prophet (pbuhl gave Zayd [he 
good news about her, (The Prophet iphuhtcaminuetU 

'On my %vay back, I met Mtistl the stm of 'Unnan, who was much con- 
cerned about your behtdf. fit: asked me how many prayers had been 



I TTvl' home chp*j rfw frsiivunj piVjiMc tq ihe Ka Mh M Mjlfckfttl. 



mmm ^<[ md «htn i m m m ***$$ ^ rday iwMld \ ,pray * r 

r* a hem* tobtipiium] and yvttr nation are weak M ft) haek to your 
Urnltituiask Him for a reduction (fa number) for you ami for your na~ 
„>i, ' / ^m back m my *W andaxkrti Him far a rcdueium (in number) 
fi»- me orulfar my notion and He mute a reditttim of ten prayers. Then I 

went mvavwul flWjttl by M^ 1 * w,tt ht ' *&&*# lhe x<tmf $$$ } * ml 
fad nod asked my Ufd \for fitrfhet redmluml ami //r made a re- 
(turlitm often prttyen. Then I wut away otul passed by Masa and he ad- 
vised The some a$ain. I Watt back and asked Hun f for further redrnthm) 
and He mode a redwtum of ten prayers. MtteA kept advising me the 
same every time, I pa*&d by hun until five prayers were commanded for 
the whole day aid tught. When t returner! to Mfafi be urged me for far- 
ther reduction but I said ro ftim. 'I have been back to my Urd re- 
petitively asking (Jot reduction) until I have become shy of Him, so I wilt 
not do it (any more) ' $& W'd.l H* of you who perform* them oof of 
belief mid wishing for ihmr reward from Me mil have the renord of [fifty 
prayers/ 

Abu T&lib and Khadijah Die 

Khadijah and Abu JaLib passed' away in Ihc same year. After Kigali's 
death trouble* followed one after another, for she had been a faithful help 
and comfort to him in Islam. With the death of Abu Talib he lost a support 
and stay m his personal life, arid it ftmifiraiion and protection against die 
Quraysh, The death of AbO I3J»b was about three years before the 
Emigration to Madmnh. During this period, the Qumysh began to increase 
their maltreatment iin<J inbuft him in a way thai they would have never had 
the courage to follow when his- uncle was alive. 

A young fool actually hurled duM on his head. The Prophet ipbuh) went 
home with the dust on his head, A daughter of his wept while she was 
washing it. Do not cry. doughier." he said, "for Allah will protect y* mr father." 
Meanwhile he was saying, "Hi* Qurayih tiad never done to ine wuhing dis* 
likable so me until Aba Tillib died.'' 

When the Qttraysh knew of the severe illness of Aba Tfllib t they 
reminded each other that Hamzuh and v Umar had become Muslims as weH 



as the fact That Muhammad's ufTairs prevailed among all the Quiayshi elans. 
They decided to go to Abu X3Kh to reach a sort of compromise lest they be 
constrained In their authority id together 

Ihn Alibis reported mat the nobles of the Quraysh among whom were 
"Ulbah and Shaybah. the sons of Rabi'ah. Abi Jithi, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, 
mid Abfl Sufyan. went to Abfl Jilib and said. "You know your position 
among as and now in your current condition we axe deeply concerned about 
you. You know the problems hetween us and your nephew. Summon him 
and tat us make a bargain that he will feave us aJonc and we will leave him 
alone; let him have his religion and we will have ours/' When he (phut)) 
came. Abu lafib said. "Q nephew, here arc notables of your people who 
have gathered so as to give and take from you." "JW," he answered* ^Letyou 
fail) gwe me ant word by which you can rule the Amhr and $uh}ca the rmn-Araha 
toy*™." "Yes, by your father, and ten words/" said Abu Jahl. He said, "An; 
'there iy na $tfd hm A Huh* and tcnaunee what yOq worship ttihvr than Him." Tliey 
clapped their hands (astoundingly) and said, "Do you want to mate all the 
god* in one god, O Muhammad? That is an extraordinary matter". Then 
they said one to another, "This man will not give you anything that you 
want, so go and he wiih the reJigion of your fore fathers until Allah judges 
between you and him. 1 ' So Ihey left, 

Aba IJilib said to the Prophet tpbuh). "By Allah O nephew. I do not 
ihink that you asked them something nonsense," On hearing this, the 
Prophet f pbuhi wished thai he would cmljracc Islam, and he said at once, 'O 
uncte. say iL am t shaft uaA fmy f^ni) to maiie h lawful (for me} because of it 10 
intercede fm yrm an the RrjutrrnttMm Day" Seeing; the Prophets enthusiasm he 
answered, "Were it not that 1 am afraid I hat you and your family would be 
disgraced after my death and that the Quraysh would thmk thai l had only 
said it in fear of death, I would say it. T am not saying it but for pleasing you 
with it. H As hi* death was approaching. AI-' Ahbls found AM X3lib moving 
his Jips. io he put his ear close to him and said "Q nephew, by Allah, my 
brother has spoken the word you ordered him to say." The Prophet (phuh< 
replied. "/ did tun hear it. " 

Allan Kent down concerning those who met with him and the sayings 
and replies they exe hanged. 



£$thL 8y the Qur'cm/iffl ttf remtndutg. Nay. thw *ho disbelieve arc in 
ftthc pridx tut J vppmititin. » 

to His sayine* 

* Hm he mttde the altha f^w/jJ talb into One lldh <God * Afkth}. Veri- 
t\. this is a tfirifNi. 1 . thing.*' And the leaders tim*w$ then} went ttbmu {say- 
ins}: 'Go m. and remain cm^tanf ft» yeatr fitihtt i^tkif Verity, 77rw is a 
thing tleiiglt&I tagiiim! you}! We tiave tun heard tthe tike) of this rorwwi# 
the fteople e*f these later dayx'. i* 

(Sad: 1-7) 

They meant Christians because they say. 

i 'At tab ts the third of the three tin n Trinity i/ V 

(At-Mfi'idah: 73) 

« This i.v within # httt tm mveittiiHi^ 

i&± 7) 

Then Abu "Tfllib died." 

The Prophet (pbuh) Goes 
to Thaqif Seeking Support 

As a result of the me ceasing enmiiy of the Quniysh after his uncle's 
death, ihe Piophct fpbuhl went to At-Xa'if seeking suppon from the Thaqif 
to defend him against his in be. At the Mime time he wished that they would 
accept the Message which Allah had sent him with. He went alone. 

Arriving Ai-Ta'if the Prophet (pbuh) headed to certain personalities of 
the Thaqll who were then their notables and chiefs, namely three brothers 
Abet YjUjI. Mas ud. and Habib. the son* ol Amt ibn l-mayr. One of ihcm 
had a Quniy-shi wife of Banu Juirtuh, Tlw Prophet ipbuh) sal with them, 
called ilium to Islam and asked their support against his adversaries at home. 
"1 will tear ihe elmhs oi~ the Ka'bnh if Allah hits Mint you as a Messenger?" 
said one of them. "Did not Allah find anyone other than you to send? 1 * said 
the second. '1 swear by Allah that I will never have any contact with you. If 
you are really the Messenger ^f Allah, then you are too dangerous to repty 
to your words; and if you are belying Allah, then 1 feel it is imperative not 
to speak to you " said ihe third. 



Su Ihc Prophrt j pbuh) got up and *aid to them + '\S>ri>»ir that ran lime acted 
m yitti have, keep the mutfrtrr nerrtu'* for he did not like thai bis people would 
know it, so tl^d! they would further hurt hiru. On the contrary ihey stirred up 
their louts and slaves to scorn him and ridicule him as he was pursued by a 
mob. He soughi refuge and rested against the shade of a wall of a vineyard 
of an orchard possessed by Ultbah ibn Rabrah and his hmiher Shay bah who 
were in h at that time watching him, The Prophet ipbuhl met the woman 
from Band Junta]] and a aid to her, IDa' you fee) what imn occurred to ttsfmm 
\o(ir husband's people?" 

I was lolti that when the Prophet tpbuh) reached safely he said. 

"O Allah! To You I vtttnptam of my weakness, of my, helplessness, and 
my insignificance before men, O Most Merciful of the merciful. Ymt ure 
she Ijsrti of the helpless and You arr my htrd f ftitp whttxe hands would 
You entrust me? Into the hands vf ft remote person who would st-mrl ai 
me. or ttt an enemy who You hui'e gi%vn control wtr my affairs? If You 
aw not ai\$rx with me, / do not tare; hut Your clemency is matt wkiefur 
me. I seek refuge with the Light of Your CouMcnatux. wkerehv alt rlnrk- 
nt$s is itUnmtiftted, and of Whidi ail affairs tire ordered in this world as 
well as in the Hereafter, frotn lany p/tssihiliryl that You should .send 
down Your anger or thai f shotdd incur Your wrath, if is for me. to return 
to you until You are well satisfied* There is no means nor nufjht save 
with YifUf" 

Seeing him in this difficult situation. 'Utbiih and Shay hah, were moved 
on the? grounds of kinship and compassion, and sent to him u young 
Christian slave called 'Addas with a (fay of grapes. 'Addas did so. and on 
putting his hand in the platter the Prophet (pbuh) said, 7n the name of Allah,'* 
then he started eating. Addas looked at his face and said. "By Allah, the 
people in this land do not use these words." The Prophet (pbuht then asked. 
"77rf»i from which country do you come, O Addite? And wttttt it your rtltgitm '•' 
He replied thai he was a Christian and came from Nfnaw' 11 ." "From the town 
ojtht righteous man Yuntts. the *<w of Mana?" said the Prophet (pbllhk "How 
did you know about YQnus, the son of MattaT asked 'Addas. "He m my 
itrothcr: he was a Prophet and so am L" remarked the Messenger of ATlah 
(pburO. "AddiU bent over him kissing h<*, head. h;inds, and feet, 

1 A vilb^r in AI Miiw^il in Iraq 



The two brother, the sons o! Kabi'uh, (were washing and} one said 10 
the other, "He kis corrupted your niavc!" And when "Addis returned Ihcy 
said io him. "Woe to you. " Addis. Why did you ki*> ihat puft head, hands, 
and feci?" Hl* answered ihai he was the bes* man on earth as fee had told him 
tiling thai onfy a Prophet could Juiow. TJnry replied, "Take isus, % AJdi^. 
Dti not 1c i him splice you Etchu your religion, as yours is belter than his." 

The Jinn of Na&Ibin 

On his way hack frifjm At-Ia 1 if. the Prophel tphuh) was desperate of lo 
get anything out of the Thuqff, When he readied Nakhlah 111 , he rose lo offer 
prayer m I he middle of the ni^hr and seven Jinns from Nssibfn whom Allah 
has mentioned (in the Qur'am passed by. They listened to him. When he 
ended his prayer ihey went to l heir people lo warn them, as ihey had 
believed and responded to what they had heard Allah the Almighty told the 
Prophet (pbuh> about them in the verses: 

4 Awl f rettiemt'tr) whtn We srnt uwatvk yau fMniuintmitdi Nafmn 
t three to ten persons I <tf the /inns, (quietly) listening to the Qur'an..." to 
the words %tmd uv// save ytitt fr<»tt a painful turment (if. HeU-Jttt^ 

{AI-AJjqiif: 29-3 \) 

Also in this regard Allah I he Almighty says, 

mS&} lO Mahummfliil: 'ft twit been revealed Ut m? that a tfWff/7 ijrmn 
thttui ta ten in number) ofjinm iistettetti lo this.Qitr'atiL. V 

to tht: end of ihcir story in St'trat tti-Jinn. 

The Prophet (pbuh) Extends his Preaching 

to Other Tribes 

Whenever ji ehanec came at the seasons of pilgrimage, the Prophet 
^pbuhl contacted the Arab tribes to invite them to believe in Allan and ihai 
he was a Prophet who had been sent by Him. He asked for their protection 



f The/ an: i mw \jiHtyv jhMtf n rwu-ntght jouim-y frflrri MaltLijih. One pf itrero ift tutted Nnkhaloli 
u.ih-S!iurrfp>>uIt jfiJ Ihc other n caWc-A Sakhlah aM'mantyYRti 



CiD 



unnl Allah should make His Message prevail. RabT'ah ibn Abbad said, 
"When I was a young boy with my father in Minu. the Prophet (pbuh) used 
to slop at the houses of the Arab tribes *aying, 

'0 Band no an so, t am Allah's Messenger to you. He etntimuruJs you to 
worship Him and not m aixucinft' anything with Him, ami to abandon 
those (thin fix that v rut ttikt asl rivals tttr Allah and) thai van warship, oth- 
er than Him. and to belitve in me, supitart me. ami protect mr tmt it t con 
present what Allah has sum me for/ 

During This, he was followed by an artful and spruce man with two locks 
of huir, wearing an Aden cloak. Whenever the Prophet (pbuh) en tied his call 
he used h> sav. This man calls to vou to desert Al-Lii and Al^Uzza" and 
your associates of the jinn of Banu Malik ibn Uqaysh for the misguiding 
innovation he has b rough!, so do not obey or listen to him J I asked my 
father about this man who followed him to recant what he said, and he 
answered that it was die Prophet \ uncle ' Abdul-* Uzza ibn "Abdui-MuHalib, 
I.e. AbQ Luhab/* 

Ihn l^hilq saiJ. "Ibn Shihah a/--2uhri tenoned Ihut he went to die 
encampments of the Kanudah where was a chief of theirs called Mulayh. He 
called I hem to believe in Allah and introduced himself, but they renounced 
him. He also weni to Rami 'Amir ihn &a*s.a'uh and called them to ybandnn 
idolatry and join him. One of them called Bayftaruh ibn Ftras sakl T 'By 
Allah, if I ctiuld fake this man from the Quraysh j would eat up the Arabs 
wjth him/ Then he asked him. If we give you allegiance and Allah gives 
you power over yoUr opponents, shall wc have authority after you?' The 
Prophet t pbuh I replied. Thr a hole affair He$ in Allafi's Hands and He manages 
it as He with.' The man commented, "Do you expect us to incur the w rath and 
vengeance of the Arabs for you and [hen if Allah gives you victory someone 
else wit I reap the benefit? We do not need to interfere/ and they refused to 
help him. 

Afterwards when BanU Amir returned home, they were accustomed lo 
t2Jve the news of the fairs to an old man of theirs who lingered behind 
because of his old age. They said him. 'A young man of (he Qnniysh. of 
Banu ' Abdul- MiuiLilih claims lh;it he is a Prophet. He contacted us and 



asked us to support, protect, and take him to our land/ The old man pui his 
hands upon his head and said* O Banil "Amir, could it have been regained! 
What a Joss of opportunity \ Nunc of the dependents of Isma 1! has ever 
claimed it (i.e. proplietliood ) falsely. It is the truth. Where was your 
common sense? 1 " 

^AhtUilJrih ibn Ka & reported that The Messenger of Allah fpbuh) wen) to 
the houses of Band JlanTtah. to call them to Allah and to introduce himself, 
foul none of the Arabs were as repulsive in their denial as they were, The 
Prophet (pbuhj k*pi on introducing himself to the tribes inviting them to 
believe ;n Allah and Warn, and whenever men came together a« the fairs or 
he heard of any of the notables coming to Makkah than he went to ihcm 
with hi* message. 

Suwayd ibn £amit of Sana l Amr ibn Awf, weni to Makkah for 
pilgrimage. When ihc Prophet (pbuhi heard about hm; he sought hi its out. to 
CiiJi luro to Islam, Suwayd said to the Prophei (poult), " Perhaps, yon have 
something like what l hdVe.'' "Am! what h that?* asked the Prophet tphuh). 
The scroll of Luqman/ (i.e. the wisdom of Laqmani. he answered- "Sfaw H 
to me" said the Prophet (pbuh), and he handed it over. The Prophet (pbuh> 
then said, "These are #**h1 ward,t arid what I have is better ilttm this, n Qur'cm 
thai Athik tht Afaiifthry few. sent down to uir. M tr a xmttmice and a tight" 
Then he (phtih} recited some verses from the Quran, and invited him to 
Islam The man did not refuse it but said. This is a fine speech." When he 
returned to bis people in Madman, he was soon killed by the Khazraj. Some 
of his people said T "We think thai he had been a Muslim when he was 
killed" . he was killed priur to the battle of Bu'ath. 

The An££r Embrace Islam 

When Allah ordained to give sovereignty to His religion, to strengthen 
Bis Prophet f pbuh). and to fulfil Hi* Promise to him, the Prophc? tpbuh? met 
a number of Madfnah residents (who were later known as ilie Ansarl at the 
season of pilgrimage- As usual he introduced himself to the Arab tribes 
when he met at AKAqahah' 1 ' a number of the Khattaj on whom Allah 
wanted lo besiow goodness. On asking tliem he knew that they were of the 



I A plncc tHHwewi Menfi and Miikluik 



KJ]jzrjj and allies of the Jews. He politely Invited them 10 sit wiih Mm ajid 
expounded to them Mam and recited the Qur'un to the in. A Huh had paved 
the way for Islam in thai ihcy were living adjacent 16 the Jews, who were 
from The People of ihe B<H>k and they hod knowledge, while they weie 
poly the isis. They had conquered ihem in their land. And, whenever there 
was any difference between the Two parties, the Jews used to say to them, 
"A Prophet who will be seni with a message is abmn to rise. We wilt follow 
him. and with him we wiJJ kill you as the people of Ad and 1mm were 
killed," So when the Messenger of A Huh fpbuh) talked 10 them about Islam. 
they said one to another. * I3ewarc h by Allah, ibis is (lie very Prophet with 
whom I lie Jews have threatened us; wherefore do not let ihem believe in 
him before you," Thereupon they accepted his preaching and became 
Muslims. «iying, "There is nit tribe that is so divided by hatred and rancor 
as our people are, and may Allah bring diem together through ynu. S>o let us 
go and invite iliem to this religion of yours" and if Allah unites them in it, no 
man will be mightier than you. n 

They teft the Prophet (pfauh} and went back to MadTnah believing in 
Islam They were si )t from the Krtazraj. as [ was iold Retching Madman, 
they to Id Their people about die Prop he ( (pbuh) calling them to embrace 
Islam until it became widely spread among them. There was no house 
he-kinging of die Ansar but Islam and the Prophet fpbuhi had been 
mentioned therein. 

The First Pledge of Al-"Aqabah 

The fallowing year, on the occasion of Ihe pilgrimage, there came a 
group of twelve of the Angar who met him sm AI-* Aqabah, This was the first 
Pledge of Ai- Aqabuh* where (hey gave the Prophet (pbuh) a pleilgc in the 
manner of the pledge of the women' h . That had been before fight was 
prescribed. Among those men were: As' ad ibn /tirarah. Raff ibn Malik. 
Ubiiikih ihnu&-&firnlt> and Abul-Hayihm ibn at-Tayvahan. MJh&dah 
jbnus-^amit reported, "1 auentled lie first pledge of AI- Aqabah. We were 
twelve men pledging ourselves to the Prophet ipbuhj in the manner oi ilie 
pledge of the women. Thai had been before fijht wus prescribed. Thus, we 
gave him our pledge that we will not associate anything in worship with 



I The pledjtc uftht w^Ttitn (cmk ^Emir^n the vvcimd ihy ufifir lhc Knji t>n Ai^nfa nwiinsjim aftqr 
he h h! Uihcn rtir pfwkc nt ittc nwrn 



<s> 



Alliitn itoii wc will rwi steal, that we will nut commit illegal sexual 
intercourse, that wc will nut kill our children, thai wc will not alter slander, 
intentionally forging falsehood, and that we will not disobey him in 
anything thai Islam ordains, {The Prophet (pfmh) said to \is t ) 'Whoever fulfils 
(this) wilt fitter Ptiftiiiut; attd wtumw catnmitx any ofrfww sifts, ir wW ha far Al- 
ttili. Glorified and ExtiUad be He, Wlttt miry puimh e/r faiyiw as He pte<i\e\, 

Ibn l^aq sard, "When those men left, ittc Prophet (pbuh) sent with (hem 
Mui' ah ibn "Umayr. the son of Hfjshiiri ibn *Ahd ManSr, charging him to 
show ihem how m recite ihe Qur'an, 10 teach ihem [slain, and to help rheni 
understand the doctrines of their religion. In Mad mall Mua'ab wav called 
"The Reciter" and he used to be their Imam in the prayers because the Aws 
and the KhaTfctj could not stand that they take the lead of one another. 

The Second Pledge of A1-* Aqabah 

During the pilgrimage season. Mug ab relumed to Makkah. along with 
the Muslim Ansilr who went to Makkah with their polytheist people to 
perform i he rituals of pilgrimage. They agreed to meet the Prophet l pbuh > at 
night in ihe mid of TmhrUf days (three days aiier the day of sacrifice) at a 
hillock at A\- Aqabah, when Allah willed to honor them, hcjp His Prophet 
<phuh). and to strengthen Islam. Ka b ihn Malik said. 

"We set out with the polyihefct pilgrims of our people, as we knew how 
to pray and perform ihe ritual* of the pilgrimage Al-Bar? ihn Ma'rur. our 
chief and master accompanied us. Travelling from Maiiinah. Al-Bura said. 
1 have an opinion which I do not know whether you wtJ] approve of it or 
not. I propose to not let this hail ding (the K a* bull) behind my back, so to 
face it in prayers/ We told him thai according to our informal ton the 
Prophet tphufo used to direct his face towards Syria in prayers, and we did 
not wan I to be ditto rem from him, H* said, 1 will offer prayer towards (he 
Ka'hah" We retorted. 'But we will not/ AM he time of prayers, we offered 
them towards Syria whereas he offered them towards the Kabalt until we 
reached Makkah. We blamed him lb* his deed, but he refused and struck lo 
his view. Arriving at Makkah, he said to me. '0 nephew, let u* go to the 
Prophet (pbuh* to ask him uhoul what I have been doing throughout our 
travel, for t feel liomc hesitation because you opposed me/ Thus we headed 

— <£>— 



for the Propiiet (pbuh), whom we did not know or see before We asked a 
man ofMakkuh about me Prophet (pbuh>. He asked if we knew him arid wc 
said. "No 1 . "Then do you know hi* uncle Al-V\bh3i ibn 'Abdul-Mutiylib'" he 
asked, Wc said 'Yes/ as he used to come to us as a merchant. He said. 
When you enter the Mosque he is the mart who is silling beside Al-' Abbiis.' 

Wc went to the Mosque where the Prophet (pbuh) was silting next 1o 
Al-' Abbas, The Prophet (pbuh) asked AK Abbas, 'Da v&t ktw iA«r two 
ttten, O Ahul-Fadt?' He said (hat he did and introduced us to him. t shall 
never forget the Prophet's word when my name was mentioned, The poetV 
Al-Bara 1 suid, *Q Prophet of Allah. I set out on ibis journey as a Muslim, for 
Allah has guided me io Islam, l felt that I eon Id not turn my back to This 
building (I he Ka'bahj, so ] offered prayers towards it; but when my 
companions differed with me I felt some doubt. What do you think, O 
Messenger of AUata?' He replied, 'You should have kept u» the \<*ri&tnat) qihfah? 
Ai-Bara' returned to the qibhit* of the Prophet (pbuht and offered prayer 
wiili IK towards Syria. Then we wem out to perform the pdg/image. having 
agreed with the Prophet (pbuh) to rneel him at Al-' Aqubah in the mid of the 
days of Tashriq. 

In our company was Abdullah ibn "Amr ibn Haram, who was a 
polythci&t chief and a notable in our people. We said to him. " You are one of 
our masters and notables and wc do not want thar you should serve as fuel 
for the fire in the future because of poJy theism, 1 Then we invited him to 
embrace Islam and told him about our intention to meet the Prophet i pbuh) 
at AJ-'Aqabab, Immediately he became a Muslim, witnessed AKAqabah 
wilh us. being a Nmftb (leader). 

We slept that very night among our people in ihe camps until when a 
third of die night had elapsed; wc left stealthily to our appointment with the 
Prophet t pbuh t as fiir us the gully nearby AU Aqubah We were 
seventy -three men. and two women* Nusayhah. the daughter of Ka b and 
A$mu\ the daughter of "Amr' 1 ', Wc gathered together waiting for the 
Messenger of Allah (phuhj who came in the company of his uncle 
AU'Ahbis ibn ' Abdul-Muiiahb, who was still a polytheist, bin he came to 
corroborate him. Ik was the first to speak: 

U Um ^tm\ *aiJ- TJw Ptuptwi tphuh) *hd rm ihuic hirod* with vuHiien, ft«i he tnnk their plntjtc 
and wlhsrt Ukv itdmiubJ ii„ be said, '&}. I Aatr miwpitd xxmrphi^ " 



h O you people of Khazraj - the Arabs used to call the people of this area 
'die Khazraj', whether I hey were from I he Khazraj or the Aws ■ you all know 
the position chat Muhammad holds among us. We have prolecied him from 
our people as much as we could. He lives in honor and .safety among his 
people. He has chosen to join you, so if you think you can adhere to your 
promise to him. and if you ran protect him iron; hi^ enemies, then assume 
the burden that you have undertaken. However, if you arc going lo 
relinquish and betray him after his joining you, it is better to leave him now, 
for he is safe where he is,' 

We replied. 'We have heard your words, You speak, O Messenger of 
Allah, and take our pledge for yourself and for your Lord as you wish/ The 
Messenger of Allah (phuh) started speaking. He recited from the Qur'an. 
called litem to worship Allah, and urged thetu to .stick to Islam, and then 
said. 7 lake ytwr pledge that vtfu debar me from >vha\ever vqu debar wur women 
am! children fnnn' AI-Bar.V took his hand and said. Oh yes. we swear by 
Allah, Who has sent you as a Prophet widi Truth, Lhat we will debar you 
from whuievei we dehar ourselves tor our women) from. Trust ux p Q 
Messenger of Allah. By Allah, we are true fighters and quite reliable in war; 
it is a characteristic which we inherited from our forefathers.' Then 
Abul-Haythum ibn at-Tayyalulu interrupted saying., 'O Messenger of AH&h, 
wc have tie;; with other men (he meant the Jews), and we are going to sever 
them. !J\ when we have done lhat and Allah grants you power and victory, 
should we expect that you then return to your people and leave us?' The 
Prophel (pbuh) smiled and said t •fiwij hbrod will he my hiot/d. and my grave tuut 
home will he where yours will be, You ore from me and I am from you. / ytiilljlghf 
whtmtever you fight until wilt nwke peace teiih whomever xi/ti make petitre with. ' 

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) also said to them. 'Gel me. twelve leaders 
front ttmtfng yoit to take t:harge of their people's affair?.' They appointed nine 
leaders from the Khamij and three from ll>e Aws. m 



\, "liir (oiler* of Hie Kharr;tj vteat: At Jd ihn frirfrnh. Sad ihmir-Rjhr H Abdullah \ht\ Riiuofah, 
K^ilr ihn Mtlltfc. AJ-Biiri ibn Ms riir, Abdul (ah ihn Amr ihci tjjrani. and l:bjdjh ltinua-SJimii 
Aifnnht leaden uj tfic Anr.i. ihey wens. V<*xd ihn £Jlh1ivi. Sfi d thn Hhjvihufiuh, jrnt Kifii'Jh 
ihfuil-Mumlittr Ihfl Hlktito *otd lhat tJmlat^ totttll Abu I Hini>1 hniti (hn .v-Trtj\ahjin ai «irar pf 
them Jilld dii nut t'OtittL RitS all m tmc of tficm 



<&> 



Al-BarS' was the fm m shake hands with the Prophei tpbuhl aad the 
people followed him. When wc all hud given our pledge, Saian yelled from 
Lfee top of AJ-'Aqaoah in the most piercing voice I have ever heard, U 
people of (he slat ion (of Mma^. do you win I this miscreant and renegades 
whrt tire wirh him und who huvc gathered to wage war against you? The 
Prophet l p bub) said. This i%tfw A^ihh of A^Aqalmh. Tki\ ix tkr xart of Azytib* u 
Then he (phuh) said, 'Gate wur camps' 

AJ-'AbbAs ibn 'Uh&dah said. "By Allah, if you wish, we wif! fight tin; 
people of Mina tomorrow with our sword^ He retorted, 'We have not l*et>n 
ontumtH it* do so, so go bark to your ctitnpn/ So we returned to our beds und 
slept until the morning. 

The chiefs of Quraysh came in the morning to our dwellings and said, 'O 
people of Kha/raj, we have been informed that you canic to lake 
Muhammad from within us in order 10 make a pledge with him. to fight 
against us, By Allah, there is none of the Arab:* whom wc hale to be at war 
with more than you!' Ai onee, polytheisLs of our people emerged swearing 
that nothing ol that had happened They were I me For they knew nothing 
about it. We looked at each other. 

The people left Mina and they carefully investigated the information and 
fuumi it to be true. Thus, thiiy went on pursuing any of our people so mey 
reached Sa*d ibn Ubadah at Adhakhir as well as Al-Mundhir ihn 'Anir, 
who were both anions the leaders. Al-Mundhir ibn ' Amr managed to escape 
while they caught Sad, binding his hands and neck with ihongs q# hi^ girth, 
bringing him back to Makkah, hollering him on the way. and dragging him 
by the hair. as be has thick hair. Sa'd reported. As [ was in their hands, a 
group of lie Quraysh appeared, anti among mem was a tall, white, and 
handsome man of plca^m appearance. I told myself thai if there were any 
good among them it would come from this man. Yet. when he approached 
he gave me a violent blow on the face, after which I lost hope in any good, 
WhiJc I hey were dragpng n>e along, a man was moved witlipityonme and 
said. Do you not have any right to proiceiion from any of the QuraysEr'' 
'Yes." i said, i use J lu secure the commerce of the merchants of Jubayr ibn 
Mui'im ibn 'Adiyy and Al-Harith ibn Barb ibn Umayyah ibn And Shams, 



r A i tttmc nf Si iJevil 



protecting them from any harm that they might be exposed lo in my land/ 
Good, then, cry out their names stowing ties between you/ be said. 1 did so 
and thai very man went to them telling them thai ] was being beaten, calling 
I heir names for protection and mentioning their ties. When they knew thai [ 
wa.% the person, they acknowledged the truth of my el aim and came and 
saved me/ So Sa'd was released/' 

Conditions of the Last Pledge of Al- 4 Aqabah 

'Hie pledge of figruing took place when ihe Propliet (pbuh) received 
from Allah permission to Tight, which was comprised of conditions thai was 
nor found in the first pledge of A 1-" Aqabah. Thus rhcy gave a pledge to fight 
against all sorts of people in the way of Allah and His Messenger* and be 
iphuh) promised iIkjsC who were faithful lo be rewarded with Paradise. 
'Ubadah ibnus^amil said, "We gave a pledge to Ihe Prophet (pbuh) that we 
would listen and obey in time* of plenty as we Q as in scarcity, under likable 
and dislikabtc circumstance s T and thai we would not prefer ourselves to the 
other Muslims, and that we would cot disagree with those who are in 
authority, and that wc would speak ihe truth wherever we are, and that we 
would never fear of ihe blame of the hiamers." 

The Ordinance of Fighting 

Prior ro the pledge of AK Aqabah, the Prophet (phuhl was not allowed 
to fight nor shed blood. He was commanded merely to propagate lite 
message of Allah, to endure harassment, and to forgive the ignorant. The 
Quraysh were persecuting the Muslims, seducing same from their religion, 
and exiling others from their land- Some migrated lo Abyssinia, white 
others lo MadTnah. Ai this point t the Quraysh had become insolent and 
disrespectful towards Allah, belying His prapheu torturing and exiling 
whosoever worshiped Him, believed in His Oneness, in His Prophet, and 
clung to His religion. AJIah commanded His Prophet (pbuh) to fight and lo 
protect himself against those who wronged and ill-treated ihem, Tlie first 
verse revealed on this issue, as "Urwah ibnuz-Zubayr and other scholars 
reported, was: 



iPtmhswn m fight is given to thai? (U. btlm-ers uxuinst dis- 

twtievers), who are fighting than, toad} because /hey (IwUrvcnj have 

been wronged, ami mreiy, Allah is Abie to give them (believers) victory; 

T/titse who iuive been expelled from their homes uttwith justice only be- 

muse they stud; 'Our bnrd it Allah: * Far had it not been (hat Attoh 

checks me stt of jreoptr by meant of another, monasteries, chunrhes. 

synagogues, attd masques, wherein fhn Name of AlUth is mentioned 

mtwh would surety /hiw been palled ihwn. Verily. Allah will help those 

WHO help Hi* (Cm*), Trrdy, Allah is AH-Strms* All-Mighty Those 

f Muslim ntters) who, if We give then* fHnmr in dte land (they) Order for 

h}imuita5'Saldf [ \ to pa\ the Zakist and the? enjoui AliWa'ruf l \ and 

forbid At^twika^. And with Allah rests the end **f udll matters U*f 
i 
f 



creatures*. * 



(Al-H^jj: 39-41) 
7 hat is to say, 1 have flowed ihem to fiuhl only because they were treated 
unwiih justice while -they offended no one, and thac if they are given power, 
(hey wjII perform prayers perfectly, pay Ziikah. enjoin the good, and forbid 
the wmng t i.e. the Prophet fphulu and his Companions, may Allah be 
pleased with them all. 

Afterwards. Allah sent down, 

* And fight them ttntd there is no more Fxtnah f disbelief and polythi-iw: 
i.e. worshipping others besides Allah} emd the region (worship) wilt nil 
he far Adah Alone {at tha whtdtt of the world}, L 

( AI^Anfal: 39) 



1 i c. u> pwf wm iJjc fi * compniiKf \ iirjjn i is cuinjftc| alum \ i lit jnalw, in ii*teqtie*i. 
2i [c. liiamk MotinOimm juuJ j|J (tan Mum onivn wit to tb 

i ( -diVKfiwii, jwiijifcriun ami all thua Mam Fia* [Whtfricni h^. ihcy make tfic QurViiY j> ilw In* 
at iljeir itmtary id nil iht iftatia ui UfcJ, 



Muslims Permitted to Emigrate to Madinah 

When Allah gave permission to tight and ihose Anskr of Madinah had 
given a pledge to support and help the Prophet jpbuh) arid the Muslims in 
the cause ol' Allah, ihc Prophet ipbithj ordered his Companions, the 
emigrant of his people, and ihc Muslims living with him in Makkuh. to 
emigrate to Madinah and join their brethren, the An&fir. He tphuhl said, "Al- 
lah. Glorified and Exulted he Ue. lurs nuute for yott hmihers and residence with 
which yttu fed secure . H1 Hence they went oui in group*, whereas the Prophet 
(pbiih) remained in Makkah waiting for his Lord's pcrmLssLuii to leave 
Miikkah for Madinah. 

The Emigrants to Madinah 

ITie firs! to emigrate to Madinah of the Prophet's (phahi Companions 
from i he Quraysh from Banu Makhiotu was Abu Sal amah ibn Abdcl-Asad. 
Thai was a year before the second pledge of AI-VAqubalh after returning 
fmm Abyssinia to slay with >be Messenger in Makkah. He was ill-treated by 
the Quray&h at ihc time when he knew about those of Madinah who had 
embraced [slum, so he headed for Madinah, 

Ab Salamah was first followed by Amu- ibn RabJah With his wife 
Layt a. the daughter of Abu Hathmah, Then Abdullah ibn Jajish emigrated 
along with his family and his brother ' Abd, who was known as Abu Ahmad. 
Abu Ahmad was a blind poci. and he used to tour Mukkah from top to 
bottom without anyone to lead him, Then "Uimir ibnul-KJiauiib emigrated 
and ' Ayy2sh ihn Ah? Rabfah al-MakhzOmi and many succeeded them. 

The Prophet (pbuh) Emigrates to Madinah 

After his Companions had departed, the Prophet (pbuh) remained in 
Makkah watting for Allah's command to let him emigrate. Only Abu Bakr 



and At. of ihc Prophet (pbllW Compamons remained, while all denied 
except ftp* .mprisoned and those who httd hc ,. n cap|iv|lt , d ^835 
Imwwr, drg.ng ilie Pwphcl tpbuh) to permit him It) emigre hui he would 

X ""i **g "; " *"">■ » *• * """ **«* ** w* « <™^ wo „^ Vffl ,» 

At™ Butr wished ihai it would be the Prophet himself. 

H became dear to .he Quraysh lhut lte p,^, (pbu[)| M ^ 

companions nol just outside their Iribe but outside their land. Funhennore 
.he Quniysb were wnmed ah( , ul „* emigTa , i( , n of bis companions to join 
.hem. who had titled m . nC w homeland under the protection of the An* 
so they cared that the Pmphei , P b„h) would join them, and they knew that' 
be wou d ugh, mem. They gather in Dor <m-N a <t wa ),. a"l,ousc .ha 
bctonged to Qu S ayy ibn Kilab. where they used ,o Inalie ^^ dedsions 
concerning their affairs. They gathered to discuss how to lake effective s«ps 
agamsi tire Prophet tpbuh). who had constituted a real threat for them. 

u ,*" . Ahb * s f Bpon,r(l - "'" *» ™™ng of tbe day tfmmm (crowd) 
which they had agreed to mcel in ,„ lak e „ deeisioi , abou , ^ p 

iphuh), Satan came 10 then, in the farm of a handsome old sheikh wear, no a 
mantle fending at the door. He introduced himself as a man front N.jd 
curious enough .0 attend the meeting, listen .0 the debate, and wish them 
success to reach a sound opinion. He was invited to enter and .here he found 
the leaders of the Quraysh. 

The debate began with the statement lhat Muhammad, having gained 
supporters outside ,he tribe, might take them with a sudden attack so the 
mectrng was ,0 determine Ihc best course to deal with him. One prom.scd 
that they should pu, him m irons behind bars in await death meeting .he 
same fate as mat of, he gone poc.s who were like h,m. such as Zuhavr and 
An-Nabrghah, and others. The sheikh objured 10 this proposal churning tha. 
news of his imprisonment would reach his adherents, who at once would 
attack them and draw him out; ihen .heir numbers would con.inue ,0 
increase putting an end to the sovereignly of the Quraysh. Thev ough, ,0 
tank «rf another plan. Another pen.™ »dv 15cd exile, (bus forgoing about 
lum bemgout of S1 gh, and they would he rid of h,m. Likewise, they could 
regain iteur social affair ,<, their previous state. The sheikh disapproved of 
that plan too. He said that the Prophet (pbuhl enjoyed sweet speed,, logical 



<*D- 



reason, and hcarMouchmg manage, and thai if be resided with some 
13 c doom iribe he would win I hem over so thai they would follow him Then 
he would entice them to attack the Quravsh in their land. *cize power from 
them, and finally he would be able to do what he liked with them, They 
should reihinfc the maucr. 

Al this point Abu Jahl came up with a plan which had nos been 
suggested before that. He said thai a band &f young, powerful, well -bom 
men. one From each iribe. .should strike Muhammad simultaneously with 
their sharp swords and kill him so thai die responsibility of the blood- money 
would lie upon all die dans. Banu A hi Manaf would not be able lo flghl 
them all and would have io accept whatever amount of blood-money 
provided by (hem all. The .sheikh affirmed. "He is right. Tliis opinion is the 
only one to follow." Reaching a decision, tht; attendees broke up tlie 
meeting with full determination tor immediate implementation. 

Then Jibiil was *ent to the Prophet (pruih), "Do not sleep tonight in your 
usual bed." When it became dark, I hey gathered at his door in vigil waiting 
for the moment on which he would go to sleep so that they might fall upon 
him. When ihe Prophet (pbuhi observed what was being carried out he said 
la* AIT. 

"Steep m my bed. and caver yoimeif nr//i my strrcn fiadrami ntantte. 
£/.w it Si-fien sleeping attd they nvll not be able to do anything d'tstikuble 
to ytm. " 

The Prophet tpbuh) himself used to cover himself in that mantle lo sleep. 

According to Muhammad ibn Ka~b al-Qura^T, "When ihcy all stood at 
lite door. Abu Jahl said. 'Muhammad claims thai if you follow him, you will 
be kings over Ihe Arabs and the non- Arabs, so when you arc to be 
resurrected after your death. Gardens, similar to those in Jordan, will be 
made for you (as a reward), and in case you do noi follow him you svilt be 
slaughtered, and after death a fire will be made for you to be burnt 
therewith: 

The Messenger of Allah (pbuta) came our of the room with a handful of 
dust saying. 'Ida xav That. Voit are one qftfoetn.' Then Allah made them not sec 
him. The Prophet (pbuhi began to cast ihe dust on their heads while reciting 
the verses i starting wjth). 



♦' YuShi By ihe Qur'ath fttti of wisdom ilt, fiiit ft/laws, evidences, and 

prmtfsL. 4 

to the verse* 

i Ami We j mv pm () faufrr hefot* them, ami a barrier brhtrul them, 
and W t > have rmvw/ thrm tip, ™ rW thy wmm sec. \ 

(Ykan: U9) 

Finishing his recitation, all me* had dust on their heads. Then he 
managed his way out. 

Someone who was not among the group, asked them what they were 
waiting for there. They replied that they were waiting for Muhammad The 
man said, "May Allah turn you down] Muhammad came out, pin dust tin the 
head of each of you, and then headed for his own affairs. Do you not see 
what has occurred to you? 1 Every one of them pul his hand on his hear] and 
&ll the dust on it Then they looked titsujc to find l AK in hl.s hed covered 
with the Prophet fphuh) mantle, They said, "By Allah, it is Muhammad 
wrapped with his mantle/ Hence they stayed in their place. In the morning. 
'Air woke up from the bed, Only Then they recognised that the man spoke 
the iruuV 

Jhn fsliaq said, "AM Bakr was a weaJlhy man of means. When he asked 
the Prophet's permission for him 10 emigrate, he (phuh) answered -Dotwtbe 
fcurv: maybe Allah wilt grant yw a vtmpamon: Abu Bakr wished that the 
Prophci tphuh) meant himself. He got two camels, and tied them up in his 
house feeding them with fodder making them ready for travel" 

'A'ishah (may Allah he pleased with her) said. "The Messenger of Allah 
usually visiicd Ahu Baler's house every day cither in the early 
morning or evening. However, on the day when he got permission for 
emigration from Makkah, he visited us at noon, a time at which fie was not 
used to come, When he saw him, Ahu Bakr knew that something had 
happened. Ahu Bakr gave him his scat. Only I and my sister Asma" were 
home, The Prophet fphuh) told him to let go whoever was in the house. 
These are my two daughters and they will do nothing. I ransom vol with 
my father and my mother/ said Ahfj Bakr. 'Allah has permittai me to teav? <»xd 



iiiui>ruiL\ he (pbuftj said. 'May I accompany you. Messenger of AIiah7 
asked Abu Bakr. Yes,* he (nbuhi replied By Allah, prior to mat day I bad 
never seen anyone weeping Tor joy as did AbQ Uakr then. He said. "0 
Prophet of Allah, ihese are ihe two camete thai I have prepared for [his 
■ minion)/ They hired ~Ahdullah ibn Arqal, a poly the tst. 10 show Lhem the 

way. as iluy gave him Iheir iwo camels to feed uniit the aligned date," 

According to Ibn Isjpo,. no One knew the esact lime ai which the Prophet 
(pbuhj emigrated except * AH, Abu Bakr, nnd tiis* family. The Prophet (pbuh \ 
laid *A1? about his emi^raiion commanding him to stay behind in Malik ah to 
restore deposits which men had em rusted widi Llie Prophel f phuh). since in 
Makkah whoever had something he reared about losing it had deposited it 
with the prophet ipmih). For ha was known for his trustworthiness. 

When the Prophel (pbub.) took the decision to depart, he went to Abu 
Bakr and the two of them left by a small gate ai the rear of the house 
heading for a cave on a mountain below Makkah called Thuwr, AbQ Bakr 
ordered his son 'Abdullah lo lend an ear In the people's sayings no us to 
report them by night with the day's news. He also commanded his mawhl 
Amir ibn Fu hay rah. to graze his Mock by day and to bring them in by the 
evening in ihe eave. Asm?, his daughter used to go to them at night with 
food, 1 '* 

They spent three days in the cave. Unable to reach the Prophel (pbuhl, 
the Quraysh offered a hundred she-cameJs as reward for whoever would 
scire him. ThroughouL ihe day 'Abdullah listened lo Iheir conspiracies and 
sayings concerning the Messenger uf Alton tpbuh] and would report lo (hem 
at night, Amir used lo grazr his f!6ck with the shepherds of Makkah until 
nicht fell and would (hen go to the cave where they drank their milk and 
slew some. In the morning, when * Abdul l&i left ibem to return to Makkah. 
VXniir would let the sheep walk over the same paih lo cover his traces, After 
three day* parsed, when mens interest waned, the man whom they had 
hired came with iheir camels and his. They look with them the food 
provisions that Asma\ ihe daughter of Ahu Bakr. had brought and tied in a 



I JN Ifiihaffi >au\ dccvMtltag-k) Al^wm ul-Ritiri> I hat »him (he Pmphel <ptaM and Abu ftnlr 
reached IrtP ovif Jt iiijjjii, flin latlw entail U fitM In find iWl wheljicr \\ mflrc-.ilcti any wlid an 
imali ui siiiiic*. lo prulm ihe Priijdici ifbuto wih tii *j«h life. 



bundle at her waiMband, after tearing it \m two puts, hence she was 
named 'She of the two waistbands*.* 1 * 

Biingin e two camel* AN Bakr g^e the Prophet <phuh) the belter one to 
nde, bill he refused to do so. since the camei was not his. Abu Bakr 
dedicated it to liim hut he f farcied io> pay its price and boughi ii iron* him 
against the *ame price that Abu Bakr had paid for it. They mdc off. and Abu 
Bakr took 'Amir with him to serve them in their way. 

Asma' said, "When the Messenger of AJJah (pbuh) and Abu Bakr had 
depaned, Abu Jahi with a group of the Qurayrfi Mood at our door. When \ 
met thttJU they asked "Where is your father. O daughter of AM Bakr? - When 
I said that T did not know, Abu JahL who was u raugb wicked man. slapped 
my face so severelv that my earring broke. Then tbev left. We spent three 
nighis without nc*s about (he Prciph^i ipbuh) ami) a" man of the Jmn came 
from southern Makkah chaining some verses of Arab pocmv Yet people 
were following him to linen to his voice without seeing him, until he 
appeared from the norton pan of Makkah singing (wbat means): 

'May Aliah, (lie Lord uf men + give the best of his rewards m the two 
companion* who rented in the two tents of limm Me'bid'* They came with 
good intent and went off at nightfall May Muhammad's companion 
prosper! May the place of Barm Ka'b's woman bring them luck, for she was 
a look -out for the believers; 

When we heard his words we knew that the Prophei (phuhl was directed 
to Mudinah." 

Surftjuh ibn Malik ibu Jusham said, "When Hie Prophet (pbuh) 
emigrated from Makkah to Madinah, the Quraysh offered a reward of a 
hundred camels to anyone who would seize him! While J was silling in my 
people's assembly ope of our men approached and stopped by us saying. By 

I \bn HuliAin ^ia, -| hiMftJ m4>re thiin onr wrhotat atiiWninfc lliij ippcilutiHi u. Hiui w!k-i, ^ 
2h !j l *™ n ° n iht ** M, ' ? ' 0ra ^ *'""* h ™* " S ' nK ^ P 1 *** ui a rape ami l!w teller ^ 4 

1 The r™ of Limni Mu hnJw^Aait^tlkrdBughterof KMlie. ShebelMt^J m Bui* Kah 7*c 
H.^ (,,h U h(, Abu ttuJcr, Amu iba FwHutf*. znd 'Abdult,3h itui Anjiii * e m to term buy fmm 
Ikt liiitei ur m«t. hut found n(Mhm fl wirii b« The Pfopfedi ( pbuh* foniRl * * tll)l ^^ „, fhc „^ 
riff ol ihc len* ^,ch OhI mrt irqlk. w, he ^tuttxJ h» , u ,^1, Lk Ulidffll 7^ ^ „, jfk 
flu w*d 1mm f hem. Then Uimtt Ma" bid emhisred I $■ \am 



Allah. I have jusi seen three riders passing by. J believe they were 
Muhammad and his Companions." | winked to him to keep silent and said. 
They are the \o-und-so people searching lor (heir lost camel." 'Maybe." he 
said and siayed silem. f spent a short while with ihem; afterwards 1 went 
home, prepared my horse which was tethered in the bottom of the vaJtey, 
and took my weapon* from ihe back of if* room. Having put on my suit of 
armor. I went out with my azlam to crust them. When I did. I got the result 
which T hated; the arrow with. "Hl* will nm he hurl'. 1 wished 10 catch and 
return him to the Quraysh so that I might be re wanted with the hundred 
camels. 

1 rode (o chase him, While my horse was running swiftly, he snimhlcd 
and I fell to (he ground. 1 resorted to the azfnm again but came the same 
result which I hated, lie will not be hurt'. However, I insisted on continuing 
in my pursuit. The same happened again: my horse stumbled, and I fell la 
the ground- I tried the arrows and the arrow which J hated came out once 
more, T jumped onto the saddle and galloped at break- neck speed tdl I came 
quite close (o the Prophet fpbuh}. Stumbling again, the forelegs of my horse 
delved into the ground and fell down. As its legs were getting out of the 
ground* a smoke aro*e like a sinndsiorm At this moment i realized lhat he 
was protected and would he victorious, 1 approached them introducing 
myself, and asked mem to watt for me, as I would not harm them, The 
Messenger fpbuhf told Abu Bakr lo ask mc what 1 wanted from them and t 
answered. Write a doeuitt#i|1 as a U'ken between you (Muhwpiijgi) and njjt ' 
The Prophet (pbuh) ordered Abu Bakr io do so, 

He wrote it on a bone, or parchment or a potsherd and hurled it to me. I 
kept it in my quiver and returned. No one knew about ihe whole affair until 
when the Prophet I pbuh > entered Makkab. and alter the battles of Ai-IS'if 
and JJunayn, 1 met him in Al-Jfrfuuik and die document was wiih me. I 
went through a baltalion of the Ansir cavalry who began to cast me with 
(heir spears saying. Go back, what do you want ? However. 1 went close to 
ihe Prophet (pbuh) who was riding his camel , as his shank in his stirrup for 
mc was like the irunk of a palm-tree. J raised my hand with the document, 
reminding hint about it and mentioned my name. He said, 'ft ft a day of re- 
payment wui vharitablmtss. Let kirn totne das*.* I approached him and 
embraced Islam. Then I remembered a question for him to ask. J said, 'O 



-C5E) 



Messenger of Allah, lost camel* ibcd to drink from my cistern which t 
made for my own camel*. Shall J he rewarded for Jetting ,hcm drink- > m ■ 
he said, fw (shins „ dnnk u H «mt* ihimy Ihi^ fwfo there i S a reward ' Then 
T returned to my people and brought my chanty to ihc PropheJ < p buhi.* 

«bn l^aq said thai the route of rheir journey was as follows with the 
mmrn of "Abdullah ibn Arnai; carting from briow Makkah: along ihc 
shore until crossing Ihe raid below *Usfan; then below Amaj; after p&ss&£ 
Qudayd by Way of AhKharrar Iben Liqf. Then rhev passed Madlaja Laqf 
down to Madbjac Mahaj, then Maijf M*p down to Marjih from 
Dhul-Ghuuawayn. then rhe valley of Dim Kashr, then ANadajkl, then 
Al^Ajrad. Then they went ihrough Dhfj Salam from The vaJIry of A'du' 
Madia jat Tr ihn. Then they passed by A1-' AhUMd. then AI-FAjjah- 

Ibn tfohlrn said, "After that they went down to Ai-'Arj, As one of their 
mounts having dropped behind, a man of the Aslam, Aws jbn HainW'. took 
the Prophet (pbuh> to Madfnah on a camel of Ms called Ibnur-Rjda' ending 
with him a servant named MiuTOd ihn Hwiaydah. From Ak-'Arj their guide 
rode them 10 ThaiiyyamK A'ir ri^ht of Rakiihah down to (he vailey of Rim 
and from there to Qu&3' to Banu Anir ibn 'Awf on Mo'nday p 
FUbf uhAwwal at high forenoon 

At Qjib4 f 

'Abdur-RtUiman ihn "■Uwaymir ibn SSTkbh said, "Men of my people 
who were Companions of the Prophet's (pbirfi) said to me, "When we knew 
about the Prophets departure from Makkah, we were eagerly awaiting his 
arrival After the Rrjr prayers, we used to wait for him outside our [and. By 
Allah, we did not leave the place until no more shade was left so we used o, 
return to our tend; thai was in ihc hot season. On the dav of ihc Prophet 1 * 
arrival, we sat as usual until mere was no more shade and then we entered 
our houses. Afterwards, the Prophet fpbuh) arrived. A Jew was the first 
person to see him. He knew about our habit of waiting for the Prophet 
ipbuhi to arrive. He yelled out at the top of his voice O Bam] Quvlah. your 



I Thii Awj. Wu a Conijunum and Ik « a , wi Aw*. ite pt-liianuc put 



luck has cornel 1 We went out to the Prophet ipbult) who was in the shadow 
of a palm-tree with Abu Bakr who was of the same age. Till then most of us 
had never seen the Prophet (phuti)- Crowds surrounded him without 
knowing him from Abu Bakr We knew him onty when the shade 
disappeared and Abu Bakr got up and shielded him with hit. mantle from the 
sun hem H 

Ibn is]]Jiq said "The Prophet fpbuhh stayed with Kulthum ibn Hidiru 
while oihei> claim that he stayed with Sa'd ihn K hay t ham ah. Those of the 
first view said that he used \o leave Kulthum to meet with the men in Sard's 
house, who was a bachelor, lodging the Prophet's (pbuh) Companions of the 
emigrants who were also bachelors. Abu Bakr resided with Jdubuyb ibn Is3f. 
One said dial he slaved with Kharijah ibn Zayd 

"AM ihn Ahi X&ib stayed in Makkah Tor three days and nights until he 
relumed the deposits which the Prophet iphuhi had heen entrusted with. 
Then, he joined the Prophet t pbuh) and lived with him at Kuliruim's house. 
The Prophet fpbuht remained in Quba" among Bantt Amr ibn *Awf from 
Monday to Thursday ;ts he established the foundation of his mosque. 

In Madinah 

The prophet (phuhi left Quba J on Friday, as he offered the Friday prayer 
among Banu Salim ibn Awf in the mosque at the bottom of the valley of 
Ran una', It was the first Friday prayer that he performed in Madinah. 

'kban ibn Mfi.lik and "Abbas ibn "Uhadah ibn NadJah with sonic of Banu 
Salim ihn 'Awf came to the Prophet I pbuh* and said. "G Messenger of 
Allah, abule by us ." lie replied, "Lei it (the xh<?-£timeh siep forward freely, for it 
is cammtmded ihy Altafti." They did 90, and when it reached the home of 
Bantl Bayada. he was received by Ziyad ibn Lubayd and Farwah ibn " Amr 
with others of their tribesmen. They invited him but his answer was the 
same .is heiorc. Trie camel continued with its slackened rein to BanQ 
SaVtdah where Sad ibn MJMdah and Al-Mundhir ibn ^Amr lofd him the 
same thing and he gave them the same reply. The whole thing was repeated 
by Sa'd ibnur-Rabf. Kharijah ibn Zityd, and * Abdullah ihn Rawajuih with 
some men of Banu AHlarith ibnulKhazraj. This was also repeated with 



(my 



m m Qay\ Abu &ili] Usayrah tbn Abi Kharijah with some men of Banu 
Adtyy ibnun-Naijar. whn were the Prophet's closest maternal relative at 
the morlicr of 'Abdul-Muiialifr, Salma. the daughter of "Amr, was one of 
their women. 

At last the flic-came) stopped at the house of BanG Malii ibnun-Najjar 
as n knelt m the sue of his future mosque, which was then used as a 
m$Brm* for dates. The land was owned by two orphans of Band 
Al-NajjSr of Banu Malik elan, who were under the guardianship of \Iu adh 
ihn 'A&i*, Sabl and SuhayL the sons of Amr. He did not dismount until it 
arose mijun. went forward, turned back and then returned to kneel down m 
Us ronuer spot It shook and strclehcd itself on the ground The Prophet 
<pbuh) aliened and Abu AyyOh Khaiid ibn Zavd carried his luggyge into his 
own house and the Prophet f.pfeuh) stayed with rum. He (pbuh) asked about 
the owners of the drying-place of dates, "h is owned by Sahl and Suhayl 
the sons of Amr," said Muadb ibn AtraV "and drcy are orphans in my 
care; 1 can pay litem for it, so you can build a mosque on it." 

The Prophet (pbuhj ordeted that a mosque should be built, and he Jived 
with Abu AyyOb until his mosque and residencv were finished. The Prophet 
ipbuhi worked with the Muslims in the cons irucr ion to urge them to work. 

The Muhujirun and the AflftAr toiled hard. While building, they recited 
verses in the meter: they nvean. 

There is no life but that of the next world 

O Allah, haw mercy on the Ansjir and the Muhajirun. 

"Hie Prophet (pbub) also said. 

There \s no life but that of the nest world. O Allah, have mercy on the 
Mubajirun and the Ansjjr, 

The Prophel (phtih) stayed with AbO AyyGb until his mosque and 
residency were completed: then he went to his new home. AbO Avyflb 
reported, "When the Prophet tpbuh) came to reside with me in my dwelling, 
he occupied the gwund Hoot, white I and rjmm Avyflb (Abu AvvuhV wife} 
were above. 1 said ro him, "O Prophet of Allah, f ransom you with my father 
and mother, and I hale to reside above you. So come up and Jet us exchange 
places. 1 He answered, 



'O Aht'i Ayyub. it is more favorable for ttw ntul my visitors thtu kvv he 
ito*mtairs< " 

Hence we stayed where we were. A jar of our*, which was filled with 
wilier, whs broken one day. Umm Ayyflb and J mopped up the water with 
our only garment for u*c. as we feared thai, water would drop on tl ic Prophet 
tphulmfmn awioyinj; him. 

We used to prepare and send hi> dinner to him, When he re lurried ihe 
leftover, Umm Ayyflb and t used 10 trace the place where his hand had 
reached to eat from it hoping to gain a blessing. One night we sent him 
onions or garlic, but the Prophet (phuh) re turned ii without any indication of 
his hand in it. 1 rushed to him [oiling htm of our habit ant! wondering why 
thai time the traces of his hand were not seen. He said that it was hceause of 
the smell of the vegetables, as he should speak to people, and he said thai 
we might eat them. We did. but never sent him those vegetables again." 

Ibn Ishaq said that the Mufoajirun joined the Prophci {pbuh) one after the 
other. None remained in Makkali except ihose who had been captivated or 
imprisoned. Entire households with their possessions did not come together 
except: Banfi Mazun from Banft Jumaij; Bnnfl JaJish ibn Ri ah 4 die allies of 
Banu tjmayyab; and Banu Bukuyr from BanD Sa'd ibn Luyth, the allies of 
Band * Adiyy ibn KiTb. Beeause ul' emigration, their houses in Mukkah were 
shut up and resided by no one. 



~— -urn 



Speeches and Pacts in Madinah 

The Prophet's {phuhl mosque and residency in MatUnah took from the 
tnunih of Rabrul-Awwal to the month of iJafur of the following year lo be 
built. Aiinojit all the Anjjiir embraced fslam with the exception lo KhiJimah, 
Waqif, Wail, and Utnuyyab who were from the AwsuUah, a clan of the 
Aws: these remained poly the ist. 

The fuxi speech whieli the Prophet delivered, a* reported on the 
authority of AbQ Salamah ibn " Abikr- Rahmans was as follows. He (pbuh) 
thanked and praised AJlah with suitable words and said. 

"Aftm 1 then, pntple. advance igaod wnrix) far yourselves, Yatt know, 
by Allah, one of you may be stricken leaving his flt/ck withtotf a shep- 
herd, Jlxen Allah will ask ban. with na inteqtreter or curiam that may 
veil him frnm Him, 'Did Mv Messenger not tome to vou and inform you 
iMy Message}, and did t not besta* an you prfipmy and graces* So. 
wtittt hair vttfi advanced fat yaimetf?' Then he wilt turn right and left 
ami see nothing, then he wdf look ahead and see nothing hut licit. 
Whoever can protect his face from the HeU-Fire even with half a date, 
let him da sa; whoever does not find ftbix, or anything at at!) then iict 
him do tit with a &wd wont; for with if Uhe gwtd ward} a goo*! deed is 
rewarded tenfold up to the dtmble of seven hundredfold* Peace and Al- 
lah x ihetey and blessings be upon yuu, ' 

In another event the Prophet (phuh) delivered n speech saying, 

"Praise fa (a Allah Wham t praise and t beseech. We teak refitge with 
Allah J i am the evils of ourselves and from our evil deeds lie whom Al- 
lah guides none tran mislead: and be whom He misleads none can guide, 
t witness that there ;.\ no gad but Allah alone, with tut -partner. The best 
speech is ttfwt of] the Book of Allah. Ghttfttrd and Evdted be He. He is 
successful the one whom Allah tias made his adornment in his heart and 
made him embrace hUim after disbelief, ffie is the ane) who has, re- 
leetcd it abave all human speech, as it is the best and mo\t eloquent 
\peech. Ijpve what Allah ta\'e&< I save Allah with alt your hearts. Never he 



fared with the Word* mrf Rmnemhrance of Atfak Never let your hearts 
be hardened (Wards it. Out of everything that Allah creates He chimes 

aurf ^m, iu m mm. m fer * m&% ^ ^ ^ iUimin 

Hm* *ma tie M-tti ted fimt among f^w,™,,., Mfe^^) 
i^ XWfttt speech, Okifhe ta»ful and the prohibited from everything » tf h 
which people are providrtl Thus, warship Allah and do not associate 
anything with Hint; he conscious of Him as He should be conscious of 
be true tomnts Allah with what your mouths M iy; and love one another 
with the spirit of Allah among you. Verify. Allah Incomes angry i^, 
His covenant ix breached. Peace be upon won. n 

The Propter (pbuh) wrote a document concerning the MiUiujirun and Hie 
An&ar in whkh be made an agreement with the Jews and let ihem deaj 
frcdy with regard to their religion and their wealth, and stated the mmunl 
Migmons. The contents of the document were as follows; 

'in the Name of Allah the Mast Merciful, the £W^A/e™>/. 'litis if a 
document from Muhammad the Piofdiet (governing the retuthmsl be- 
tween the believer's mid Muslims of the Qtiruysh and Yathrih. and thai* 
who have followed and striven with them. They are one nation with the 
exeimum of other people, The MuMjtrim of the Qumxvh, according to 
their current mir Iwtttt which they had been when hhun came}, shall 
pay the btoixi money wtitiitt themsehvs and shad ramtrn their prisoners 
on reasonable (state} mtd with justice among belitvm Bona Atvf efr 
cording to their current state, shall pay the Mood money they used la 
pay at first ipre-tefaml and every section shall ransom their prhonen 
on n-immahlc (sad*} and with justice atmmg believers Burnt Sti iduh. 
according to their current state, sluttt pay the blood money thev used to 
pur at first, and ever? section among ihern vhall ransom their prisoners 
on reasonable (scab} and with justice am^ng believers. Burnt Al-Hunth. 
according to their current state, shod pay the- bto<,d money thry paid <n 
first, ami even- section slutlt mnsom their prisoners oft reasonable 
(scaJei and with justice among believers. Banu Jatham* according to 
their current state, shaft pay the btt>tHi money they used to pay at first, 
and every sectum among them xlmlt ransom their prisoners on rea* 
somthW {scale) and with justice among believers. Bona AaNajjar. ac- 
cording to their current state, sfoiU pay the blood money they used to 



I. ir rhc farnqmbnuitt <>l Allah jiiij (he inrifMrtPii of ihe Quran 



pay at first, and every section among them shtdl ransom their prisoners 
on reo\onahle ( scale] and with justice among believers. Ihinu "Amr ibn 
'Awf, according tn their cur rent state, shaft pay the hhod money they 
Used tn pay at first, and every section shall ransom their prisoners on 
reasonable f scale] and with justice among Iteltevers. Banti An-Nabit. ac- 
curding to their current Hate, slmll pay the blood money they used to 
pay at first, and every section stud/ ransom their prisoners on rea- 
sonable fictile I and with junilee umttng believers, Ami Banti At- Aits, ac- 
cording to their current suae, shall pay the blood money they med to 
pav titjlnlf and eier\ section among them fhatl ransom their prisoners 
on reasonable (scale) tuxd with justice among believers. 

Verity, believers shaft not leave any destitute person Ofntmg them with' 
out paying his ransom money or blood money on reasonable i scale), 

A beliewr shall riot make a pledge with the ally of another believer 
against him {the tatter). Whoeivr is rebellious or whoever seeks to 
spread injustice, at sin or aggression, or corruption between believers, 
the hand of even' believer nltd ts conscious of Allah shall be agonist 
him, even if he fte his child. 

A believer shall not kiil another believer far the sake of a disbeliever, 
nor sftall he support a disbeliever agaitut a believer. 

The protection of Allah is one land is equally! extended to the humblest 
of the believers. Believers are protectors (and friends} of one another 
excluding other pet>ple. 

Whosoever of the Jews follows tts sIkiII have help and condolence. Tltese 
iihfitl not he oppressed, nor slialt anyone he aided against them. The 
peace of the believers is fine (i.e. indivisible}. No (separate! peace shall 
be made with a believer with the exclusion of another lietiever when (be- 
lievers ore f fighting in the way vf Allah, except on eifuttable and fair 
conditions. In every expedition, rider\ must he one behind the other. Be- 
lievers must retaliate the blood of one another in the way of Allah. The 
believers who are conscious of Allah enjoy the ttcst ami the. most uptight 
gaidtutce^ 

No potxtfteist sfmll protect any property or person belonging to the Qu- 
raysh. nor shall he prevent a believer from getting dtem. 



(U£>- 



Wtiwer ts accused of killing a believer without a legal ,-ame sfmlt be 
subject^ to retaliation unless the hit**? heir ateeptit)to receive WW- 
wmivyu oral nil believer* shaft br tigatmt htm. 

ft vJW/ „,„ be Wj/W ,„ „ Wf,„, wh „ fo^ tfy whafiy in fhb duaimmf 
and beHex^s i„ Allah and the List Day u> support a criminal nor gfa 
htm refuge. TJmse who supptm him or give him refuge shall have the 
m* ami mm ojAUah on the Dav of Resarrmim and no repentance 
or compensaihm shall he anepted from them. Whenever Vfm differ 
afontt u matter tt mim be referred xo Alfoft arid to {Hi* bfessrngeri jfc. 
hotntuad fpf/uhj. 

The Jews shot/ share in the expenses (of war} as long ax the? art fate, 
ihg (beside the bekeversY. The Jew of Burnt ^f art one eonmttmitv 
with the mmm *tch group has its own religion, allies, mal persons, 
except far those who do infinite* and uuquity. thus hurting only them- 
selves and their families. Everything that has been Gained for the Jews 
q{ ikmft A*f applies to the Jews of Bonn An-Na}jdr. the Jem of Band 
Mtf*m the Jews <#Btmu Saiduh. the Jews of Band Jusham, the jm, 
of Bona AbAws, and the Jkm of Bonn Thuiaimk except for those who 
do ujjtmue ojui iniquity, thus hurting only themselves and their families, 
AiuJ. the Jqfnuh, a tiion of the fBaita) Tha'falmlt, are like themselves, 
and what has been ordumedfrr the Jw of Banu Awf applies to Banfi 
As tt-Shutaybah. 

Righteousness should hmder sin. Tlte allies of the Thututxih are tike 
themselves, and the entourage of the Jews are like themselves No one of 
them goes out tjbr war) without the permission of Muhammotl fpbtdil 
but hr shall not he hampered from avenging for a wtwnd He who mur- 
ders t a m an). is Mkel murdering himself and tits houseimtd, except by 
him who has been wronged, for Atittli will aetept that. 

The Jews and the Muslims, each group must hear their own expenses. 
Each must support the other against anyone who fights the people of this 
docanwm. Tliey must seek mutual advice and consultation, and right* 
eousness should hinder sin, A man is not responsible for his ally's mis* 
behavior. The wronged must be helped. The Jews shall .shore m the ex~ 



continual, And he who shuts bis door is safe, and -he who enters the 
Mosque is safe". Then the people diffused to different directions, to their 
hoiivft; :int| Jhc? Mosque* 

Abdullah ibn AM Bakr related that when the Prophet slopped at DhO 
luwn, he was riding his beast wearing a turban of red Yemeni etolh. When 
he saw how AJJah had honored him with victory, he lowered fits head in 
humility 10 Allah until his beard almost touched the middle of the saddle 
Asma' the daughter pf Abu Bakf rented lhaL when the Prophet tpbuh) halted 
in Dhft Xuwl Abu Qi^afah asked one or his youngest daughter, to take 
him up to Abu QuboyMa mountain in Makkah). Ik had almost lost his 
sight, so when they ascended he asked her what she could sec "A block of 
blackness;' she said, "ft is the cavalry," he said. Then she rokl htm that she 
was seeing a man running up and down in front of them He said h O 
daughter, it is the adjutant/ i.e. the one who gives and forwards the orders 
to ihc cavalry, Then she said. "By Allah, the blackness has diffused " He 
said, Therefore the cavalry has been set free, so hurrv and escort me to my 
house," While she was taking him down, the cavalry met them before 
reaching hrs house. As the girl was wearing a silver necklace, a man 
encountered her and JOre it from her neck. When the Prophet (pbuh) entered 
ihe Mosque, Ahu Bakr went to him leading hit father. On seeing him the 
Prophet Ipbuh) said. "WJrv d$m not tmv* th? »id mm* m his hnmt and ttt m* 
g» w htm tim? Ahu Bakr replied. "Jl is he who should come to vou' He 
made him sit before him and stroked his breast and asked him to 'embrace 
Islam and he did so. When Ahu Bakr accompanied his father who was 
whue^hatrcd. ihe Prophet (pbuh) l£ >ld ihem to change that grayness of the 
hair for him. Then Ahu Bakr got up, held ru> sister's hand, and said "i 
rmptore by Allah and (slam for my sister's necklace". No one answered him. 
so he said. * O little sister, save the reward for your necklace with Allah, for 
honest y is ran* among people nowadays." 

The slogan or die Prophet's Companions on the days of Ivlakkah, 
Hunayn, and AMft'if; for tlte MuhafirOn was O Banti ' Ahdtir RahmSn" for 
.he Kha*raj, "O BanQ 'Abdullah", and for the Aws, "O BanQ Ubaydillah 11 
The Prophet tpbuh) gave instructions to the Muslim leaders when 'entering 
MafcJcah not to fight, except certain individuals who must he killed even if 
they were found under the curtains of ihe Ka'bah, Among them was 



_i 171 



Establishing Brotherhood 
between the Muhajirun and the Ansar 

Jhn tshaq said, 'The Prophel (pbuh) csfablished muJual brotherhood 
between his Companions of (he Muhajirun and the Amir. According to 
whni has reached me. and I wck Allah's prouiciinn from Jiiri billing lo him 

words thai he dui not say* he said, *!it' hrttthtrs m Altith, (nur by pair. ' He held 
the hand of "" Ati ihn Abt lolib and said. *Thi$ is my bmihcr< ' The Messenger 
of Allah, was the master of the Messengers arid imam of lh*>sc who are 
conscious of Allah, the Messenger of ihe Lord of the Worlds, ami the 
peerless and incomparable. He and ^Aft ibn AhT Xatib became brothers, 
Hamzah ihn "Abdel-Muuahb. the lion of Allah and His Messenger, and the 
uncte ofihc Prophet, became the brother of Zayd ibn Hanthah, the Prophet's 
niawlfi. Ham/ah bequeaihed to Zayd on the Battle of Uhjul, in cast? of his 
death; Ja'far ibn Abf X5I i l> "the one or the two wings* and the flier (in 
PoradiseJ" and Mifildh ibn Jabal the brother of Ibn Salamuh became 
brothers. 

The pairs were as Fallows; 

Ahfl Bakj und Kharijah ibn Zuhayr: TUm.a ihnul-Khaitah and Ilban ibn 
Malik, Abu Ubaydah ihnul-jiirrali and Sad ibn Mu'Adh: 'Ahdui- Rahman 
ihn *Awf and Sa"d ibn ar-RabF; Az-Zuhayr ihnu!-'Awwam and Siilamah 
ibn SaJamah ibn Waqsh: LUhman ibn Affan and A^vs ibn Thahit 
tbnut-Mundhir: IalhLih ihn 'Ubaydiliah and Ka b ibn Malik; Said ibn Zayd 
ibn 'Amr ibn NtiJayl and l?bayy ibn Ka'b: Mus'ab ibn Dmayr and AbO 
Ayyub Khalid ibn Zayd: Abu Hudhayfah ibn 'IJlbah and 'Ahbiid ibn Bishr; 
"Ammar ibn Yasir and {ludhayfah ibnuI-Yaman: Abu Dharr al-GhLfari and 
Al-Mundhir ibn Amr; Hatib ibn Ab! Bnlta'ah and ~Uwaym ibn Sa'idah; 
Salman the Persian and Abud-F)arda'; and BiJai the mawla of Abft Bufcr and 
the Pr uphill's Mtt'iufhithin {caller \o prayer) and Abu Ru way bah, 

These were the men who have been mentioned u> us as ihi; Prophets 
Companions wnb whom he cemented lies of mutual brotherhood." 



eicmul end of the Qumysh." AJ-'Abbfo continued, "Riding the Prophet's 
white mult. I reached A^Arflk. as I thought 1 might find some woodcutter 
iiulkt;(i. ui iijiyutic whu could ^o to ilic people of Makkah lo tell Ihem about 
the Prophet (pbuh> so that they could ask for protection before he entered 
the place by force. While having such an intention, I heard the voice of Abfi 

Sufyfln and Budayl speaking to each other. Abu Sufyan was saying. 'I have 
never seen such fires and camping before.' 'By Allah, it must be the 
KhOftTah coming for war,* answered Budayl, AhQ Sufyan said, Tlw 
[China* ah are too trivial and few to have such fires and camps, 1 Thus I knew 
htm by his voice a* well as he did. I told him about the Prophet (pbuh> and 
his army, and showed concern for him and for the Quraysh, 'If he reaches 
you he will cut ofr your head, so mount on the back of this mule and I will 
lake you to him and ask safety for you/ He sat behind me, while his two 
companions went back. 

Passing by the Muslim fires, Jhcy firsl became alert, wandering who we 
were hut cabtied down saying that it was the Prophet's mule ridden by his 
uncle. Until wc were alongside Omar's fire, he saw AbQ Sufyan on the hack 
of the mule and cried out. ^AbO Sufyan the enemy of Allah! Thank* to Allah 
that we can sekc you without agreement or covenant / Then he went to the 
Prophet (pbuhl running, while 1 made the mute .go at a gallop, and the mule 
won; it was like a slow beast outrunning a slow man. 1 descended arid 
hastened to the Prophet (phtih). and "Umax entered repealing what he had 
said about Abtt Sufyan and added, 'O Messenger of Allah 1 Let me behead 
him/ 1 said. G Messenger of Allah. I have given him my protection.' Then I 
sat by the Prophet (pbuh). holding his head and said. 'By Allah, none shall 
talk secretly to him tonight without my presence'. As X'mar continued io 
object J said, 'Gcndy 'Umar! By Allah, in case he was of Band "Adiyy ibn 
Ka'b you would not have said this; hut it is because you know that he is of 
Banu 'Abd Manaf/ He answered, Gently Abbas! By Allah. Ihe day you 
embraced Islam was daircr to me than That of AUKfcuUb if he would have 
become a Muslim/ The Prophet (pbuh) told me to take AhQ Sufyan with me 
to my dwelling and return in the morning. 

1 did what lie had told me, so early in the morning I took him to meet the 
Prophet ipbuhh On seeing him. he said, 'Woe m yau Ahfi Sttfrdti, is it wit time 
that Vfl« know that there is tip $ttd hm Allah?* He answered, 1 ransom vou with 



A Report on Those of the Prophet's Companions 
Who Suffered from Fever: 

^A'ishuh (may AJUih be pleased with her) said, "When the Prophet 
fpbuh) arrived at Madman, it was the imwit place plagued wiih lever on 
earth, [l in fee ted his Companions who suffered a severe affliction. YeL 
Allah kepi it from His Prophet. Ahu Bakr's mawttfo* "Amir ibn Fu hay rah 
and Bilal. were wid; him In one house when the rcvci aiucked (hem, I wcnl 
lo nurse ilicm. for that was before the veil had been prescribed for women. 
Only Allah knows how much they were agonized from fever, t approached 
my father and asked liim how he was doing. He answered, 

Any man might be greeted by his family m the morning 

While ilea i h was nearer than the thong of his sandaj. 

I said- 'By A Hah, my father doc* noi know what he is saying/ Then I 
went to 'Amir and asked ihe same question. He said, 

I have experienced death before actually tasting it: 

The coward's death comes upon him as he sits. 

Every man resists il with all his might 

Like tike ox I hat pr^ccL* his body with his horns 

1 said, By AUuh ' Amir does noi know what he is saying.' BilaJ. when the 
fever swayed him, lay down on the ground of the house, and raised his voiee 
say trig. 

Shall I ever spend *i night again in Riklikh' 1 ' 

With sweet herbs and thyme around me? 

Will the day dawn when t come down to the waters of Majani>ah l2) 

Shall 1 ever see Shaman andlafil^ again? 



2. Mejannah *u* n riuu 1*1 t^W below MiiVkiifi 

1, Sh&irufr jut J Tifll *ete iwu imnmNHin m Mukkuh 



asked whether Muhammad had permitted it. He said no. Thus, tlicv 
suspected thai 'All nught have been fooling him and all what he had done 
was useless, He said, "By Allah, 1 found nothing else to do." 

The Prophet spbuh) gave orders to the Muslims to prepare tor an 
invasion. Abu Bakr wa* visiting his daughter VVishah who was making the 
preparations. When he asked her about ihe place they were to go, she* told 
huii that she did not know, Later the Prophet [pbuht announced that he was 
going to Mokkuh and ordered them to be ready. He said. "O Allah, ttskr away 
the spies and news from the Qumysh so that we may take them by surprise in their 
land, " The anrn got ready. 

When the Prophet (pbuhi determined to march to Mafckah, ijasib ibn Abf 
Balla'uh wroic a message to the Qumysh to tell them aoom the Prophet's 
decision to raid them. He gave it to a woman (o whom he paid some money 
to tonvey ii to ihe Qumysh . She put it on bur bead, then plaited her braids 
over it and left. The Prophet fpbuh) received a report from heaven of Hating 
deed. Thus, he summoned All ibn AhTXMb and A/-Zubayr ibnul-'Awwam 
arid said, "I'm after a woman with wham them fit a letter from Ite&b Urn Abt Bal 
ttiuh to the Qumysh \umuaa them ofourdedsian agama them.'' They overtook 
her in Al-Khaliqah of Bajiu AbO Ahmad. Making her get down, they looked 
into her baggage but found nothing All swore by Allah to her that the- 
Prophet wus never to be misinformed nor were they, and that if she did not 
give the letter they would si rip her. When she found htm serious, she told 
them to turn aside. She undid her braids and gave the letter lo him. When 
the Prophet (phuhj got the letter tram him, he called Hajib and asked him, 
Whm induced w/u m d» »?." He said. "By Allah, 1 believe in Allah and Hts 
Messenger and my belief has never changed. But I am a man of no position 
among the Quraysh and I have children and a family there so I had to do 
something fm their sake " "Umar asked the Prophet to let him behead MS lib 
considering him a hypocrite. However, the Propyl iphuh) sajd, 'Hondo you 
ham Vmar! Perhaps Allah loaded at those *fw attended thtdrtm die Day of foalr 
and saul. Bo ttx you like, for I have forgiven ytm.'" 

AJIuh the Almighty sent down concerning Hanb, tOyou who befi 
Take nut My enemies and your enemies <Le. disbelievers and pvkiheixt'u etcd 
fritrtds> showing affection ftmwrfc them...} to 1 Indeed there has been tw ex- 
cellent emmpte forym n Ihrahtem (AifTaffOm) and thotr with hinh uhtn they said 



tsvl 



ax 



revenge. By my life, you rob in the inviolable area, will you not then avenge 
in ii? 

When they attacked them at Af-Watlr at night they killed Mtmahbnh. a 
man who had a weak bean. He told Tnmim jbn Asad who accompanied 
him. to flee for lie was sore Unit he would die. whether they killed him or set 
him free, since he had a problem in his heart, lience. Tamlm managed to 
escape, white Munabbah was caught and killed. On entering Makkah the 
KliuziTah resorted n» the house of Budayl ibn WaKja' and that of an afly ut 
theirs called RatV 

Wtlh the attacks of the Quraysh and Banu Bakr against The KhuziTah 
kilhng some of them, they were in fact violating their treaty with the 
Prophet (phuh> through their aggressive altitude towards the KhuziTah who 
were m bond with him. Under this situation, ^Amr ihn Salini al-Khuza't and 
one of Banu Ka'h went to the Prophet ipbuhi in Madlnah. That was among 
the causes of the Conquest of Makkah. 'Amr stood by him while he was 
sitting with the people in the mosque, told him about (he hreach of the 
pledge, and asked for help. The Prophet (phuh) said, "You wilt get help. O 
'Antrifm Sffimf" When a cloud appeared in the sky to him. he said, "Verify 

this cloud will pnui "dawtl with the victory o/Btirtu Kah. " 

Together with a band of the Khuzaah. Budayl ihn Warqa" went to the 
Prophet tphuh) in Madlnah to inform him of their affliction ami how ihe 
Quraysh were supporting Banu Bakr again si them. After meeting him they 
returned lo Makkah, The Propyl (pbuh) had said Jli them, "ft seems that ytiu 
wilt see Abti Sufvun cmning to reinforce the treaty and extend its term. " When 
Budayl and his companions had reached MMan they met Abu Sufy&n ibn 
Horb. who had been dispatched by the Quraysh to reinforce ine treaty with 
the Prophei fpbuh) and to make an extension, as they feared ihe outcome of 
what Ihey had done. When Abu Sufyan saw Budayl, he asked him from 
where he was coming. Eft he suspected that lie hud been to the Prophet 
(pfcmh). He answered that he had been moving with the Khuza ah idong that 
coast and al the hotiom of thai valley, while he denied that he had been to 
Muhammad ipbuh), when he had asked him so. Budayl had continued lu 
Makkah, and Abu Sufyan did not believe him as he said to himseff, 'In case 
Buday] went to Mariinah he would have foddered his eumeJs date-seeds, to 
eat there." He went lo the place where camels had rested, split up their dung t 



widt it until when he was in the heart of the battle with no way out, he 
alighLcd his roan horse, hamstrung it, and resumed fighting until he was kilkd. 

Ibn Hisham said, "A scholar whom I trust told mc that Ja'far held the 
standard first in his right hand, but it was cut off, so he seized it with his left 
hand which was also cut off, Then he clasped il (o his breast with hi> urm-s 
until he was killed. He was thirty -three years of age, Consequently, Allah 
rewnnied him with two wings in Paradise with which be flew wherever he 
wished. It was said thai a Roman warrior struck him, cutting him asunder," 

Ihn Fshaq said that after the killing of Ja'fur. ' Abdul I3h ibn Ruwuhah 
held the sunt lun I and stepped forward with it while riding ins horse. He had 
to repress himself us he felt hcMlant to proceed, hut he blamed himself and 
got off. Then his cousin offered him a men bone, saying, "Support yourself 
w id; this, for you have suffered a !m in these difficult days" He took a little 
bite, hue when lie heard the sounds of disorder and crowd in the army, he 
hurled ti away, saying to himself. "Are you tstdl Jiving) in this world?' 1 He 
gripped his sword, advanced, and fought until he was killed. Then TMbit 
ibn Aqram the brother of Bann A I ' A thin took the standard. He cried out. 
"O Muslims, come together round a man of you. 1 * They said, "You (be this 
man}.'* But he objected so they rallied to Khalid ibnul-Walld. As he tout the 
standard, he parried the enemy to avoid an encounter. Then he withdrew and 
the enemy averted from him umil he retreated with the army. 

According to what has reached mc, when the army was crusted the 
PropllCI Ipfruh) staid, ^/xryd held the standard and Jimght with it unfit he was 
killed as a martyr; then Jaftir tank it and fmtghl with it wild he was kit led as ti 
martyr, " Then he (pbuh I kept silent, so the faces of the Ansa" r changed color 
for they thought that some mischief had happened to 'Abdullah ibn 
Rawahah. Vet he continued. "Then Abdullah ihn tiuwaliah hettt it and fought 
with il until hr tow kitted a.* a martyr." Then be said. "They were earned up ta 
mr m PtrradisA as / mw itt a vision, an hrdu ofgatd t saw 'Abdullah'* ft*d turning 
aside from rfrc beds of his twtfclfawx {i.e. Zayd and Ju v far5, When f asked far die 
reason, t hw.v tfdd that they mmwi an [ without hesitation) bur tie, »wW iiefarc 
he moved ort/ 1 

Khalid ibnuf-Wnlid with the army, was getting close to Mad m ah when 
the Prophet f pbuh ) went out to welcome them together with the Muslims 
and the boys who went running whereas the Pniphet tpbulO was mounted on 



relurneJ to Madmah without fighling, and stayed there for the rest of 
Rabi'ul-Akliir and a pun of JumaJi ul-ClIa. 

The Invasion on Al-'Ushayrah 

The Prophei (pbubf invaded the Quraysh through ihe path of Bantl 
Dinar. Ha> iTruJ-Khahar. and stopped under a tree at (he valley of Ibn Azhar 
w here he offered prayer and founded his mosque, Food was prepared and he 
ale accompanied by those who were with him. The site of the stone* of his 
coo king- pot is si ill known. He drank Irani the water of a place called 
Al-Mushtarah. Th«H he departed Al-Khalaiq leftward in the direciion of a 
eJen called ShTbat ' Abdullah; then to the left again unlil he went down 10 
YjlyaJ aod stopped at its crossing with Ad-Da hu' ah. He drank from ihe well 
at A^-Dubtf ah traveling the plain of Mala J unlit he met ihe I rack in 
SukJiayrai aJ-Yamam straight to AKUshayrah in the valley of Yanhu' 
where he slaved throughout the month of Jumada al-Ola and some days of 
the following month, He made a pact of peace there with Banu Mudlij and 
I heir allies Barm JQamrah, and returned to Madman without a fight. 

The Expedition of Sad Ibn Abl Waqqas_ 

At the same time, the Prophet (pbuh) sent 5a* d ihn AW Waqqfc with 
eight men of the Muhijiriki, who reached AI-Kharnir in Al-Mijaz- They too 
returned, without fighitng. 

The Invasion on Safawan, 
the First Invasion of Badr 

After the invasion on AI-Lfshayrah, the Prophet ipbuh) had slaved less 
than ten nights in Madtnah when Kurz ibn Jabir al-luhri raided the gra/.mg 
camels of MadlnulL The Prophet (phuh) pursued him, until he reached a 
valley called Safawan, in the dtreciion of Badr. Kurz fled and could not he 
caught. This was the first invasion of Badr. Afterwards, the Prophet ipfourn 



House concealed him from the polythcists and then he touched the Southern 
Comer, He walked to kiss tire Black Stone, He ran in the first ihree rounds 
and walked the rest." 

According 10 Ihn 'Abbas, the Prophet (pbuh) married MaymOnah the 
daughter of AJ-Harilh in this visit when he was in the state of ihram. 
AKAbbis ibn 'Abdul-Muualib was the one who married him lo her. The 
Prophet (pbuh) spent three days in Makkah. Huwayjm ibn 'Abdel-^Uzza 
weni to htm on the third day with a band of the Quraysh, as the latter had 
charged him 10 let the Prophet {pbuli} leave Makkah, They said. Tour term 
has ended, so leave us.' The Prophet {pbuh) answered, 'Why do ynu nm let mc 
Slav to wed among you end prepare a feast for ypit to attend?' They Said, "We do 
not need your food so get away.' Hence, the Prophet (pbuh) departed, 
leaving Abft Rafi" his mawtfi to take care of Maymunah until he drove her to 
him in Sari f where me wadding took place, and then they continued on their 
way to Madman, 

Ibn Hi sham said thai, according to Abu * Ubaydah, Allah revealed to him, 

4 indeed Allah shall fulfil the true vision which He showed to His Mes- 
senger [i.e. the Prophet saw a dream that he has entered Makkah: along 
with hus companions, having their (head) hair shaved and cm short] m 
very trutlk Certainty* yau shall enter Al-Masjid-al-Uar&m: if Allah wills, 
secure, (some} having your heads shaved, and fsome} tuiving your head 
hair cur short, having no fear. He knew wjiat yau knew not, and He 
granted besides thai a near victory* y 

(Al-Fatfa; 27) 

The Raid on Mu'tah '" in Jumada aKUa, 8 AH 

The Prophet (pbuh) slaved in Madman for the rest of DJml-KUJah* as the 
polyposis conducted the pilgrimage, until Rabf alAwwal and Rabr 
al^Akhir. In Jumfida al-Olft in the year AH, he sent a minion to Mii'tan. in 
Syria, pulling Zayd ibn Hariihah as commander, to be replaced with Ja'Jar 
ibn Abl Xatib if he was killed and Abdullah ibn Rawahah if la' far was 



I, A villas in A I H.A^ m Syiia. 



IHhiitun ihn Wkluflah and Al-JIakam ihn Kaysan wue captivated. Nuwhd 
fled anil evaded them. 'Abdullah ilm iahsli and Ills companions tetumed «o 
Madman with the caravan and the two captives. 

When they went lo the Pruphci <pbuliL he said, 

7 */W /w; timmumel yttfi tuji#h\ I'jhi the SttrWt tttiftttto, * 

He retained the caravan and the two prisoners and forbade taking 
unylhtng from them- When the Prophei (pbuhi said so, the men felt 
desperate and though! ihey were doomed. The Muslims censured I hem for 
how they acted. The Qumysh said. "Muhiunmad and his Companions have 
pvrmiileii (lighting in) the inviolable month, shedding Mood I herein, laktng 
spoils, and imprisoning men/ The Muslims in Mukknh who refuted them 
said that the whole Thing h:id happened in Sha*b§tb 

When u loi erf utlk was provoked, Allah senl down to His Prophet 

• Thtv <t,sk yrttt wmterning fixiiting in the Sa'vwtt Months ii.r. /if, 7th. 
tfftf und f2th ttwfirfit of ilir: hhumt eaktttUtr\. Sny. Ti^htini; therein is 
a gttffl (trunsgrtsahni fan a gmtttr ftmnsgrrrtrfitt} witt Allah is to pre- 
vent mtntk'md frt/m fttiitwhm the Way of Allah ft> ttixfwli*w in Him. to 
prcvanr areas m At-Mtwid+al-Hofwn fbj Makktthi. ami to drive not its 
whubtiiMts..,* 

{AI-Bat^Fah: 2J7i 

'litis means if you have killed {some of them* in the Inviolable month, 
ihey have drawn you hack from the way af Allah with their disl>elicf m 
Him. and from the Inviolable Mosque, and expelled you from it when you 
were its people This is u greater violation than the slaying of those whom 
you have killed. *' ,„wul Al-Ftmil)*" h vforxe titan fcJ//%,„# I.e, they used lo 
seduce the Muslims in hi* religion to turn them back from their religion and 
lhal it is worse in the sighi of Allah than killing 

4... And they will never rem? fiphtiti! w*u until thry turn volt hatkfrvm 
yitur rtiigimt thiamin hhmotheism) if They mn U*i 

(Al-Baqarah:2I7) 



I N .: 1 1 1 n linn. luiiihII :.inS H|i[]ii^s.siiiti 



had done lo them, "O Messenger of Allah, what has happened to me i> the 
same as what h*is happened lo y«u, M suid BiJil. The Prophet (pfouh) 
ad mi tied, Ton are fighiS Then the Prophel ipbuh) rode his camel for ralhcr 
a shod distance, where he matte tl knee J. so thai he and the men performed 
ablution, He commanded Bilal to eall for the prayer. The Pmphel tphuru led 
people m the pravcr and when they ended it. he approached die people and 
said. 7/ ytnt jrtrjiei (ft parfnrm v/mr prayer, perfo rm it once vow remember iU far 
Attah, GUiiiftrtl rmtt fc-xatfpd he He, says. 4 ...urtd perform A^SaUih { fq/tmat-ai- 
Suitih I far My Hetuembrance * I Tftha: 1 4 j . " 

[ heard thiit the Prophet (phuh> provided Ibn Lutrayir) uh'Absi wiih the 
chickens or livestock cif Khaybar The conquest was carried oot in £afar. 

The Arrival of Ja far ibn Abilalib from Abyssinia 
(And a Report on the Migrants to Abyssinia) 

Ibn Hteham said from Ash-Shu* am\ "Ja far ibn Abj Tillib came to the 
Prnphei (pbuhl on the day when he conquered Khaybar The Prophet (pbuh) 
kissed bis forehead and hugged him saying. V dn urn hum wkieh makes me 
happier, the irtmqttejt n/Klmyiwr or the arrival ofJa'far."' 

Ibn l-sbaq said. "Some of ifte Prophet's (phuh) Companions remained in 
Abyssinia unld he dispatched "Amr ibn Umayyuh ud-Qnmri to the Negus lo 
brine them back in two ships. They arrived while he was in Khaybar after 
AJ-Hudaybiyah, Their names were as follows: 

From Banu Hashim: J a" far ibn Abr Talib with his wife Asttiii' the 
daiichierof 'Umays and Ins son "Abdullah who was born in Abyssinia. 

From BanO 'AM Shams ibn Man at: Khulid ibn Said LhriuKAs ibn 
Umayyah i.bn " Abd Shams with bis wife Amman the daughter of Khalaf ibn 
As" ad; his two children Said and Amah, who were born in Abyssinia, and 
his brother "Arm 1 , There were also Muayqib ibn Abi Fatimaru who became 
guardian of Ihe Muslims public treasury under the rule of 'Umur 
ihnul-Kbaitab. and Abu Musa ai-Ashari. 

From Banu Asad ibn "AbdcKltaa: Al-Aswad ibn Nawfel ibn 
Khmvjivlid- 



them that Muhammad and his Companions were wailing for tL Darudum 
rapidly htfaded for Makkah. 

Three days prior to £amd&m T s arrival. "Atifcah the daughter of v Abdul 
Mullnlrh saw a vision which terrified her, She sent for her bmiher 
A I -"Abbas saying, "O Brother. T had a virion last night which terrified me 
and I fear that evil and adversity will afflict your people. So keep what I tell 
you a* a secret," He asked whai she had seen and she said, "I saw a man 
riding a camel who stopped ai the valley. He yelled at the top of his voice. 
"Rive. O people, do noi let ytiur men confront u cakuniiy that will come in 
three days time; I saw die people gather around bun. He then entered the 
Mosque and the people followed him. While they were surround! fig him his 
came I got up onto Hie top or the K if bah. Then he repeated the cull with the 
same words- Afterwards his cumel rose to the lop of Abu Qubays. he 
shouted out again, took u rock and loosened it, which kepi on falling down 
to the bottom of the mountain where it was. divided into small pieces. There 
was no house or residence in Mukfcah but got a bit of it/' AK Abbas said. 
"By Allah, verily it is a vision, and you hiiU he tier conceal ti and not 
mention it to anyone/' AI-'Abbis then mei AJ-Walid ibn Lit bah who was 
his friend. He informed him about ii but asked him to keep it a secret Yet 
Al-Waltd told Wis father and the story prevailed in MaJ;kab so thai Ihe 
Quraysh were .speaking about it in their public assemblies. AI-" Abbas said, 
"T vvoke up in the morning to circumambulate the House, wherca* Abu Jahl 
was silling wiib a group of the Quraysh discussing "Aiikah's vision. When 
he, saw me he said, "After finishing your circumamhulciiion eome and join 
us/ When 1 sat with ihem, Abu Jahl said. 'O son of 'Abdul MuuaMb when 
did such prophecies happen among you'.*' What do you mean by that? 1 
asked Thai vision which " Atikah dreamt of/ he replied. 1 said. And what 
did she see?' He said, Is it ms enough for you that your men prophesi/c 
than that your women do the same? "Atikah claimed in her vision that 
someone said. 'Rise to wax in three days' We shall await these three days; if 
her saving ts true, then u will be so; ycl if after the Ihrce days nothing has 
recurred, we will wnte a document that you are the greatest liars among die 
Arabs.' By Allah 1 did nothing more than repudiating and denying thai she 
had seen anything. 



to death- On Marhab H s death, hjs brother Yastr arose to duel, Hishum ihn 
'Urwah said that when Az-Ziibayr tbtiul-" Aw warn emerged to fight Yastr, 
his mother Saflyyah. the daughter of Abdul-Muuaiib suid t "{Will you lei 
him) kill my son, O Messenger of Allah?" He answered. "But your ran wilt 
kdl him, if Allah witti* Az-Zubayr went out and kilted Yasir. 

Salamtih ibn "Amir ibnul-Akwa related » The Prophet (pbuh) sent Abu 
Bakr wilh the standard against some of the Khaybar mrnngholiis. He fought 
until he became exhausted and returned without a conquest. Afterwards* he 
sent *Umar but with the same results. The Pmphct (pbuh) said* "Tomorrow t 
wilt give the imnner to a man who hvet Atiah ami htx Afeytt>Jt%er r Atiah will over- 
come it with tu$ hands, aitd he never escapes." Hence the l^TOphet (pbuh) 
summoned All who hrjti had a problem in his. eye m that time, so he (pbuh) 
spat in his eye and said, "Take ihh standard and proceed with it t until Attuh 
Xrnntfiyou victory" 

Salamah saia\ ''All harried away with it, gasping as he rushed, while we 
were behind him Co Mowing his traces until he fixed the standard in a pifc of 
stones under the fortress From the topmost pan of the fonreits. a Jew 
l0ak£d down at him arid asked, "Who arc you' 1 " He replied, "I am Aii ibn 
Abl Tilth." The Jew continued, "You vyitl he granted victory, by what was 
sent to IvtusaT He did not return until Allah had made the conquest through 
his hands. The two strongholds of Kb ay bar. Al-Waiih and As-Sul&iim were 
besieged by Ihe Pmphei (pbuh) until the Jews there were sure of their death 
so they aske*l him to let them leave and &parc their lives, and he (pbuh) 
accepted. He (phuhj had taken control of all their property, Ash-Shaqq. 
Nalflh. and AJ-Katibah and all their Fortresses except those two strongholds. 
When the people of Fadak knew that they had done so, they sent 10 the 
Prophet and asked him lo treat them in the same way. 

Mu&iiytah ibn Mu^uU the brother of Banu HanJhah, was among the 
mediators. The people of Khaybar asked for surrender and that the Prophet 
(pbuh) woutd let them undertake their property against a half share of the 
output, saying, "We know it better than you and we arc better growers." The 
Prophet tpbuhl accepted their proposal but stipulated that "if we wish to exile 
you. we will do it." He made a similar ret'onc thai ion with the people of 
Fadak. Thus, Khaybar conceded to the Muslims, white Fadak was fully for 
i fie Prophet (pbuh), since they made no expedition with either cavalry or 



in l he form of Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Jusbum spying. "I pledge thai 
Kinflnuh will not assail you in the back/' so ihey dashed stvjfilv. 

A few nighis had passed or the month of Ramaftm, when the Prophet 
ipbuh) went £0 war. He charged "Ami ihn tJmm Maktum ti» lead ihc people 
in prayers and culled Abu Lubabab from Ar-Rawba* to superintend 
Mjdriiiih. He gaMfij lite white <aujiUunl to Mug ab ibn Umnyr. I wo Hack 
fkujs. WBW in from of the Propyl iphuJU. one with * Ah ihn Abi Talit> called 
AW [qah and the oihej with one ot the An*k. Only seventy camels were 
owned by hi* Companion* who rode on each alternatively: the Prophet 
tphuh) with 'All ami Marthad ibn Abi Marthad aJ-GHannwi cm one camel; 
Umm ibn 'Abtlel-Mtinalik Zayd ihn Hantaan, and Abu Kabshah and 
Anasah. two mawtiis. of the Prophet on one; and Abu Bakr. 'Umar, and 
' Abdur- Rahman ibn " Awf on one camcf. 

He marched out the road to Mukfcnh by the upper course from Madinnb. 
going through AI-'AoJq. Dhiit-fhi lay full, and UlatUl-JayKh, passing by 
Turban, Malal. Gh a mi*u f&£ftnti in, Sukhayraml-Yarnam, find As-SayaJah; 
then by the chasm of Ar-RauhQ 10 Shanukah. Reaching " Tnjus-Zabynh. 
Ihey met a nomad and asked hvm about the Quruysh. but tie knew nothing. 
The people said, "G res 1 the Messenger of Allah," He said. r ls he among 
ytfuT" and when ihey said lie was, he greeted rum and stifg, "U you are the 
Messenger of Allah, then teli me what The put of my she-camel contains." 
Salamah ihn Salfimah said lo him. "Do not as-k the Prophet; come 10 me ;uid 
I can teit you about il You leapt upon her and she is pregnant or a little aout 
from you 1 " The Prophet jpbuhj said. "Swp if! Ywthme spnken ohscwvly to ihr 
mm 'Then he left Saliimuh. 

"Rie Prophet (pbuh) hailed at Sajsaj. the wclJ of Ar-Rawha; then ifuvdcd 
to Al-Mun&iraf, departing from the road ofMakkah leftward, turning to the 
right to An-Naziyah heading for Badr, Proceeding in thaJ direction, he 
crowed a valley called Ruhqan between An-Naziyah and Lhe si rait of 
As-Siifra"; then along lhe Mialt lo near Ai-Safra . He then sem Basbas ibn 
"AmraJ-JuhanS and Adiyy ibn Ahr a^-Za^bft' aKIuhuiu to Badf lo find out 
fjews about AbQ Sufyiin an J his caravan, Having sent them on ahead he 
departed. 

Reports came to him that the Qurayah had marched to defend their 
caravan. He consulted his people. Abu Bakr got uj> and .spoke well. Then 

— © — 



Az-Zuhrl said that no previous victory was greater than this. It was only 
fighting when people met; however, when there was an armistice instead of 
war. people fell secure, sat- (ogolher and negotiated to settle disputes. Thus, 
none rationalised what was said concerning Islam but embraced iu In (hose 
two years as many embraced Is Jam as ever before, perhaps more." 1 

The March to Khaybar in Ai-Mukarram, 7 AH 

After his return from Ai-Hudaybiyah, the Prophei fpbulil spent 
Dhul-Bijjah ojmI part of Ai-Muharram in Madtnah, while the polytheiats 
were in charge of pilgrimage. Then in Ihe remainder of AI-Muliarram he set 
forth against Khaybar. Aba Mu'aitib ibn l Amt related, "When the 
Messenger of Allah oversaw Khaybar he said to his Companions, while I 
was among them, 'Stop, Then he aaid, O Allah. L&nj tfthr famenstatd what 
They overshadow. Lord of the haute and what they make to spwitt. tarda/ the dev- 
ils and what they lead asrmw Lord of the iW/n/s and what they winnow! We ask 
Yau thf goodness of this town, the gotMtriexi if its people, and the gamlnes-i a/w/uit 
is in if. We seek Your refiige from its evil, the evil of its people, and the. evd of what 
is in it. Proceed in the name of Allah ' That was what he u,sed to say on entering 
every Kwn." 

Ana* tbn M&lik related, The Messenger of Allah {pbuh) used to make 
his raids* in the morning. If he heard the call i a prayer he would not advance, 
and if he did not hear it he would raid. We reached Khaybar at night* and 
the Prophet (pbuh) spent the nighl there, in the morning as he did not hear the 
call to prayer, he rode and we rode with him. and 1 was riding behind Abfl 
Jalhah with my foot lurching the Prophet's. We met the laborersoC Khaybar 
m the morning with their spades and baskets. On seeing the Prophet (pbuh) 
and the army they yelled, "Muhammad wiih his army/' and turned tail and 
escaped. The Prophet {pbuh) said, "Allahtt Akbar! Khaybar t.\ destroyed. When 
we alight in a people's yard, it it, a hud morning far those who are narmd. ' " 

Ibn Isfcaq said, 'The Prophet jpbuh) stepped out from Madman to 
Khaybar throughout \%f-\ where a mo^oe wa* constructed for him: ihcn 



t Ihrt Hnhitm mid I hat the evidence ior Az-i&ihrfs wr<rd> *ait that rhe Mi^wngrr »if Allah (pfouhl w-enl 
to Al-HuJ.}\!Hy:ii] ik-iih m ifwiuunti ami fimr hundred men. while in ihc imrrauoci of l&tor rhn 
" AMHflh \n ilv >isf at <]ir Cik^cm pf Mj&ltitti . ivd y [1**1 yew* later, tic went wiih (rrt llmusmd men 

7- A mfiyiUftiii between Mmlinnh unA Al-Far V33tey 



Then the Propbei tpbubi halted near Badr. He rode on with one ofbis 
Companions uutil he met an old Bedouin, He a*kcd him about the Qiiraysh 
as well as about Muhammad and his Companions, and whether he had any 
information aboui them. The old ma* slated, "I will not tell y<w until you 
Idl mo w-hiuli of the two you aw." The Prophei (phuhj retorted. 7/«* <w- 
aw** am, hv hW if// win." tie sflid. "Tit for tat?" "Yes", he replied. Tin? 
Bedouin said, "I have heard thai Muhammad and his Companions moved on 
such-and-such a day. If (hat i* right, they today should have reached 
such-and-such a place, i referring to where the Prophet (pbuhJ actually was). 
Also I heard thai the Qurnysh matched mil on such-and-such a day, so today 
ihey should have been in such-and such a place, "' where they actually were. 
When he had finished he said. ,T Where did you come From*" Tlie Prophet 
tphiih) said, "We tifaftm mf; ,n ." Then he departed, while the old man was 
saying, "What does mis mean? Is he from I he Ma* of Iraq?" 

Then the PropheT tpmjh.) went hack to his Companions. In the evening, 
fie sent All tbn Ab? Ifllib. Az-Zuhayr thnui "Awwam t and Sad lhn Ahi 
Waqqiis with a number of the Companions to the welJ at Badr in search of 
news, where they seized some of the Quraysh water- men, among whom 
were Aslum of Banti Aj-Hajjiij, and 'Artd* Abu Yosar of BanD AI- % A£ ibn 
Sa'tcl- They caught them and inquired of them while the Prophet tphuht w^ 
performing prayer, They ->aid. "We are The water- men of the Quraysh; they 
sent us to bring them water/ 1 The people did not like their answer, a* they 
hoped lhat rhey belonged to Abu Sutyiui. Thus, they beat them severely 
until the two claimed thai they belonged to Abu Sul'yan. So (hey released 
ihem. When the Prophei tphuh) finished his prayers, he said, "When rhey told 
you the truth von heat them; and when they tied yt>u relem&l them? They sfMtke the 
mats far they hetmft iff the Qitrayih. Inform me fyait two! wtuu nbmit the Qu- 
raysh?" They retorted* They arc behind this dune which you see on the 
remotest embankment. H The Prophet (pbuhl aski:ij ihem about their number 
and they said that (hey were many but they did not know their exact 
number; hence he inquired of them about the number of beasts they 
sacrificed each day. When they said nine or ten, he said, "The /wide urebt- 



L tit Ambir. ihi.ii word meanv "wain , wtttrii ciirj$» b* iwd lo tcIct 10 <cmcii out nl whitfi mm b 
crajuol THtf Prnphei iptnth) fflreuu ihc louer hni tut imciI mift; ami mn *|wmi In make It amhign 
ou> Foe ihc tnoft Btut ptxtiA telling flfet *l the tunic lime, j* MA' h aim iht* miim «if 4 plftc*. tR<- 



know this. Write instead "fn Ytwr name, O Allah." The Prophet (pbuh) agreed 
lO Write that. Then he said, 'Write down This h what Muhttmmad, tin Mes- 
senger &f Allah has reconciled with Stdiayi dm Amr." Suhya! objected, "If 1 
witnessed that you are Allah's Messenger, I would not tight you. Write your 
own namo and your fathers," The Prophet (pbuh) said. 

Write Tfttt li what Muhammad ibn Ahlattah has reconciled *'ith Su- 
hayl ibn \\mr. They have agreed to stop all fighting for ten years, during 
which time the people will ilve sitfely, restraining from wimosities on 
condition that in case anyone goes to Muiwmmud without his guardian's 
petmiwion* he wilt send turn hack to them; and in case that anyone of 
Muhammad's followers goes to the Qttraysti they will not set^l htm f/ock 
to him. We wiit not show hostility one to another and there mil be no 
theft or treachery. He who wishes to enter into a covenant and agree- 
ment with Muhammad may d*? so and he who wisftes to enter into a cov- 
enant and agreement with the Qurayxh maydtf so, '" 

The KlwJTah chose to enter into a hond and agreement with the Prophet 
I pbuh I \vhilc BanQ Bakr chose the Quraysh and said to the Prophet (pbuh), 
"You should keep back from us this year, not enter Makkah against our will. 
As for the next year, we will leave u for you to spend three nights with your 
Companions. Thereupon, you may hring with you nothing more than riders 1 
weapons and swords in sheaths." 

While the Prophet (pbuh) and Suhayl were writing the agreement, Abu 
Jandal ibn Suhayl ibn 'Amr suddenly showed up in fetters, having fled to 
the Prophet fphuh). The Prophet's Companions left and they did not doubt 
the conquest of Makkah, for they depended on a vision (dream) which the 
Prophet (pbuh) had seen. When ihey saw the talks for peace and withdrawal 
taking place and what the Prophci (pbuh) had endured, they were extremely 
depressed almost to the point of death. When Suhayl saw Abil Jandal, he 
slapped him on the face and gripped hi& collar, saying, "O Muhammad, the 
issue between us was resolved before this man arrived to you," He agreed. 
Suhayl pulled him violently by his co liar and drew him away to send him 
back to the Quraysh. while Abu Jandal yelled with all his strength. "O 
Muslims! Am I to be sent back to the poly the ists to seduce me from my 
religion , . , " This augmented (he peoples grief. The Prophet (pbuh) said. 



a dense surface which did not prevent the Prophets tiiovemenis, but 
severely confined the movement or ihc Quraysh. 'Hie Prophet ipbub) 
hurried to the water. Getting to the proximal water of Badr, be sellled dowa, 

Al-Hubitb ibpul-Mundhir suid. "Q Messenger of Allah, is Hits the spot 
which Allah has inspired ymi to occupy, so that we cannot move from it. or 
is ti g matter of stratagem of wur and the product of consultation?' 1 When 
tbe Prophet rphuh) ^aid thnt [| was a straiagem of war und consultation, 
Al-Muhao pointed out, "h is not ii giwxi place to stop in. Lcr us continue and 
encamp by the nearest weU of water ami make a cisiern full o!" waicr. and 
destroy the other wells; then wc can fight our enemy who wjil have nothing 
to drink. 

The Prophet (phuh) approved of his excellent plan which was 
immediately carried our. the welts were destroyed; $t cistern was constructed 
and filled with water from which hi* men filled their drinking- vessel 

Sa d ihn Muadh said, "O Piuphel of Allah, let us mate a hut for you to 
stay in. having your ridinu hensis await; then we will go on fighting the 
enemy ant! if Alhh grants us victory, that is what we wteh; if It is defeat, 
you could ride your camels and go back to Mnrfmah lo our people who are 
left behind, for they love you as much as we do. If ihey knew thai you 
wuuid go lo war they would not have remained behind. Allah will protect 
you with th^m: they wdl give you good advice and strive in the cause of 
AlJoh with you." The Prophet tpbuhi praised him and prayed to Allah for 
Imgood. Then a Jrellis was built for the Prophet (pbnh) and he stayed there. 

Having moved m the morning, the Prophet (pbuh) saw the Quray^i 
approaching from the jty/m^flf dune into die valley Jie exclaimed. 

V.) Alhik fore is thf Qurtftxh amiing w ifatr nmccii tind htmghtitwsil 
cltaUtnpinx Ywtftiul Myitis Ymr M^ett^r, Q Allah smfri mr victory 
nhfch You htnr pmmtsed. OAttnh, destroy them thin martting!" 

When the Quray^h settled! down, a number of them, among whom was 
Hakim ihn Kizam, went to the Prophet's basin to drink. The Proplwi (j>huh) 
Jet them drink, hut whoever drank of it on that day was slain with the 
exception to Hakim wfio later became a devout Muslim and used to say, 
when he was fervid in his oath, "By Htttl Who rescued me on the Easy of B;idr/' 



I i»c Prophet (pbuhj lold him the same words that he had said to those 
whn hud come belotv him, namely, that lie had not tome 10 fight against 
them. He left die Prophet (pbuhi after seeing Ijow the Muslims treated him. 
Whenever the Prophet (pbuhl finished hi* ablution. they ran afrcr liim to 
obtain the water he hud utifued; il he expectorated they hurried to it: and in 
case a hair fell from his head they rushed In pkJc it up. Hence he relumed in the 
Quraysh saying. "1 have been to Chosroes. Caesar, and Negus in [heir 
kingdoms, hut never have f seen a king umoiiK his people like Muhammad among 
hjji Cnmpanians. They wjl] never leave him in any ease, sa make up your mind.* 

The Prophci fphuh) sent KhiriLsh ion U may yah aMGnmTi to ihc 
Quraysh in Makkuh, and made him ride one of his camels called 
Adi-Tha'lub h to tell their notables the reason for his coming. However, they 
hamstrung the Prophet's caiiwl and were about to slay the man. but the 
Macks protected him and released him, so thai he returned safely to the 
Prophet rpbtih). 

Afterwards when the Prophet (pbuhj summoned * Ulnar to convey the 
same message 10 Makiah. L Unm told him he felt that they would kill htm. 
especially no one front Banu Adiyy ton Ka'h was in Mnkkah to defend 
turn, and the Quraysh were aware of his animosity and rudeness towards 
them, He recommended that he should dispatch a man who was dearer to 
them than himself and he named TfihmSn ibn " Affan, The Prophet fpbuh) 
sent 'Uthnffin to AbO Sufyan and the celebrities of the Quraysh to inform 
ihem that he had not come for war but only as a visitor to the Inviolable 
House and to glorify its sanctity. 

As he was ahout to enter Makkah, Vtbman met Abfm ibn Said 
ibnut^As who drove him in front of him. He further provided him with 
protection until he reported the Prophet's message to them. After slating the 
whole message, they said to him. If you wish to circumambulate the 
House, do so," He answered that he would nol until the Messenger of AJiah 
(pbuhi could also do so. The Quraysh imprisoned liiui and the Prophet 
(pbulij and the Muslims were tolti that ' Uthman had been slain. 

The Willing Covenant 

Ibn Ishaq said that Abdullah ibn Ahi Bakr told him that when it reached 
the Prophet (pbuh} that Uthman had been killed, he said that they would 



Ger up, hence, unci call for your pact with them and the killing of your 
brother " ' Amir vdled. "Alas for % Amr! Alas for "Amrr War was stirred up. 
all were infuriated, the people held steadfastly 10 their evil cause, while 
TJlbuh's advice was Icfl unheeded. 

Al-Aswad ibn 'Abdel-Asad al-Makluuml, a fierce bad-tempered man, 
stepped out S weiring, "I swear hy Allah that 1 will surely drink from Lheir 
cistern or demolish il or die before reaching j[." Hamzah ihn 
*Abdcl-MuitaIio engaged wjdi tam, and struck him, sending his fool with 
half of his shank flying. He fell on his hack and his loot was streaming with 
blood towards his friends. He scrambled to the cistern and threw himself 
aiming to fulfil his oath, but with another blow Uamzah killed him in thccisicm. 

'Ulbah ibn Ruhr ah came out between his son Al-Waltd and his brother 
Shay bah. from ihe lines of the Quraysh and called Tor a dud with the 
Muslims. Three young men of the Ansar stood acainsi him: ^Awf and 
Mu'awwidh the sons of AJ-liarith and AbdulIISh ibn Rawabah. When the 
Quraysh knew that they were from the AntSr. they naid they hud nothing to 
do with them. Thereafter one of them heralded, "O Muhammad' Lei our 
equals of our people come against Us!" The Prophet [pbuh> sqirl, "Crime *m< 
O Vfxi^afi ihtiut-Hdrirh, ctmeun, QHamztik and come tm O 'Alt* 

Cuming closer to them, the Quraysh asked, "Who are you?" After each 
had introduced himself, they said, "Yes, our equals and most honorable." 
'Ubaydah, their eldest, dueled with k Ulbah ibn Rabi'ah white Mainz ah wen* 
against Shaybah ihrt Rani' ah and All against AJ-Walid ibn "Utbali. It was 
not lomj before Hamzah killed Shaybah and AFT killed Al-WalTd, Striking 
each other. 'Utayduh. and Uibah were seriously wounded. Then Hamzah 
and 'All struck "Utnah with their swords and slain him. They carried their 
friend back to his peopie. 

The two panics moved forward closer loeach other. The Prophet (pburu 
had commanded his Companions not to attack until he gave the order, and if 
they were encircled by the enemy, they were to resist them with showers of 
arrows, He himself remained in the hot wiih Abii Bnkr. The bailie ofTtudr 
took piaee on Friday morning on the seventh of Ramaaan, 

The Prophet tphuh) straightened the lines and then again stayed in ihe 
hut with Abu Bakr. The Prophet ipbuhi was appealing to Allah for the 



ordered them to say, "Wc ask Allah's forgiveness mid we repent to Him. !■ After 
Itwy had done so, he said, "By A(ttth f this is the laying} Torsive ds' which was 
ordained on the Children of Israel, hid they did not say it." 

The Propyl (phub) gave orders to travel towards the right, through sa Up- 
growth, on the way leading to the spot of Thaniyym aj-Murar onto the dope 
of Al-Hudaybiyah below MaJdkah. 

When ihe cavalry of the Quraysh noticed the dust of the Muslims' forces 
and that they had averted them, they galloped back m dieir Quraysh. When 
the Prophet (pbuh) reached Thaniyyat af-Murar, hbi she-camel kneJl down. 
The men believed that it would nut get up. The Prophet ipbuh) commemed. 

"it htu never been stahhorn. as it is not ifs nature, hut it has heen wiflh 
held by what restrained rfc elephant from Makkah. Today / shall accept 
whatever plan through which the Quraysh ask me to confirm kindred 
ties." 

Then be told the people lo descend. They hesitated at first, for there was 
no water at which they could stop. Thus, ihe Prophet ipbuh) took an arrow 
from his quiver and gave it to one of his Companions lo prod in ihe middle 
of a water hole. The water thereafter gushed out until the men and their 
camels had drunk to iheir fill, They encamped there. 

While the Prophet {pbuh) was staying there. Budayl ibn WanjfT 
al-Khmd'S came with some men of the Khuz^ah asking him about the 
reason for his coining. He told them that it was not for war hut to visil and 
venerate the Sanctuary. Then he repeated what he had said to Bishr ibn 
Sufyan. When they conveyed his words lo the Quraysh. they suspected them 
and were rude to ihem, saying, "Even if lie is not coming for war* by Allah* 
he >hall never enter it against our desire, nor shall the Arabs ever utter mat 
we have accepted it." 

The Khuza ah tribe, Muslims and poJythcists. were confidant's of the 
Prophet, always keeping him informed of everything that was taking place 
in Makkah. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw Mikras ibn Hafe ibnuI-Akhyaf 
who was sent by the Quraysh. he said, "This is a treacherous man/" When he 
approached and spoke to him, he answered him with the same words as lie 
had said to Budayl and hi 4 companions. Mtkras returned to the Qurayath 
reporting what the Prophet *pbuh) had said* 



among the corpses Ibn Ma^ud cm off his head and brought it to the- 
Prophet (pbuh» saying "Here is the head of the enemy of Allah, Abfl Jahl." 
He said. '7Jv Utah tuber than Whom rhew is tw $ml, is it? 1 ' "Yes," Jhn Mas' lid 
said, throwing his head before itie Messenger of AJiah ipbuh), who then 
praised ADah the Almighty, 

When (he Prophet Iphuh) commanded that ihe corpses should he A\ cast 
into a plu j I J were thrown sv it In he exception of thai of U may yob ibn Khaluf 
which had swelled within his ami or to the extent that it filled it. When they 
tried lo cany his corpse, it disintegrated, so they Left it where it was and 
heaped earth and stones on it. 

After throwing the corpses into the pit. the Companions heard the 
Prophet Ipbuhl at midnight saying, "O jwplt of the pit. Vthah ibn Rahi'aK 
ShtiX'bah dm RabTak, Umayytth ifut Khalaf. Abi\ Mil - and he counted out those 
in the pit. - huvr y*m ftmnd true nhmyoitr hmt had promised vou. f&r / bme in- 
deed firmul trw wh#i my Lord had prtmustd me?" His Companions said, "O 
Messenger of Allah, are you talking to the dead?" He said. *7h*y tat\ httir m t - 
mitre thtm yrm but they rtimuii aiiwver, " 

Afterwards the Prophet (pbultj ordered to bring together all the spoils of 
war that had been collected in the camp. The Muslims disputed over diem 
The group which hud collected them thought they were theirs; the warriors 
who pursued lhe enemy claimed that ihey were the cause for getting (hem; 
while the guards who escorted the Prophet fpbuh* to defend him from the 
enemy, claimed that tltey had wanted to collect the spoils but they feared 
thai the enemy mipht return, so they kept their position with the Prophet 
(pbuh). 

Then the Prophet <pbuhl dispatched Abdullah ibn Rawahuh with the 
news of victory lo the people of Upper Madman, and Zayd ibn Jkiruhah to 
die people of Lower Madinah, Then the Prophet (phuhl began his journey 
back to ModTnah with the disbelieving captives, amone whom were 'Uqluh 
Ibn Abi Mii'It and An-Nudr ibnul-Marith. 

Then the Prophet fpbuh) advanced until he reached the pass of As-Sanfi" 
where he stopped on the sand hill between the pass and An -Nazi yah where 
he equally divided the spoils which Allah had granted to the Muslims, lie 
traveled to Ar-Rawha' where lhe Muslims congratulated him and the 



separate them, so they lived together as Muslim and disbeliever, unlil I he 
Prophet r.phuh) emigrated. Afoul- Adjoined the Quraysh on (he Day of Badr 
bin he was seized among the captives and taken to Mad in ah with the 
Prophet ipbuhL When the Quraysh senr to redeem their prisoners. Zaynab 
sein money to ransom her husband and ihe money included 4 necklace 
which her mother. KMdijah. luuJ given her on her wedding. When the 
Prophet tpbiilij saw the necklace bis teelings became greatly tender and he 
said (to lu> Companions), '(fyott would think that you srt her traptiw husband 
fret and repa\ her money t do w~ They accepted and did so. 

Thus. Abul-'As. live*! in Makkah, while Zaynab lived in Madinah with 
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Ahul-' At went to Syria as a merchant with 
his wealth and that which the Quraysh had entrusted him with, as he was a 
reliable man. On his way back, he was attacked by a Muslim mid which 
took his merchandise, hut he managed to run away. When the raider* went 
away with their booty. Ahul-'As went to Zaynab's house in me night, 
seeking her protection as well as the return of his property. 

While the Prophet tpbuh) with the Muslims was periorming the morning 
prayer, Zaynab cried out from among the women, "O people, 1 have given 
protection to Atnil-'A^ ibimr-RabiV After the prayer, the Prophet (pbuh) 
made sure that the people had heard Zaynab's declaration and added. "By 
Him in Whose handa t.s Midtutnmad's mui, i ha J known nothing i about the matter) 
before hearing what you have heard. The Muslims can project whoever is tower 
than rht'/tt." He afterward headed for his daughter arid said to her + "Make his 
sta\ comfortable, but dn not let hrm touch yau r since you are not lawful for him." 

According to "Abdullah ibn Abl Bakr. the Prophet (pbuh) sent to those 
who raided Abul-As saying. "This man as \vu knuw is our relative, and you 
have taken his pntperty. JfyOU <&:& charitable art and restate hint hi ft fwqterty, fad 
tike ytm to: it not. if is. a bttaty which Allah has bestowed tm you, and you tutva the 
better right to it/* They expressed their will Jo return ii. They were so keen lo 
restore everything and not lo withhold anything, Abul-As went to Makkah 
to pay all the dues to the Quraysh, making sure that no one had any further 
claim on him. "No/* they said, "May Allah reward you; you have been both 
honest and generous." Therefore*', said he. "1 1>caf witness that there is no 
god hut Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant and His Messenger* By 
Allah, nothing delayed me from embracing Islam but that I feared you 



Abu Bakr said, "Yes, by Allah. 1 love thai AJUh should forgive me! 1- He 
relumed to his custom of financially supporting Mi&iah T raying "I will never 
prevent it from him/* 



Sufyan relumed to Makkah along with the vanquished Qurayshis from 
liadr* he vowed that he would not bathe from sexual intercourse^ 1 Limit he 
hud invaded ihe Pmpftet (pnuli). Thereupon, he moved off with two hundred 
Quriiy&hfc to execute his pledge. He took the Nurdiyyah route and hulled at 
an inlet of a canal to the Thayb mountain, mi lev from Madinah. Nightly Ire 
set forth to Bunii An-.Nadir heading lorHuyayy ihn Akhiab. Knocking on 
his door, jtiuyayy was t cured tn open the door, so Abu Sut'yan wtnl to 
So II am ibn Mishkiim* ihc chief of Banu An-Na<$r and keeper of their public 
wealth. Sal lam hosted and acquainted him with secreis ahoitt the Muslim*. 
Back to his comrades ai (he end of the niijht, Ahu Sufyan sent wme 
Qurayshis to Madimh- tn a plact called AKUrayd. lhcy sei fire to a buneh 
of palm-trees ami killed a man from Ihe Ans;ar with his ally while working 
in i he fields. People knew about them, so the Prophet (phuliU pursued them, 
leaving h't* place in Madinah to Bashit ibn 'Abdet-Mundhin He reaehed 
Oaruaraiul-Kudr foul returned because Ahu Sufyan and his group had 
escaped. They found thai the raiders, hud discarded some or the? r items tn 
fiur fields to lighten their load so they etmld run swiftly. On their renim t (he 
Muslims asked the Prophet Ipbuh), "O Messenger of Allah, do you think 
thai this will be counted (to Allah) for us as an invasion:!" "rV.t*, he 
answered. 

The Invasion of Dhu Amarr 

After die A*-Suwlq invasion, the Prophet (pbuh) remained in Madinah 
for nearly the rest of DhuMmjnh. and then he set forth to ftajd, aiming at 
O ha la Inn, This was the Ins as ion of Dhu Amarr, Sending nearly all lite 
month of Safar m Najd he went baek to Madinah with oat any fighting. He 
stayed in Madinah almost all the month of RabVuJ-AwwaL 

The Invasion of Al-FuriT of Bahran 

Putting Ibn Umm Makriun in charge of Madinah. the Pmphct (,pbuh) 
wcgI out for Ihc Quraysh reachine Bahjan. a mine in Al-Furu' in the Hijaz. 
lie spent two months there (ben returned to Madinah without righting. 

I R.ifluni: filler icxunl iQWrcduric was pro: used ij> jifTJ-lilan} 

<bJ) 



not. By Allah, I considered myself too insignificant and trivial (hut Allah 
would reveal Qur'ank verses about me to he recited in the mosque am! 
prayers. Yeu I hoped that the Messenger of AUab would see a vision in his 
sleep by which Allah would iree me from such a Iter, tor He know* about my 
innocence, or thai there would be stmie sort ot report. To send down some 
Qiifanie verges about me. by Allah. L believed that 1 was ino insignificant 
for that. 

Turning to my parents, 1 asked them. Why do you not answer the 
Messenger of Allah?' Tlwy said. 'By Allah, we do not know what to answer 
him?' By AHah. 1 have never known a household which endured much as 
thai of Ahii Bakr Jid in those days. When they did not eommenl. 1 broke om 
in icars again siying, I will never rcponi to AUah or what you have said. By 
Allah, 1 know That m case f admitted what was said of me. while Allah 
knows that I am innocent of it, then 1 would be saying something which did 
not occur: and in case- 1 fefuted what they said, you would not believe me.' I 
tried to remember the name of Ya^fih hut could not- so I said, Tiui I wdl 
say what Yfisurs father said, 

4S(f {for me) palmier is moxi fining. And it is AtlaJt l Alone) Whose ftelp 
ran tu* ipuglft tt&iimt that which ymi assert. V 

rYQsun m 

And by Allah, lite Pn>phct (phuhi was still in his place when a revelation 
came to him from Allah. He was wrapped in his robe, whereas 1 put a 
leu; her pi how under his head. When I saw this I did not feel frightened, as 1 
was sure of my innocence and (hat Allah (Glorified and Exafted be Ho 
would never be unjust to me. A^ for rm purem.s, h\ Whom 1 A'i shah's soul is 
in His Hands, once die Prophet (pbuh) recovered I thought tttat they were about 
to die of fear that Allah would confirm whal hail been said. Then the Prophet 
(pbuh) recovered, sac uprighi, and began to wipe out sweat which were Like 
winter drops of water falling from his brow; he saki, 'Br of $ow! cheer. 
"A'hhah! Mhth has sent down war twquitiul.' I said. Praise be to Allah." 

He went to the people and spoke to them, reciting the Quranic verses which 
Allah had revealed to him concerning the issue. Afterwards, he commanded 
that Misfali ibn Uihaihah. Hassan ibn ThShii, and Hamnah the daughter of 
-kujsh, the mosi express slanderers he flagged with the ordained stripes." 



theat. Verily, Allah guides nut those people who are the Zalbnibt Ipol- 
ytheisis and wrtw^rMts and ttnjunt. And yon tee those it\ whvsc hearts 
there is a disease tof hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, .wi>w#; 
'Wrfear lest wine misfortune of a dtxttstef nuty befall US. ' Perhaps Allah 
may bring a vit'Mn or a derimm according to Hts Will. That they witt 
Ih-eomc regretful for what ihev htm been keeping m a seeret in them- 
fttfw&r Arid those who believe will say.' Are these the men (hypocrites) 
who swart tlteir strongest oaths by AlUih,... " » 

Then the story was mentioned to Allah's saying. 

* Verify, your Wttli i Protector or Helper) fa Allah, His Messenger, and 
the U'lieittrs, - those who petfemn AsHtdfit tiqjimat-a&StiUit). and gft* 
'Zakdt. and they, l>ow down tsithtnh themselves with obedience tit Allah tn 
prayer Kb 

lAI-Ma'idaluSl-SS) 

And, on 'Uhftdah 1 * attitude of taking Ailah + His Messenger, and those whti 
had believed as. protectors and acquitting his alliance and patronage with 
Band Qitymicja\ Allah the Almighty revealed. 

iAiu) whosoever takes Allah t His Messenger* and those who have be- 
lieved, as Prmertors* then the parry of Allah will he die victorious. * 

(Al-Ma'i&ih: 56) 

The Expedition of Zayd ibn E&rithah 
to AI-Qaradah Across the Waters of Najd 

The Quraysh were afraid to pursue iheir usual road to Syria after the 
Battle of Badr. so du?y took the road to Iraq. Some of iheir tradesmen went 
out. including Abu Sufyan. carrying a targe amount of sifter which 
constituted most of their trade. They appointed Furai ibn Hayyan from Banu 
Bakr ibn Wa'iJ as a guide to that route. At once the Prophet Ipbuh) sent 
Zayd, who intercepted them by die watering place of Najd and captured the 
caravan with its goods, but the men fled. He hroughl the booty to l lie 
Prophet Ipbub}. 



-C5S> 



On our arrival ai Madlnah. 1 felt very ii). so 1 heard nothing about jl The 
repon, had reached the Prophet (ptwhl nntf m> parents, hui they concealed 
I be matter from me. Yet I lost the Prophets usual kindness lo me, as when I 
was ill he used to be companionate to me, hm al this Lime he was not 
attentive 10 roc, When be viumd me, while my mother 11 was present to take 
care of me, he said no more than, 'How is the r Thus I felt sad and asked him. 
when I found his heedless altitude, r O Messenger of Allah, would you 
permit me to go to my mother so thai she could nurse mc'*' 'CMf,' he said, I 
moved lo my modtcrs una ware of what was laking place until almost 
twenty days had passed when J recovered from my illness. Wc Arabs did 
not use the water cioscu* used in the houses of the non-Arab*, instead we 
used to go oul bio the open yards at Madinah, For women they used to go 
there at night, so one night I went in the enmpany of L'rnm Misiah the 
daughter of AbO Ruhm ibnuI-MultaJib ibn "Abd Monaf. As we were 
strolling, she faltered over her robe and cried oul "May Misra£ do under r I 
said. That Is a bad thing to say about & man of the MuhajiruJi who 
witnessed Badr.' She wondered. Do you noi know the news, daughter of 
Abu Bakr?' 1 said : 'What is She kept on relating whai the slanderers hud 
said, and when I exposed my amazement, she assured me that all she said 
had really happened. 

By Allah, I could not even do what [ was supposed to do and returned 
crying incessantly until ! felt as if rny liver would burst. T said to my mother. 
'May Allah forgive you! People were speaking ill of me and you mentioned 
nothing of it,' She answered. "My Male daughter, do not exaggerate the 
matter. Rarely ft there a pretty woman married to a loving man, white 
having rival wive*, and rumors circulate around her.' 

The Prophet (pbuh) delivered a speech which I was unaware of. After 
praising AUiih lie >:nd. 

'0 people, there are men who hsmb Iwrt me by saving false things about 
my wife. By AUtth, I hiow nothing hut gmxlafher, and they speak stub 
things about a titan of whom, by AUah, I hunv tmiy gwni, who never 
jfoe.r la any of my kemsca but with me.' 



i. AvViTnlinp in Ibn Hhll^m, her fihto *jh Zajqluti, ihe daughter »f 'Ahd DahmAn. 



'Abdullah ibn Uhayy ihti Salui supported ihc Prophet's ipbuh) opinion, 
not to go cm ro fighi them. The Prophet tpbimj did noi like to fight outside 
Madman, but some Muslims whom Allah honored wilh martyrdom at Uhud 
und otlicrs who Uul nol attend Budr said, "O Messenger of Allah, let its go 
forth to our enemies, otherwise they will Lhink dial wc arc cowards and 
weak to light them." Ibn Salul said. "0 Messenger of Allah, May in 
Matlinali. and do not lurn to mem. It has never been thut we went forth lo 
fight an enemy but we have heen defeated, and none has come here against 
us but have i>een vanquished. Thus leave them in their place If they stay, it 
will he the worst entanglement, white if Ihey ^n\ar Madfaah, men will fi^ht 
them, women and children will hurl rhem with stones from me walls, and if 
they retreat, ihcy will be feeling disappointed as they came," 

With die persistence of those who won* eager 10 ii^hi ihc Quraysh, the 
Prophei (-phuhv went into his liou^e and was armored, That was on Friday 
after prayer On that day* Malik ibn "Ainr of the An^lir from Band 
An-Najjar died. After offering prayer over ihe dead Ansark the Prophei 
(pbuh) headed for war. Meanwhile, the people Mamed themselves for 
pressing on the Prophet (pbuh) to fight against his wdJ, which they had no 
ri^ht to Jo. so when he. came out to them they admitted ttmt if he wished ro 
stay in Madinah Ihcy would not oppose him, The Prophet fprnth} remarked. 
r 'lt is wt upjtrtipriajf far tt Prophet wbt* ftaj put tin ftfr armvr U? hike it tiffitnui h? 
hax fought" He set forth with a ihousand of hi?. Companions, uniil they 
reached Ash-Shuw[ between Madinuh ami L'iuid, where Ahdullfth ibn 
IJbayy sceeded wdh a third of the warriors; saying. He (the Prophet) has 
obeyed them and disobeyed me. We do not know why we should kill 
ourseJvcs here, O men/' 

So he withdrew with his followers who were hypocrites and doubters. 
'Abdullah ibn 'Ami ibn HaiYun followed ihem saying m O people, ) beseech 
you by Allah not id forsake your people and your Prophet while the enemy 
is nearby." They answered, "If there should be a fight we woutd no* 
relinquish but we do not think lhai there will be a war/' When they persisted 
oo withdrawal, he said. "May Allah deport you. you enemies of Allah, for 
A Mali will make His Prophet dispensable of you.' 1 On that day the Ansar 
asked, O Messenger of Allah, should we not seek the support of our Jewish 
allies?" He aiud."We huvr tin need of than." 



itmiahutii hrrter \fam tfait* She said, What h jL O Messenger of Allah J - r He 
replied, 7 witl fulfil yuur di*ht and marry you." She said yes and rhev were 
married. When the people heard that ihe Prophet (pbuh> had married 
Juwuyriyah. Uanu Ai-Mu>taliq becuine Iht Prophet's relatives by lllitmagd 
so they emancipated (hose they held. Hence, a hundred famfe were set 
free hy this marriage, 1 have never known a woman who fid great a blessing 
to her people ihun she was/ 

From Yazul ibn RCman. the Prophet ipbuhl dispatched Al-Walid ion 
'Uqbali ibn Abi Mu ayi to Them uftcr they had embraced ]*Iam. When they 
heard tbill he whs coming, tbey went out lo meet him, but when he knew 
that they were com in g. he became frightened so he returned to shi- Prophet 
ipbuh) telling him that they were going to kill him and thus ha J detained 
tlteir ahnv Thi* MoMims were indulged in uilk to invade them until the 
Prophet rpbuhi hi rn.se If was about to do so, In the middle of this, a 
delegation of their* went 10 the Prophet (pbuh) saying, "O Messenger of 
Allah, w* heard of your envoy whom you sent, gap wc went out to honor him 
and to pay due aim*, but he turned back as rapidly as lie could. Then we 
were told that he ulleged that we intended to, stay htm, By Allah, we did not 
come out for that," So Allah sent down on this incident, 

40 ytitt wH$ hfUcvr! If rt rebethmts enl person com** to ytm with a 
ne\vs, vrrify it, few ytw tumn ftrvpte in ignornnre. ami ujtemardx ymi 
fencww regtrtfut & wiun you haw tku\t\ Amlhimv that, omnng vuh tht re 
u fltf Mrxswgrr tifAttiih if fir wert m ofaepyw tie. follow vour opmitms 
ami ill-ares) irt much of the matter, yon would ninety he intmuhlt^ i 

(A!-Hujurat: 6-7) 

The Prophet (pbuh) advanced in his journey until he approached 
Mndinnh. ~A"ishah was with him when the Liars brought forth the slander 

The Slander during the Raid 
on Banu Al-Mu^iallq, 6 AH 

x A'fsha!i (may Allah be pleaded with her) said, "Whenever the Prophet 
Cpbuh) wanted to set Out a journey, he used to draw lots between hi* wive.%. 



show pride at war. Whenever he wore a red band around his head, people 
knew that he was going to light. When he rook the sword from the Prophet 
(ph-uh). lie bunded his head and started to strut up and down between the 
ranks. Watching him, the Prophet (pbuh) said, This is a tread tfuu AUah rfe- 
uan zxccfrim sufh situation fi& war in the vaiuie of Allah i. " 

Abu SuJyan said (o the standard bearers of Banu 'Abdud-Dur. spurring 
iheni lo war, "0 Bunti ^Abilud-Dar! You have been assigned to bear our 
stand aid on die Day of Badr and you know what has happened. The 
standard is the first thing thai the enemy assail*. Should it full, we fat I down 
Uxi + Therefore, either you guard its safety or leave it for us. and we will 
certainty save you that task/' They got angry and Threatened him, saying. 
"Do you want us lo deliver you our standard? Tomtirrow when we will be 
engaceil in the battle, you wilt be witness to our deeds." Such a reaction was 
what Atau Sufyan had aimed ru. 

When lite two parties drew cfott* lo each other, Hind, the daughter Of 
'Utbah leading; the Qurashi women tapped on tambourines behind the 
warriors to incite them, 

On the Day of Uhud. the ProphetV Companions used "'Kill, k\\\V as a 
slogan to call one another therewith- The people were engaged in fighting 
until the battle grew fierce Abfl Dujdmih fought until hel44M"t moved 
Forward through the enemy's rows. He killed whoever stood in his way of 
the enemy. There was* a man among the pohihcists was busy with finishing 
off Ihe wounded Muslims. During the fight AhQ Dujanah drew closer to that 
man: so they were engaged in combat exchanging two sword-strokes. The 
poly i he i si struck Abu Dtijunuru who warded off the blow with his shield. 
AhQ Dujanah struck him and kiJIed him. His sward hovered over the head of 
Kind, ihe daughter of 'Ulbah, bui he spared it from ber. !h 

Hamzah ibri AhdeUMuiiaUb kept on fighting until he slew Aria' ah ibn 
"Abci Shurulibil ibn Has him ihn \Abd ManaT ibn Abdnd-Dar, one of the 
standard bearers. When SibiT ihn '.Atktci-'ltazii at -G hubs ham, dubbed Abu 
Niyar, passed by him T JJamzafi said to hitn. "Conic on, you son of a female 
circumciser.* 1 



I. Abu DujJvfKth iuul I ww 4i fW4M>n viveniy inciUn^ lk:c tncULV u^iiQii ihe MlljUih!* uuJ *lwn 1 
rbvln:iJ 10 kill him. tw UmukfiV II wji a woman, I fcfluicd lo id] I a woman with lite lium uplift? 
swunJ i>r iht? PfO|th[>E < iitiuh l." 



honorable man among his tribe so [he Ansar who were (tore with the 
Prophet (pbuh) tried to sympathize with Ibn Ubayy saying, "O Messenger of 
Allah* at may well he thai the boy imagined what he said and did not 
remember exactly the words uttered by the man." 

When (he Prophet (pbuh) was on fcus way bacL Usayd ibn ftudayr met 
him and greeted him saying, "O Prophet of Allah, you are moving off at a 
bad time; you have never done that before.' 1 The Prophet (pbuhj said, Have 
yvti not heard of whai your aimpamtm mid?" He said. "Which companion?" 
The Prophet tpbuh) said, ^Abduim ihn Vfot&* He said, "What did he say?" 
The Prophet (pbuh) said, 7/<r said that if he returned to Mtidfmdt. Indeed the 
more honorable tvotdd expel the meaner'' He answered. 'But you, O 
Messenger of Allah, can expel him if you wish. By Allah, he is the mean 
one and you mv the honorable onel" He added, O Messenger of Allah, he 
kind to hiin. for Allah brought you to us while his people were about to 
crown him, and he believer that you have deprived him of a kingdom " 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) having the men with him kept on walking all 
through the day until the evening, then throughout the night until the 
morning of the nest day. so the sun harassed them. Then he stopped to 
alight. Once they were on the ground they fell asleep. He (pbuh) was 
deliberate in doing (his, so as to divert (heir thoughts from the affair of 
k AbdulJ5h ibn Ubayy 

Then the Prophci <pbuh> proceeded to a watering place known as Baa/ a 
in Al-Jjjjaz ii little above Al-Naqt\ While on their journey during the night, 
a very strong wind blew winch terrified them. The Prophet (pbuh) soothed 
them, declaring thai urn wind designated the death of one of the greatest of 
the disbelievers. Back in Mad In ah. they discovered that the one who had 
died that day was RiuVuh ibn Zayd ibnut-Tabut of Barm Qaynuqa", a great 
figure among the Jews and a secret haven for the hypocrites. 

Allah the Most Hi^h revealed a Surah about the hypocrites. Ihn Ubayy 
and the like. Thereupon laking hold of Zayd ibn Arqams ear. the Prophet 
(pbuhl said. "7/it.v i* the one who devtmd hh mr u> Allah". * Abdul Ifih the son of 
"Abdullah ibn Ubayy heard of that and went to the Prophet (pbuh) saymg, "I 
knew thai you intend to kill 'Abdullah ihn Ubayy for wha( has reaehed you 
about him. If killing him is a must, then please let me do It and I will get 



His. friends ttofeed him why he did nor finish him off. "He cspuwd MS h*nly 
to me (us ji sign of abject surrendcri so the fading of pity for the blood tic 
prevented mc and 1 knew lhat Allah would surely kill him." he said, 

"As 1111 ibn f habit ibn Abel -Aq I ah killed Musali" ibn Talhali and his 
brother At- Jul las by piercing both of Lhem with a dait Bitch came lo his 
mother. Sululuh, laying his head on her Jap. She asked, "Who h^is injured 
you, my son'" 1 heard a man while shooting me saying. Take it t 1 am Ibn 
AbckAqluh." he replied. She- vowed to drink wine in the skull of "A^tm. 

HiwiZiiJfiii ibn AM Amir, who was called 'the Washed One', and Abd 
Sufyan met in haiilc. When ffanzalah had beaten Abu Sufyan. Shaddad 
ihnul-Asvvad. who was ibn Sha'uh* smote and killed him. The Prophet 
tpbuhl said, "Yrwr fampttttt'on (w. Uflnztiiuhi is beitta wished by the Angels, so 
ask his wife if there wax .mimrftittjt (that hapjn'tiedi r« him," When the) ttitjinred 
his wife, she said thai he rushed in the battlefield when he heard the call for 
war while being in a slate of jtaiUbtih" Then Allah sent down His help to 
I he Mils lints and fulfilled -His promise. They uprooted I heir enemy with 
their swords until they drugget! them away from their camp. It was an 
obvious defeat, 

A/-Zuh;iyr said. "I saw the anklets of Hind, the daughter of 'Ulbah and 
her friends because they were folding up their dresses as they run away. 
Nothing prevented anyone from culehing (Item when the archers turned to 
the emnp as Ujc enemy had been thrown out of It. Thus we were attacked 
from behind by the cavalry. Someone cried out. "Ha* Muhammad has been 
killed.' We relumed and the enemy pursued us after we had killed the 
standard bearers, so that none of lliem would dare take it The standard 
remained on the ground until Amrari Al-Hantbiyyaru the daughter of 
Almmrnh hoisted it for the Quraysh to gather round; they did so. The 
Muslims were beaten and the polylhcLsls hiid killed many ol theni- It was a 
day of trial and testing in which Allah honored several with martyrdom, 
until ihey reached the Prophet iphuhl wtio was hurt with stones mj tlui he 
tell on his side, one of his teeth was broken, his fare was hurt* and his Up 
was injured. The man who wounded him was 'Urban ibn Abi Watjijas. The 
blood began to flow on his fate and lie kepi on wiping it away, while 
saying. IHtmt am a pen/tie succeed when tlitry have hhtehvtl WW futv *4 their 
f*njf)het with hhuui while he rotts them to their font? So Allah sent down the 
following verse. 



Waqsh, Sad inn 2ayd, Usuyd inn Zuhayr. Ukilshah ibn Mij^un, Mubri/ 
ibn NadJaru Ahu Qmadah a I Ham h fbn Rih T, and Abu ~Aayyfch Ubayd 
ifrn Zayd. When they had came lugeiher to ihe Prophet Iphuh), he appointed 
5;f d ibn £ayd over ihem and rold then? to head for the bund until he himself 
would follow the in with ihe troops. 

In the engagement, Abu Qauidah al-Harith ibn Rih'I killed i^bib ibn 
'IJyuynan ibn Hi^n and covered him with his mantle; ihen he pine J hi* 
farce, The Prophei iphuhl proceeded with Muslim warriors. As they saw 
Habtb covered with Abfl Qaiadah's mantle, ihey exclaimed, 'To Allah we 
belong and to Him h our return' Abu Qatadah has been slain " The Pmphiu 
tpbuhj said thai iL was not Ahu Qatadah but a man killed by him and 
covered wiih his mantle in order to know- ihat he was his prey. 

Ukashan reached Awbfu jmd his son Amr whu were mounting on one 
comet and killed the two of i hem with one ftrofcc of his lance. Some of the 
milch-camels were recovered The Prophet (pbuh) advanced until he 
stopped and alighted at ihe mountain of Dhu Qarad, where the men joined 
him, and spent there a day and a njghi. Salamah ihnul-Akwa asked tor 
permission to go with a hundred men 10 recover the rest of I he camels and 
behead the hand. The Prophet <pbuM said, "ton They sfwtbt be haying their 
everting miikifrink umtmg the Ghmttfim. " After Ihe Prophet (pbuh) had divided 
the butchered eiimels, one for every hundred men, he returned to Madimih. 
The wife ol A T-G hi fart came riding on one ofthe Prophets she-camels. She 
told him the whole story. Then site said. "O Messenger of Allah, I made a 
vow m Allah thai J would slay this she-camef ff He rescued me on it," The 
Prophet I pbuh 1 smiled and said, "What a hml reward* Wi(fy t ut tt6uj$tir, it nfttr 
Mttih inu mnunh'ti ywf *m it and delivered you by ir.' Verily, thcrt is no t*m in dfe 
oheetisnee iv Allah nor t<tncernitty <tnytliinjt that is not yours. The shc-rumrt is 
mirn\ sty £o buck to witrfitmitv wtih Alfah'x bLwing: " 

The Raid on Banu At-Mustaliq"> 

The Prophet (phuh) remained in Madman during the later part of Jumada 
al-Akhirah and Rajub. lit Shu bun 6 AH. he raided BanQ AJ-Musiaiiq of Ihe 

J, JJ is WfldttflfSd TlicRsul iwi AJ-Mihijt 



When Uie Muslims netogni^d the Prophet ipbuh) Lhcy took him and 
ascended to a mountain pass. Ik was in the company of Abu Bakr, armar, 
All. laihuh ibn UbaydUlah, Az-Zubayr ibnul-'Awwam. Al-Hlriih 
ibnus. Simrnuh. and other*. 

Reaching the glen, the Prophet ipbiih) was pursued by Ubayy ihn Khalar 
who said, "O Muhammad? Biihcr you or I be will killed." The people said. 
M Shall any of us kill him?* The Prophet (phuh> said, f&eave him atoned 
Coming closer 10 him. the Prophet (pbuh> took a lance from At-HMth 
ibnus-Simmah. As T was told. He shivered violently in such a way thai all of 
them scattered in all directions at once, pacing him. the Prophet (pouhi 
slabbed him in the neck so mat he swayed and rolled off hi* marc over and 
aver. 

Previously in Mnkkiih* Ubayy ibn Khalaf used to say to ihc Prpphei 
(phuh). "O Muhammad. 1 have got a marc called Ai-\Awdh which I forage 
every d:| y *'ith many quantities of corn. I shall kill you, while riding it. w 
"But I will kill you ifAliait wills," was the Prophet's answer, When he returned 
to the Quruysh, he only had a small scratch on his neck. So when the blood 
became congested he said, "By Allah, Muhammad has killed me." They 
answered, "By Allah, you are afraid of death. By Allah, you arc not hurt/ 
He replied, "He toJd me when we were in Mafckah thai he would kill me, 
and by Allah, had he spat on me, he would have killed me." Eventually, the 
enemy of Allah died al a place called Sarif*, while they were taking him hack 
to Makkah. 

When the Prophet (phuh) arrived at the opening of the mountain pass. 
"All wem to fill hth leather shield with witter from the waterine place ol 
Al-Mihras and hroughf it to the Prophet (pbuhj lo drink, but he refused 
because of its repulsive odor. Nonetheless, he used the \vmer to wash the 
blood from his face. Pouring it over his head he said, "Allah's Wrath ts great 
on he who has bloodied the lace of Hi^ Prophet." 

The Prophet fpbuhi tried to mount a large rock on the mountain which 
blocked his way. Being older and weaker besides wearing two armors, he 
could not chrnb it. la 3 hah ibn Ubaydi Huh squat ted beneath him and 
enabled the Prophei ipbohJ to slant! on his back until he stood on it. After 
Taiwan's act. I he Prophet (phuh) Kaid, "lulhiih h eligible far Paradise L* 



said. Tfr has other amfiW & $M % Him in WW Humh it my soul the an- 
$rlx rejoiced at (receiving) the spirit ofStfdand the Throne shook for him.? 

Tliree potythejsts were slain: Munabbih ibn 'UthnuLri ibn 'Ubayd who 
was injured by an arrow and died in Makkati because of it. There was also 
from BujiG Makhzum ibn Yaqa&ah: Nawfut ibn 'AbdMMh ibnut-Mugfairah, 
who penetrated [he trench and was entfapped in ii and killed, so the 
Muslims too hold of his hody. His people asked the Prophet Ipbtih) to sell 
them his body but he tphuhl said, "We have m> us? for his fori? nor the price 
t which rtttttd he paid) for it", and be let them have a. And from Band 'Amir 
ibn Lu'uyy, ' Amr ibn \-\bd Wudd was killed by All ibn Abl Taltb. 

On the Day of BanO Quraygah. KJiaMSd ibn Suwayd from the Muslims. 
was martyred, when a miUsionc was thrown tin him causing a shaitcjmg 
wound h was said thai Lhc Prophet [pbuh) said that he would be given ihe 
reward of two martyrs Abu Sinan ibn Mujs.an ibn Hurifcm died during the 
siege of BanQ Quray^jh and was buried in the burial ground of Banu 
Qurayzah- As I was tokl, after finishing ths trench affair* uV Prophet (pbuht 
said. 'The Quruyxh will not invade von after this year, hiu you wtfj invade them." 
The Quraysh did not invade them afterward, but he <pbuh> invaded ihcm 
umtl Allah the Almighty permitted that he conquered Makkah. 

The Attack on Banu Libyan 

After raiding Banil Quraygah the Prophet (Jibuti) spent si* months in 
Madman from Dhjf-Hijjah lo Jornada aUJia. He went oui against Banu 
Lihyan lo take revenge for Khubayh ibn Ad ivy and his companions who 
were killed at Ar-Rnjr. He pretended thai he was heading for Syria to attack 
the people by surprise. He left Madinah m and set forth passing by GhurSb, a 
mountain near Madman at the road to Syria, then to Makh& to A)~Batrd', 
and then he turned leftward to reach the valley of Bin. inert to 
£uknayraiuJ-Yanimarn, rhen MraiL-hc forward on ihe highroad to Makkah, He 
liasienud the pace until be arrived at Ghurun. the locution of Banu Libyan. 
Ghuran is a valley between Amaj and ^Ustan up to a village called Say ah, 

I, Jtc 4filt»ln left Hui Ufnm Mjiki^tn in Charge ttf MuJiniih. 



Hind, the daughter of 'Uttaih and ^inic women with her. kilted to 
mutilate the Muslim corpses. Aflcr they cut biff their ears and noses making 
them in tb anklets, necklaces, and pendants, Hind gave them In WafcsM, the 
slave of Jubayr tbn MuTrm. She even ripped open HamzafTs liver and 
chewed it, hut she could not stand its taste and spat it out. 

A! Huluys ifrfl Zabban, who was the teader of the btack warriors, passed 
by AhO Suryan while he was hitting the side of Hamzah's mouih with the 
edge of his spear saying "Taste that, you insurgent.'' Allays exclaimed, 
,h O Banfi Kinanah. is this the leader of the QumvkIi doing Ihts to his cousin 
while deattf ' He said, "Confound you, keep it secret, for it was just a slip." 

Having decided to depart. AMI Sufyun climbed iip the muuniain yelling 
at the top of his voire, "Good work" Victory in war goes by aitcman; 
success; this day fur (fie day {of BadrK Be sublime Hubal tan idol)" "j i e + 
uphold your religion' 1 . The Prophet (phuhl told "Lfmar to gel up anil answer 
him saying. ''Allah if more Sublime and Enalted We are not equal, Our 
dead are in Paradise , white yours are in I he Hcil-Firc," At this Abu Sufyan 
snmmonc d Umar to go to hi in. The Prophcc (phtih) told him to go and see 
what he was up U>. When he came Abu Sufyiin said, "I beseech you by 
ATluh. O v tJmar ( have we killed Muhammad?" "By Allah, you have not. he 
is listening to your talk now," he answered. Be said, I know you arc more 
truthful and reliable ihan Jhn Qami'ah who said that he had killed 
Muhammad." 

Then Abu Sufyiin exclaimed, "Among your dead some are mutilated. By 
Allah, J ajn neither satisfied, nor angry, and I neither forbade nor 
commanded in nidation." While departing with his companions, Abu Sufyiin 
called out, "Your meeting- pi ace is Badr next year." "Yes, it is -an 
appointment for horh of us," answered one of the Prophets Companions 
according to the command of the Prophet fpbuh). 

Then die Prophet (pbuhl commanded *Alt "Go after tttrm, to ituct mtt 
ttmr movements und in ten firm, ff They arc dismounting their fames attd tiding 
their ixtmeh thry will hr heading for Makktih* whereax if they are riding their hors* 
es and leadm& iht.tr camnls they will fa hrutling for ii (AtaditwJti, liy the One in 
Whtwe Hand h my jmut. if they make for Mudmnh t \vt\l march tmt to them and 
fiHht* "Alt said Inal he pursued them and found that <hcy were mounting 



titty (themselves) ettme not- to t)w buttle estepl a link* jfr 

to seek excuse for thcrnseJvcs through H. 

4 Being miserly towards >yw Uts regards help and aid in Allah's Cause}. 
Then when fear corner vvu will ixe them tanking to von, their eves, ft* 
votving fikc (rho.tr oft rmtf over whom hovers death* hut when the fear 
depurtt, they wilt smite you with thorp tongues* \ 

\x. in Ihcir words which you do not like since they dn not hope for the 
Hereafter a* well us the reword doe* not move them, for they fear death like 
(he one who docs not hope for what is after death. 

4 miserly towards (spending anything in any} $ood (and only covetous of 
l-oory and wealthy Surh have not heheveth Therefore Allah mokes; their 
deeds fruitless, arid that is cv& easy for Allah. They think if tat Al-A/ttitb 
fthe Confederates) have not yet witluirawn, twtl if At-Ahzoh (the Catt- 
federtitex) should come i again., they wwdd wtsh ihex were in the deserts 
twartderinft) anumf> the Bed. /trim, seeking news olx-ut von ffrotn a for 
place); and if they \ happen) to he among you. they* nmdd not fight hut 
(irtle. > 

Then Allah addressed the believers saying, 

• Indeed in the Messenger of AUah (Muhatnimtdt von have a goat! ex- 
atf.pl v to fallow for him who hopes in I the Meeting wirhi Allah and the 
Uisi titty and remembers Ait ah much, h 

Le, that they should not desirously cure more for themselves than himself 
and not I o be in a place where he is nol. Then referring to the believers, their 
sincerity and belief in whal AMah promised them of mat by which He tested 
them. He yald. 

i And when the believers sau Al-Ahiab (the Confederates), they said: 
Ylrix is wlutt Allah mid His Messenger t Muhammad t had pnwmed w.i, 
tmdAlhth and Nts Messenger thfuhwnmad) had spoken the truth, and it 
only added to their faith and to their suhmtsst\enevs ftp Allah h f 

I.e. tolerance of trial and affliction, acceptance of the decfee. and 
verification of the truth of what Allah and His Messenger had promised 
them. Then He said. 



ttntts, etc). And endure yon patiently {0 Mahmmuul), ytmr patience is 
not bat from At fait. And grieve not aver thi'm (polythelia nnd pag/tas, 
eu.}. and be mtt dhtrts&ed hecaujte of what titty phi. ± 

(An-Nahl: 1 26^ 127V 
So I he Prophet (pbuh) forgave them and forbade mutilation Then he 
(pbuh) ordered thai Haxnzah he covered in ;i marcite; then he performed ihe 
fune^il prayer fiver him, saying, "Atfah is Greater" seven Urnes, Then he 
commanded that all the dead be brought beside Hasniah. and he offered 
prayer over them, Prayers which he had performed over ihem reached 
seventy-two prayers. 

Ibn Ishaq said, '^aflyvah, the daughter of " Abdul-Mimalib came lo sec 
Uam/afi. who was her full-brother Tlic Prophci (phuh) ordered her son, 
A^Zubuyi ttmui- Aw warn. 'Meet her and hold her buck .to that she mil mtt see 
what hay happened to tier brother." Fife said to her. "O Mother, the Messenger 
of A Uah orders you lo ret urn/ 1 She said, "Why? J have been informed that 
ihey have mutilated him. But so long us it is Tor the sake of Allah, whatever 
happens to him satisfies us. I will he calm and patiem if Allah wills." Back 
to Ihe Prophet 1phuh). Aa-Zubayr reported To him what she had said. Ho 
told him to leave her alone. She looked at Hanizah and said. To Allah we 
belong and to Him do we return", and then she invoked Allah's forgiveness 
for hint. Then Ihe Prophet (pbuh) ordered hts burial, 

Some Muslims carried their dead to Madtnah to bury them there. 
However, the Prophet fphuh) prohibited this act saying that they shouUJ be 
buried in Ihe place where they had died, Aecording to ^Ahdullfih ibn 
Tha'lnbah. white inspecting: the martyrs of Uhud. the Prophet <pbuh) said, 
7 ant tt witness over these. Whoever h mm&dfo* the sake ofASiah will he re- 
vived tin the Day ofResurreithm with his wounds hteedtnj* with the color of blond 
ond the smelt of musk. Find out the one who colierttid (or kept by heart} the 
Quran mure tor better} ihtrn his comnuninm and make him ahead of them in the 
grave/' Two or three bodies were buried in one grave. 

On his way to Madinah. the Prophet (phuhi met Hamnarh the daughter 
of Jafash. As she met the army, they annua need to her ihe death of her 
brother, "AhdullSb ibn Jajish- She said. "To Allah wc belong, and to Him do 
we return, 1 ask Allah's forgiveness for him." Then she was told of the dcaih 



Prophet (pbnh), offered prayers wilh him towards the two qiblahs 
(Jerusalem and Uien Makkah) and swote the fealty of women to him, asked 
the Prophet lo give her Rifa'afi ibn Samaw'al al-Qumyzt who was an adult 
and who had resorted to her. as he knew them before that. She said mat he 
had professed that he would offer prayers and cat camel's meaL The Prophet 
(pbuh) accepted and she saved his life. Afterwards, the Prophet (pbuh) divided 
the property, women, and children of Baofl Qurny^ah among the Muslims. 

Then the Prophet (phuh) sent Sa'd ibn Zayd al-Ansari die brother of 
* Abdul -Ashhal lo Najd lo sell some of me captive women of Band 
Qurayzah for horses and arms, The Prophet (pbub> had selected from Lhcir 
women for himself Raybanah the daughter of "Amr ibn KhunafaK who 
remained under his power until he died- When the Prophet fpbuh) had 
propoiicd to marry her and put the veil on her. she said. "O Messenger of 
Allah, let me in your power, for thai will he easier for me and you/' Hence 
he left Iter. She had refused to convert to Islam when she was seized and 
adhered to Judaism. Being displeased with her affair, the Prophet (pbuhl 
secluded her. One day while he was with his Companions, he heard the 
sound of footsteps behind him, so he said. This is Tha'htbah ibn Sa yah 
coming to tell me the good news of Rayhanahs conversion to Islam/ 1 He 
proclaimed The fact, which pleased the Prophet (pbuh). 

Allah the Almighty revealed Quranic verses, concerning the Battle of 
the Trent h and Band Qurayjah. These verses are in Surat at*Ahzab> in which 
He mentions the affliction dial the Muslims suffered from. His grace to 
them, and His help when He relieved them after the evil words said by the 
hypocrites* Allah (he Almighty says, 

4 O \ou who believe f Remember Allah's Favour to Wit, when there ramt 
agamst you Item, ami We sent against them a wind and forces that yon 
saw nor (i,e. tm&ps of angels during th* battle o/At-Ahztlb 1lhe Con- 
federmestf. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of wliat you dn, * 

The hosts were the armies cf the Quraysh, Ihe Ghaiaf&n, and BanA 
Qurayzah. 

4 When they tame upon you from above yent and fwtn bfl&w you, and 
when the eyes gir w wild and the hearts reached to the throats, ami you 
were harbouring doubts about Allah, k 



pursuit, Likewise, thrir enemy would know thai the Muslims were mighly 
and i liui their losses had not weakened them. 

Leaving Ibn Unim Makttim in charge or Madiituh. Lte Prophet t.pbuh) 
reached a place called JlamrXul-Aiad about eight miles from Madinah. He 
spent Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday there mid then returned to 
Madinah. Ma" bad ibn Abl Ma'bad al-Khuzal nwi him. Both the Muslims 
and polytfteisls of the KhiM'uh were confidants v( the Prophet {pbuhl in 
Tihamah. as the* agreed among llicuiselves that they would never hide 
anything from him of what was happening there. Though a polyiheisi. 
Ma'bad Wild, "O Muhammad by Alfuh. we itrc really sorry for What ha* 
happened to you and wish that Allah would keep you safe among them." 

The Prophet (pbuh) met Abu Sufyan with his army n Ar-Rawjtf' 11 -!. 
They had determined to return to the Prophet and his Companions. They 
thought i hat while they had killed the best of the Muslims, leader*, and 
nobles, they wanted to attack Therr survivors to exiermmatL* them, When 
Abu Sufy&i saw MaUtd. he said. 'What is up? H ' He answered, "Muhammad 
has headed oft with his Companions u> follow you with an army which I 
have never seen the like. Ilnminc w r irh fury against you. Those who 
previously stayed back arc now joining him; they deplore their 
non-attendance and are violently infuriated against you* Never base 1 seen 
anything like it," He cried womfcringly. "Confound you. what are you 
saying?" He answered. "By Allan. 1 do noi think thai you shoufd depart 
before examining the forelock* oi the cavalry." 'Bui we have decided to 
attack them and uproot their survivors." Am> Sufyan confirmed. Ma" bad 
added, 'But 1 forbid thai you do it." Eventually, Ma' bad could thunge the 
mind of Aba Sufyan and Jus followers. 

A caravan of *AbdUl-Qays met him. Know-ins (hat ihey were heading for 
Madinah tvr provisions, he said. 'Would you give a menage to Muhammad 
for me and J wili load your caravan with raisins in the next forum of 'LTka^ 
when you arrive there?" They accepted. He said, 'When see him. tell him 
thai wc arc determined u» march our to him and his Companions to 
annihilate them" When the riders conveyed Abti Sufyan \ message tu tin: 
PropJici t pbuh > while he was m Hamraul-Asad. he exclaimed, "Alhih (Alone} 
it l&jfficientjm-its. und Ht is the fan Disfttwer </J affair* {for us}\ 

1, A juwk iwti utijhK juj> tmm Mjiillruih 

— CJ^ — 



In iht: morning BanCi Quray^iih succumbed to tlic Prop lie i\ judge mciic 
and the Aws were moused saying, "0 Messenger of Allah, they are our 
allien not the KhazrujY You know-how you have recently treated theirs " 
Previously ihc Prophet [pbuh) had besieged Bauu Qaynuqa , the ex^allies of 
the Khazrar. As they had submitted la his judgement, "Abdullah ibn Ubayy 
ibn Sul ill asked lo have them and the Prophet (phuhl agreed. However. 
v. lie 11 1 lit Aw* said those words to the Prophet tpbuhl, he said. "Wauht vou Iff 
Maisfied O AwSi if one ofytwr ««« tribe gives ilte judgement cfittt'ftrjiing them?" 
They agreed, so he suggested Sad ihn Muiidh to he ihat man. 

The Prophet ipbuhi had made Sa d ibn Mu v adh stay in a tent owned hy a 
woman from the As I am united Rufaydali inside his mosque. She used to 
nurse and take care ol" die wounded Muslims. When Sa'd had been injured 
by an arrow at tile Batik of the Trench. Ihe Prophet tpbuh' ordered thai he 
be put in Rufaydas tent unul he would visit him later. When the Prophet 
Lphuiii selected him to arbitrate on the issue of Banu Quray&ih. his pcopfe 
went to him and pal him on a donkey a leather cushion, as he was a 
corpulent man. Bring in 11 luni Lo the Prophet (pbufi) (hey said, "Be kind to 
your friends, tor the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has appointed yuu to judge 
for thai very purpose." When ifoey kepi on saying so, he suiii. "Il is time for 
Sad. in the cause of Allah, not to feat the blame of any blainer. " Hearing 
his words, one of Those who were in Ins company went to the household of 
Banu " Abdul -Ashhal and preannounce In them the death of Ban u Qurayzab 
before the arrival of Sa^d to them because of the word* Lhat lie had jusi 
heard from the latter. 

When Sa'd reached the Prophet (pbuh) and the Muslim*, the Prophet 
tpbuhl said. "Co la \mtr Chief, The Muhaju%m of the Quraysh said that the 
Prophet (pbuhl meant the Ansjir, while it it* latter ihouchi that he addressed 
all the Muslims, so they got up und said. O Ab& Atur (meaning Sa'dj. the 
Prophet ipboht has put you in charge of your aliic>' affair that you nia> 
arbitrate concerning inem." Sa'd asked, *'0& you make a covenant with 
Altah lhat you pass the judge men l that I will pronounce on them?" They 
said, "Yes*. He Added, 4, And die one who is Jiere?" fuming) in the 
direction of the Prophei <pbuh) without mentioning his name out of 
vencruiiun. Tlte Prophei iphtihJ replied. "Jta", Sifd said. M Thcn my 
judgement is that their men should he kilted, wealth divided, and women 
and children taken as prisoners of war." 



Islam, so ihey netted some oi his Companions to go wilh them lo insiruui 
them in religion* leach them how lo recite the Qur*an f and to teach them the 
Islamic laws, The Pmphel (pbuh) sent six of his Companions: Marthad ibn 
Aht Marthad; KMlid ibnul-Bukayr; 'As.im ibn Thabit; Khubayb Jbti 
'Adiyy; Zayd ibnud-Dadimah ibn Mn awiyah; and Abdullah ibn lariq. He 
made Marthad as the leader. 

When they reached Ar-Raji\ a watering place of the Hudhayl towards 
Al-HijSz at ihc upper pun of AE-Mod'ah (between ' As Fan and Makkah), the 
Muslims were betrayed so they called the Hudhayl to help them against 
them. While they were off guard, they were suddenly attacked by men with 
swords, so they started to fight them: but the men said thai they were not 
intending to kill ihem as they wanted to profk from delivering diem to the 
people of Makkah. They pledged thai they would not kill them. As for 
Marthad. KMlid. and ^im, Uwy said, "By Allah, we will never accept a 
covenant nor a paut from a poJytheisi " 

Thereupon a fight took place and (lie three were killed. The Hudhayl 
attempted to take ' Asim's head lo .sell ino SulAfah, the daughter of Sa'd ibn 
ShuhaycL who. when he killed her two sons at Uhud. vowed that if she 
could gel his head, she would drink wine from his skulL When the Nudhavl 

■r 

approached his body, some hornets came between it and lhem T so they 
decided to leave him until nightfall when the hornets would go away and 
they would be able to take his head. Yet, Allah sent a flood In the valley to 
cany 'AginVs corpse away, ^Asim had given Allah a pledge never to touch 
nor he touched by a polytbcist out of fear of impurity. When he heard about 
Ihe hornets that protected ' Asjm, 'Umur ibnul-Khuitafc said, "Allah protects 
His believing servant. Asini had vowed ihai no poly i heist should touch him 
nor he would ever touch a polyt heist in his life-span, so Allah protected him 
after his death just as he had protected himself (U. from being touched by a 
potytheist) while be was alive. 1 ' 

Khuhayb ihn *Adiyy N Zayd ibnul-Daihinah, and 'Abdullah ibn lanq 
softened and yielded to their desire to live so they gave up and were fettered 
to Mnkkah to be sold There, In Az-Zahran. * AbdullSh managed to unbind 
himself from the rope with which he h;id been fettered and look hold of his 



Approaching their farts. the Prophet (phuh) said. "O yatt brothers of man- 
keys, liui Aikih dt&grtit&dypU and serif His vidignation cw you?" They answered* 
"O Abul-Qasim you were never ;i barbarous person,'' 

When me Prophet (phuh) reached Banii Quray£ah he slopped by one nf I heir 
wells, adjacent to (heir possessions, called the Anna Weil His Companions 
followed him. and among them were men whose last prayer was of the 
7jt/jft', and they had not offered the n A^r prayer in accordance to the 
Prophet - s command not to do so except in Banu Qurayjah. They had been 
much preoccupied with witr arrangements, unwilling lo offer the prayer 
until they would be in Banu Qurayzah, complying with his order. Thus tht?v 
offered the 'A$r prayer there lifter the 'Mia' prayer. Yet they were not disgraced 
because of ih if by Allah, in His Book, nor did the Prophet (phuh) reproach Ihem 
Banii Qurayzah were put under siege by the IVophct (phuh} for twenty-five 
nights until they were fatigued and Allah cusi terror into their hearts. 

Huyayy ibn Akhiab tiadi stayed with Ban fi Qurayzah in their forts after 
the withdrawal of the Quraysh and the Ghainfan. 10 preserve his word to 
Ka'li thn Asuti. li became evideni for ihcm rhat the Propliet (phuh) was 
pcrsisient to fight them, so Ka/b ibn Asad cried out, "O Jews, you can see 
what has befallen you: 1 propose to you three alternatives Take which you 
tike the best: to follow this man and believe in him. for by Allah, it has 
become apparent to you Urni he is a Prophet with a Message and that it is he 
who is mentioned in your Book; and then you will secure your lives, wealth, 
women, and children." They answered, "Wc Will never violate the rules of 
the Torah and never replace it with another." He said. "Then if you do not 
take this proposal, kill your wives and children and ihcn go out, men only 
with iheir swords to light Muhammad and his Companions leaving, no 
burdens behind you. until Allah judges between us and Muhammad, If we 
die. we die. without leaving children behind us to worry about If wc win. we 
can many other wives and have children." They said, To kill these poor 
creatures? How can we live after them?" He said, "Then if you do not take 
this pfopn<suJ Tonight is ihecvc of Saturday, Most probably Muhammad and 
his Companions will feel safe, so why do we not come down and seize 
Muhammad and his Companions by surprise." They said. "Are we to 
corrupt our Saturday and do on it what otu predecessors had done as it is 
well-known to you that they were turned uiio apes?" He answered, "None of 



prolonged my prayer, - It was ihen that Kfmhayb esiahiishcd ihe sunnab of 
performing two rak'uks. before being executed. 

Then he was uplifted onto a piece of wood on which they bound him. He 
said. "G Allah, wc have delivered ihe message of Ypur Messenger, so tell 
him tomorrow what is being clone ro us." Then he sajrf, O Allah, count 
them h> number k:ll them separately one hy one, and tcave none." Then 
they kilted him, may Allah have mercy on htm. 

Mu'awiyab »bn Abl Sufyan said, T was u>ere thai day with those wio 
were wiih Abu Sufyan, as he pushed me to the ground out of fear of 
Khubayh's invocation/' They u-sed to believe that if one wa^ cursed, and 
"Jien *Icpl on the side the come would vanish. It was narrated Lhai wJieu 
"llmar Ibnul-KhatiAh appointed Said ihn *Aimr ibn Hjdhyam al-JumabT 
over a pan of Syrui, he suffered fannins Ills whik lie was aniimg ihe people, 
and X'mar was told of this. During a visii 10 Umar, Umar asked liim about 
his problem, so he said. 1 have nothing to suffer Irani, but I was among the 
attendees of Khubayb ibn "Adiyy's killing I heard his invocation, and 
whenever I rurriembcr it when I am in a meeting I fainC This augment 
'Ulnar's admiration of him. 

ibii "Abbas said, "When the expedition on which Manha<I and Asim 
wore anacked in Ar-Rajf. some of ihe hypocrites said, "Alas for those 
templed fellow;, who died in such a way! They fteilher remained wiili their 
families nor did they deliver the message of thefr Companion. 4 Then Allah 
ihe Alrmjahly related conecrmig ihe mying of ihe hyrocrileA. dAnd nfmtnktnd 
there h fit whose speech may pter ymt tO Mulumwuuh in (his worhtiy fifth i.e, 
he may use his longue lo *av woriU wiih which he pretends thai J* is Mus- 
lim,* rW he <rnUs Athth n> uitness as to that which h in his heart # although this 
eonlritdieLv th.it which he Hays dyet he is the most quarrclsem of ihe opptmmts ? 
i.e. he is argumentative when he speaks with yeu, . And when he ntmsmvny {from 
you "O tenhummaxTl * i,e. when he kavtm y*u this effort m the Until Js to twikir 
Mischief therein ami tv drstrrty the crops and the cattle, tmd Allah fiUs not tti> 
diieff j.e. He due* not like that ii shmdd be m;ide or spread. dAnd wlurn it is .said 
m htm. Tear Allah 1 , hv is led hv arrogant* to (ntoiv) crime, .fci etuwvh for him r> 
HclL mdwwst indeed it. ttntt ptac* ta rest! And of mankind a he who wtmU self 



mcsMge, Banfl Quray^ah said. "Nu'uym hud spoken ihe truth. The people 
warn you 10 tight. In case ihev have the opportunity they will ma ke ihe hest 
of it: hut in ease Ihry do nol T they will flee io ihcir own country and leave us 
to encounter this man here. So convey our message to the Quraysh arid the 
Ghaiafan. 'By Allah, we will not light Mu ham mad with them Unless you 
give us hostages." They refused to do so. Allah mirrcd up distrust among 
Ihcm. lie sent a bitter siorai agamsa them on the extremely cold winter 
nights, which overturned their cooking-pots and vessels. Having learned 
about their disagreement and how Allah had dispersed their confederation, 
the Prophet Ipbuti) summoned Hudhayfah ibnui-Yaman to send him to 
them and find out what they had dune thai night. 

Muhammad inn Kab al-Qura^F reported I hat a man from Kfifah said to 
Hudhayfali. ,r Did you really see I he Messenger of Allah and accompany 
him? T When he answered yes, he asked what they were doing. "We used to 
live a hard life." liudhayfah said, lie said. "By Allah, it we were with him, 
wc would not have left him to walk on the ground, bin would have earned 
limi on our shoulders." liudhayfah said, "O nephew, by Allah, we were with 
the Prophet ipbLih) a! the trench. After he had offered prayers for a part of 
rhe night . he turned to us and asked, 'Who wtU get up und &> tnfmd <H$fit u.t 
what thv ehvmy is dtiiitg and then rt'tum. and / will invoke Allah tht? Almighty ihai 
hr be my comrade m Paradise r No one moved because of rhe extreme fear, 
hunger and cold which prevailed. When no one responded, ihe Prophet 
tphuh} called me. and 1 had to go Ui him when he called me, O liudhayfah, 
go through the etirttiY and investigate what fhev arc daing, D& not da anything 
(rixei until wit rtmxe tmrk Hi ax* said I he Prophet (pbuhk So I went through 
the enemy while the wind and the soldiers of Allah were dealing with them 
as they did, leaving neither pol. nor fire, nor lent standing in their place. 
Abfl Sufy&n got up saying. O Quraysh, Jet every man see who is sitting 
besjde him." f held ihe hand of the man ai my side asking him who he was 
and he said, 'so-and-so V ' ' 

Then Abu Suiy&n said, O Qnraysh. we are not staying in a permanent 
camp: the horses and camels have perished: Banu Qurayiah have broken 



I. In Stiti/fi ui Mtttk-Hkih. "When I inihV the hund itfllfc iMtcnHi ml? rjyPlt-iiidc I OiAtHi Mill, "Who Jie 
youT. and lie HrfFlicdL. Mm awiyrth ihn Art' Sufyin'. Ttitrn [ look tin: luind ttl ihe *\rte an my left. 
>1ilc ia%eii him who tic was, ni>d he said. " Ami ihtoiKAf.* 



■cs> 



until he was granted martyrdom m the Battle or the Trench, May Allah have 
mercy on them all! 

'Amr ibn Umayyah Ail-Dumri nnd an An^M of Banfl H Amr ihrt ' Awf M 
were out on their grazing ground. They recognized the death of their 
campy n inn* when they saw birds encircling their camp. Trying to 
investigate the matter, they found the men lying dead, while their kdlcrs 
were standing near by on Ihclr horses. " Amr suggested thai l hey should 
inform ilie Prophet ipfruh) about the news, bet the Aosari fell unable to 
leave the place where Ai-Mnndhir had been killed, so he fought the group 
until he was stain, : Amr was captured, but when he told them Hun he WfflJ of the 
Mugar tribe. "Amir tbnui-Iufayt released him after he had em hk hair. It was 
alleged that he did so to fulfil an oath taken by his mother to set a slave free. 

*Amr reached Al-Qarqarab an tin; opening of a canal when two men of 
Banu Amir joined him in the shade or a tiee. Ann did not know that mete 
was a pledge of protection between the Prophet fpbuh) and Band 'Amir. 
When he knew that they belonged to Banu 'Amir, he killed Lhcin while they 
were sleeping to avenge the killing of the Prophet s Companions, Returning 
to the Prophet (pbuh). he told him of Iils deed "You have killed mo men wftftfi 
hffK^mnney t should fulfil " said the Prophet, *fftfs htm outcome- of Aba fori'. 
I did tun like and fared this i expedition J." When Aba Bara' heard the news he 
was extremely annoyed by "Amir's violation of his pledge by killing the 
Prophet's Companions despite his promise of protection. 

Among those who were slain, was 'Amir ibn Fuhayrab. According to 
Hi sham ibn 'Urwah, "Amir ibnutXTufayl asked. "Who was the man among 
Ihem when he was killed, 1 saw him elevated between the earth and the 
sky?" They answered. "It wis K Amir ibn Fuhayrah.* 

The Propher. Expludes Banu Art-Nadir, 4 AH 

The Prophet (pbuh) went to Banft An-Nad?r seeking their help to pay the 
blood- money for the two men of Ami* whom ' Amr ibn Umayyah ajM>amri 
killed after he (the Prophet) had given them a pledge of protection. There 



I AI-MgrdWr ibn Miihummul ttin 'Ifytial* 



of the Trench he made a mark to be distinguished in his position. When he 
and his cavalry halted, he challenged anyone 10 a duel. 'A J! went out saying , 
w "Anu, you made an oath to Allah i hat if any man of the Quraysh offered 
you two alternatives, you would choose?" "Yes. 1 did/ he said. % AI? 
continued. "Then I invite you 10 Allah, His Prophet, and Islam. " He said, "T 
aiTi needless of them." "All retorted, 'Then dismount for the challenge." He 
replied, "Q nephew, hy Allah, I do not want to kill you.'* ^AfT said. "As for 
me. by Allah. 1 want to kill you" This infuriated 'Anir so he alighted, 
hamstrung his horse, and struck its face; then he approached "All. and had a 
fierce duel in which 'Alt kilkd him. Their cavalry heing beaten, hurriedly 
fled across I he trench. Jfcrimah ihn Ah? Jahl cast down his lance as he fled 
after " Amr's death. 

In the Battles of the Trench and BunO Quniy^ah. the Muslims' cry was 
•^MiVn!*"They will not be helped." 

Allah described the Prophet Ipbuh) and his Companions being in fear 
and difficulty when ihey were attacked by their enemy from above and 
below. NiTayra ibn Mas'ud went to the Prophet ipbuh) telling him that he 
had secretly embraced Islam, and his own people did not know it, and asked 
him In command him to do anything he tpbuh) wanted. The Prophet ipbuh) 
said, "Yen &r? only wie man amo/i-p us, sa $q ami mciir diMintst ttmfsng the enemy 
U> vturd them djfns ifytm tan. for warts a stratagem." 

Immediately, Nu'uym headed* for BanU Qurayzah with whom he had 
been a comrade in his pre Islamic days. After mentioning his good will 
towards them and of their special relation ^liip, they acknowledged that they 
did not feel suspicious rewards him. He said, "The Quraysh and the 
Ghaiafan are not like you: the cown is yours which encompasses your 
property, wives, and children; you cannot depart and go any when; else. The 
Quraysh and the Ghajafan are here to fight Mohammad and his 
Companions, as you are supporting I hem against him, but their I ami 
property, and wives are not here, so they are different from you. If r hey find 
an opportunity Ihey will seize it; but if ihe situation goes bad, they will 
return to their own land and let you confront the man whom you will not be 

1 Then* letnu * mipiH luve heen us*d n-k rcfcifmu lo teller* wifli wlucii sumc Stoat* i>t ih& Quran 
tc-jr Ad-Dtikhanj cufiinKrar arid ihey etc one itf ihe nuradc* flf l lie Qufm nvni none bur AlWi 
A.fane Xnovfi ifreir meaning* lAtlvtwr) 



Abdullah ibti Abi Bakr tepuncd that Uiey were (invcri out accompanied 
by their women, children, ami property in gj procession of music and ringing 
girls. Among tliem was Urnin Amr or Salmu, an ei-slave woman of 
"Urwah ibnul-Ward aKAbsu whom itey had bough! from hjra. Thetr 
bamshnjcM wuh full of pornixnisncss and splendor is had never been shown 
by any tribe or' their Lime. 

Wealth siill remained tor the Prophet (pbuhi as booty. -which he could as 
he wished. He divided it among the early Murtafirim and gave nothing to the 
Ansar, with the exception 10 Sah! jbn Hunayf aiid AbO Dujanah Simmak ihn 
Kharashah for their poverty. 

Sural Al-lht$hr was revealed entirely about Bann An-Na*dTr. It is ji 
record of Allah's Wrath on them, and He gave His Prophet tpbuhi control 
over them. Allah said, 

4 tie it is Who ttrmr am the disbeliever* ottiwg the people tjftke Scrip- ■ 
lure the the lens of rite trilte of Hand An-Nadtr} frvm their homes at the 
first gathering. Y#u did not think that they wotdd sn out. And they 
thought ihttl their fortresses w&idd defend theni from Alhh* Bui Athdi'x 
iTutmrnt) reached than front a plate whereof they expected it nat t ami 
He east terror intr> their hearts, so that ihe\ destroyed their tmi thtefa 
mgx with their awn hands taut the hands of the believers* > 

Thev demolished their houses down to the door lintel, taking it with than. 

• Then take adinmiitinn. O ymt with eves fto see), And hod it not been 
that A f loft hud decreed exile for (hem, He would ctrtotnh lime punished 
them tn tftts worUt ]fc 

i.e. with the*; word, 

*wtd in the Hereafter theirs shall he the ttirmmt of the Fire, I 

(Al-Hashr:2-3) 

* What ytnt tO. Muxtimsi cttt down of the palm- tree* {of the ewtttyK or 
you left them standing. on their stems, if war by Jjrare of Allah, and in 
order dun He might dlsgrme the F&tiif&n t rebellious, disobedient to Al- 
lah), And what Adah gave as booty tfiay'} to His Messenger (Mn- 
Itammadlfrom them, for which you made n» expedition wkH either t:av~ 
airy or camelry. But Adult gives power to Hit Messengers over 



Leave me as 1 am. for J have always found him loyal ami manful* Huyayy 
kept on con *imi Ka b unit at last he gave up and prcmnsed hi in ihai if the 
Quruysb and the GhaLatnn tailed to achieve iheir target, he would enter his 
fortress to face the same fate as his Thus he acquitted (he cove nan I between 
him and the Prophet tphuh). 

When news about the Jews' intrigues to break iheir cove nam s reached 
the Prophet iphuhh he dispatched Ss'd ibn Mu'tklh jhn an-Nu'miln, ihc 
leader of the Aws, and Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah ibn Dulavm. the leader of The 
Khazraj. And Khawwat ibn J a bay r to find out whether the report wan true or 
tlOL "ffit is true qive me a ctyptfc mess/if:* Which 1 can understand, und do tuti 
weaken the people's cmftdme*; itttd if they stilt mnfotm to their agreement with 
us t dec tare U publicly he fore the peapie" ordered the Prophet (pbuh). 
Unfortunately, ihey discovered dim the situation was worse iha/t whit had 
reached them. They spoke disparagingly or the Prophet (phuh), saying. 
"Who i* lbs Messenger of Allah? We do not have uny pact or covenant with 
Muhammad.'" Sa'rf ibn Muadh reviled them and they answered mm in Ihc 
same way. Me was it high-strung man. so Sa*d ibn IMdah said to him. 
"Slop insulting then i for the problem is too serious for recrimination," Back 
k> the Prophci [pbuh), the two Sai'ds said, after greclmg him. "{They have 
bettayed us like} "Ailal and Al-Qararf. I.e. ii is like the treachery of 'AslaJ 
and Al-Qandi towards the men of Ar-Ra;i", Khubayh and his friends. The 
Prophet tpbuh) said. "Atlah.it Akbar! Wave glad tidings. M»$fitn$r 

The situation became grave and a sense of fear prevailed. The enemy 
came at them frojn above and below until grave fears passed through the 
believers' minds. Hypocrisy was pre vale m among the hypocrites* to the 
extent that Mu'ultih ibn Qushayr said. "Muhammad used to give us hope 
diat we would seize the treasures of the Persians and the Romans, and now 
none of us feels secure when going m the privy?" Also, Aws ibn Qayii said 
publicly to the Prophet tpbuh), "O Messenger of Allah, our houses are 
exposed to die enemy so allow us to go home, for it is outside Madinah-" The 
Prophet (pbuh) and the pulytheists spent more than twenty day*, almosl a monU;, 
without war with die exception of some arrow shootings, and Ifre siege . 

When distress became tougher on the Muslims, the Prophet tpbuh) sent 
tp the leaders of the Ghalafam Uyaynah ibn His.n and AI-Harith ihn ~Awf 
al-Murn. offering them a third of the fruits of Matllnah on condition that 



for Banti Mubdrib and Banu Tha'Jabah of the Ghajafaii, untd he hailed at 
NakhL Thi^ was (he Invasion of DhAtur-Riqn k . A huge troop of ihc Ghaiafan 
was confronted. The two parlies had drawn nearer to one another, hut no 
war occurred, as each was frightened of the other. The Prophet fpbuh) 
offered the prayer of feur. then he Ml off with the men. 

Jabir ibn AhdiNah said, "t left with the Prophet Ipbuh) lo mid 
Dhatur-Riqi' of Nakhl on my weak camel On our return, the company 
preceded me while I lagged behind untiJ the Prophet (pbuhl came to me 
asking me what die trouble was. I told him that my camel was keeping me 
behind. He tnld me to make it knecL When 1 did so, he made his came! 
kited too and said, 'Ghr me this eune in your ttand or cut me a branch from a 
tree'. I did so and he took it and prodded tbe camel several limes. Then he 
asked me m ride and we went off. By Him Who sent him with the Tmih, my 
(feeble) camel became as swift as his sbe-camet. 

WhiJe we were talking, the Prophet (pbuh) proposed to buy my camel. I 
was ready to ofTer it as a gift to him. but he insisted on buying it. I asked 
him to make me an offer. When he said thai he would pay n difhum for it. I 
disagreed and said thai this was not a suitable price . Then be raised the offer 
to two Uirliuuis and again I refused. The Prophet (pbuh) kept on increasing 
tbe price until it reached an ounce (of gold or silver). I said T Do yon 
consent, Q Messenger of Allah? 'Yes,' he retorted. Then I sold him the 
camel. Continuing our talk, he asked me whether I was married or not. 
When I said yes he asked if she had been a virgin or previously married 
woman? I told him dial she had been married before and he sard, 'ft would 
he better if she was a young woman so tfwi you could play together? 1 stated lo 
him that after my father hud been killed as a martyr at U|iud. I oecame 
responsible for my seven .sistera, so 1 had married a motherly woman to look 
after them efficiently. He said, 'Right deed if Allah with. On our arrind at Sitvr 
(three miles from Madinahi, we wilt order totnels to be slaughtered, spend the tfav 
there, and when pfrr hears ahmrt us she wilt shake the dim off her cushions- I said, 
'But by Allah, we have no cushions!" He answered 'Hut voir witt hare. When 
you return, da & welt-behaved deed.' Arriving at £irar ilie Prophet fpbuh) did 
what he had said: camels were slaughtered and we spent the day there. At 



together to make the preparations for this war. Furthermore the same band 
of Jews proposed lb; war invitation lo the Ghanaian m forming tfteni thai 
they would support them and that the Quraysh had already responded lo 
them, so they accepted to join in the fight. 

The enemy wis composed of the Quraysh led by Abu Sufyfin ihn tUrb. 
the Gha£af&n by Uyaynah ibn fli^n with Banu Fazarah. Al-Harith ibn *Awf 
ibn Abl Harithah al-Murri with Banu Murrati. and Mts^ar ibn Rukhavlah 
with those who followed him from the Ashja". 

Hearing about the conspiracy, the Muslim*: dog a trench mound 
Madinah, The Prophet fpbuh) joined in digging il to encourage the Muslims. 
The Muslim* were persistent in this strenuous labor with him. whereas the 
hypocrites slackened in this task by conceal mg their real intent ion and 
pretending to work with the slightest effort and sneaking away to their 
families without notifying the Prophet fpbuh) and without his permission. 
On the contrary, when a believer was exposed to an emergency they would 
ask the Prophet's permission to go and curry out his matter iuitl then return 
to his assigned task which he had left so as to seek I he good and right way. 
Concerning such believers Allah revealed the following verse, 

4 Tfte true believers are only those, who believe in {the Oneness of) Al- 
lah and His Messenger {Muhammad\, and when they are with him on 
some common matter, they so not a»ay ut\u( they hove asked his per- 
mission. Vtriiyt Thost who ask \our permission, thus*, art they who 
if tally] believe in Allah ami His Messenger, So if ihey ask your per- 
mission far some affairs of theirs, giv? permission m whom you will of 
them, and ask Allah for their forgiveness. Truly. Allah is Oft-Forgtvtng. 
Most XfereifuL \ 

(An-Nur 62) 

This verse was sent down concerning those Muslims who desired ihe 
good, were keen about it. and obeyed Allah and His Messenger fpbuh). 

In the next verses Allah speaks of the hypocrites who were sneaking 
away from the work without the Prophet's permission. 

+ \fiiki- no* tlie railing of the Messenger (Mahummad) arming ymi as 
your catling of one another, Allah knows those of you who slip away un- 



u*. Wfvi> i nuuhi ju*p j 1 1 _• u.*.]uuiuu ujiul 1 iiau completed the Simih.' " 

Ibn Lsiiaq ?*iiid thai when The Prophet iphiilii returned to Madmah he 
stayed in it for the rest tifjurnkfa abUla, Jornada abAkhirah. and Rajab, 

The Second Expedition to Badr, 4 AH 

In the rcuinLh of Shif ban keeping his appointment with Abu Sufyan at 
Badr h the Prophet (pbuh) spent eigbt nights there waiting for him. However 
Abu Sufyan had gone with the people of Makkab until ihey reached 
Majannuh' ' ' in the area of A^-Zahran. where he decitled to go back. He *aid. 
"O Quray?ih, it is 3 fertile year thai suits you more in order to pasture the 
animals on the herbage a nil drink inert milk. but tins year Li an arid one. I 
ani going to return. *o return with me/ They did. The Pcopk of Makkah 
called llicm "The Parched Barley Army", saying that they merely weni out 
to have parched barley. 

Having a covenant with the Prophet (pbuhj after the surrender of Eum'i 
Dam rah in (he mid of Waddan, Makhshj inn Amr iuHSamr? met the 
Prophet tp&uhJ while at Badr when he was waiting tor Abfl Sufyan, He 
asked whether he had come to Badr to mcei the Quraysh. The Prophet 
iphull) .laid, "Yfs, O fwtficr rf Burnt Iktmmh. tj you with ne ctm rancel the 
GSrvtmW bm^m ta^tutfiftht yr>u mh the wtnrd ntml AUuh judge* httwern us" 
He answered, "No, by Allah, D Muhammad, we do not intend anything of 
that kind." The Prophet 1 pbuh* remained waiting for Abu Sufyan. 

The Invasion of Dumatul-Jandal, 5 AH 

The Prophet tpbuhj remained for a month in Madmah until (he end of 
Druil-iiijjuh, 4 AH. The poiythci^? were in charge of the pilgrimage (h;n 
year too. Then, the Prophet (pbuh) went forth Jo raid DimuiiuJ-.tand&l 1 - 1 . 
However, he came back before reaching the place, and thus without 
fighting. He .spent the re.si of the year in Madmah, 



I I It I eil Mi ill nuh unHc tiic "1" A hi1u)| |ili ibji A KJsil kritnhn Sal u I 
Z taj&u :iwi> fwm MudlnLih. Anil tit; it'll Situ thn " Arfajah in charge ot Maitfiuih 



ijm Ijibruibt wuuli? :»U'p hij lunmLiuJi Uiiul i had LUiuplcleil the Sfttiitt* " 

(hn Isfriq >akl thai when ihe Prophet (phuhi returned 10 Madlnah he 
stayed in it for the rest of Jtrmadn a!-LT|a t ftjmadfi ai-Akhirah. and Rajah. 

The Second Expedition to Badr, 4 AH 

In the month of Sha'ban keeping his appointment with Abu Sufy&i at 
Budr, the .Prophet fpbuhl spent eight nights there waiting for him. However 
Ahfl Sufyan had gone with ihe people of Mafckah until they reached 
N5ajannah' n in the area or A^Zalirlm, where he decided 10 go back- He said. 
"O Qnraysb, h is a fertile year that suits you more in order to pasture the 
nninuils on tlic herbage and drmk (heir milk, bul this year is an and one. f 
am going Co return, so return with me," They did. The People of MaLLah 
called them "The Pan. bed Barley Army", saying thai they merely went out 
to have parched bailey. 

Having a covenant with ihe Prophet iphuh) after the surtender of Banu 
rjurnrah in the raid of W add an. Makhshi jbn Amr ad-Dpmri mei the 
Prophet Ipbuhl while at Badr when he was waiting for Abu Sufyan. He 
asked whether lie had come to Badr to meet Ihe Quraysh. The Prophet 
(pbuht said. "IW. O brother of Burnt Damrah. if you wish «? cun cancel the 
agfetmntl bernem m iwtt fight ion with the JfowB until Allah jt4it$e\ ifGmim ux." 
He answered, "No. by Allah. O Muhammad, we do noi intend anything of 
(hat kind.'* The Prophet (pbuh) remained waiting for Abu SufySn. 

The Invasion of Dtimatul-Jandal, 5 AH 

The Prophet ipbuh.) remained for a month in MadTnah until the end of 
Phul-Jiijjiih, 4 AH. The poWtbeists were in charge or the pilgrimage that 
year loo. Then. Ihe Prophet t'pbuh) went forth to raid DftniiituJ-Jundsjl 121 . 
However, he came hack before reaching the place, and diui without 
fighting. He spent the rest of the year in Madlnah. 



I He wt Mjttiriuji in chr ^iir id AhdulMti ifcn ' AbduJIOb ilia SuliiJ 

1 Nights may fiimt Mudfnah. and he left SihJT ibn ' Arffljnh in chug? at Mwtlnift. 



together to make the preparations for Ibis war. Furthermore the same band 
of Jews proposed I he war invitation to the Gbatafiin in forming ihem that 
ihey would support inem and thai the Quraysh had already responded to 
i hem. so they accepted to join in the fight- 

The enemy was composed of die Quraysh Jed by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. 
the GhatafBn by "Uyaynah ibn Hi$n with Band Fazarah, Al-Hari'b ibn ' Awf 
tbn Abt fcPrilhah al-Murri with Banu Murom, and Mis'ar ibn Rukh;iylah 
with those who fa I lowed him from (he Ashja\ 

Hearing about the conspiracy, the Muslims dug a trench around 
Madinuh. The Prophet f pbuh) joined in digging it to encourage the M us Urns 
The Muslims were persistent in this strenuous labor with bins, whereas the 
hypocrites slackened in this task by concealing their real intention and 
pretending to work with the slightest effort and sneaking away to then 
families without notifying the Pfophei (pbuh) and without his permission. 
On the contrary, when a believer was exposed to an emergency they would 
ask the Prophet's permission to go and carry out his mailer and then return 
to his assigned task which he had left so as I o seek the good and right way. 
Concerning such believers Allah revealed the following verse, 

• 77a.' true believers ere only those, wha belie\*e m (the Oneness of) Al- 
lah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and when they art with him tm 
some common mailer, they go not away until thr\ have asked his per- 
mitsion. Verity? Thru* who ask your permission, those are they who 
{malty} believe in Allah ami His Messenger, So if they ask your per- 
trus$wn for some affairs of theirs* give permission to whom yuu witl nf 
them, and ask. Allah for their forgiveness. Truly. Allah is Oft-Forgiving. 
Most Mereipd. \ 

(An-NQr: 62) 

Trus verse was sent down concerning those Muslims who desired the 
good, were keen about it. and obeyed Allah and His Messenger fn-buh). 

In the next verses Allah speaks of the hypocrites who were sneaking 
away from the work without the Prophet's permission. 

4, Make $toi the railing tif the Messenger (Muhammad I amimg you as 
your calling of one wither, Allah knows those of you who slip amta tm 



for Banu Muharib arid Band Thp'labah of the Gha|afan, until he hailed at 
Nakhl. Thk was the Invasion ofDhillur-RK]a\ A huge iroop of the GTiajafuu 
was confronted. The two parties had drawn nearer to one another, but no 
war occurred, as each was frightened of the other. The Prophet ;j>buh> 
offered die prayer of fear, then he set off with the men. 

Jabir ibn "Abdilldh said. "I left with the Prophet tpbuh) to raid 
Dhatur-Riqa or Nakhl on my weak camet. On our return, the company 
preceded mc while 1 Jagged behind until the Prophet <pbuh> came to me 
asking me w ha l the trouble was, I told him that my camel was keeping me 
behind. He totd mc to make it kneel. When I did so. he made his camel 
knee J loo and said, *Girr me this vane in your hand or cm me a branch from a 
tree', I did so and he took it and prodded the camel several limes Then he 
asked mc to ride and we went off. By Him Who sent him with the Truths my 
f feeble) camel became as swift as his she -camel. 

While we were talking, the Prophcl (.pbuh) proposed to buy my came!. 1 
Was ready to offer it as a gift to him, btil he instiled on buying it. I asked 
him to make mc an offer. When he said that he would pay a dirham for it. I 
disagreed and said that ihis was not a suitable price. Then he raised the offer 
fo two dirhams and again I refused. The Prophet tpbuh) kept on increasing 
the price until it reached an ounce {of gold or silver), I said, 'Do you 
consent, Messenger of Allah?' Te*.' he retorted. Tnen J sold him the 
camel. Continuing our talk, he asked me wlwiher I was married or not. 
When I said yes he asked if she had been a virgin or previously married 
woman? \ told him that she had been married before and he said, 'it would 
hf better if she was a young woman so thai you totdd play together? 1 Staled in 
htm that after my father had been kilted as a martyr at Lttuid, J became 
responsible for my seven sisters, so I had married a motherly woman to look 
after them efficiently. He said, 'Right deed, if Allah nilh. On our arrival at Sirar 
t three mites from Madman}, wr v* ill order camels to t*t sfattghirrtd. xjtend the dav 
there* ami when she hears ahoui us she wittthatt- the dust off her cushions,* I Said, 
'But by Allah,, wc have no cushions!' He answered. 'But ww will have, When 
you return, do a well+behaved deed.' Arriving at j£irllr (he Prophet (pbuh) did 
what he had said: camels were slaughtered and wc spent the day there. At 



Leave me as I am, for 1 have always found him toval .md truthful. Huvavv 

■ * - - 

kept on coaxing JCa'b until at \\ist he gave up and promjscd him thai if the 
Quraysh and the GhaLifan failed to achieve iheirtatget. he. would enter bis 
fortress to face the same fate as tits. Thus he acquitted (he covenant between 
him and the Prophet ipbubl. 

When new* about the Jews' intrigues to break their covenants reached 
the Prophet (pbuhl. he dispatched Sa" d ibn Mu'adh ibn ai?-Nu*mitn. the 
leadei of the Aws. and Sad ibn "Ubadah ibn Dulaynu the leader of the 
Khazraj. and KhawwfU ihn Juhayr to find out whether the report was true or 
noL "fflt /j true fihv me a cryptic WtSWS* which I can uridemamL atut dp nm 
weaken the people'* confidence: uttd if they xt,ill confttntt fr> jfte.fr agnrettnffit with 
iw, declare ii pnidkly be for? the people" ordered Ihe Prophet (pbuh). 
Unfortunately, they discovered thai [he situation was worse than what hail 
reached Lhein. They spoke disparagingly of the Prophet (pbuh), saying. 
"Wlm is the Messenger of Allah? We do noi nave any pact or covenant with 
Muhammad/* Su"d ibn Mu'adh revited ihcm and they answered him m the 
same way. He was a high-strung man. so Sa*d ibn "LMdah said to hint. 
Stop insulting them tor the problem is too serious for recrimination." Back 
to the Prophet tphuhi, the two Sa'ds said, after greeting him. "(They have 
betrayed us like*' A&il and AI-QararT. Le. it is* like the treachery of 'Ada I 
and Al-Qarah towards the men of Ar-RujT, Khubayb and his friends. The 
Prophcl (pbuhj said. "AUutw Aklwr? Have gjkui tidings. OM\tilit\%s! u 

The. situation became grave and a sense of fear prevailed. The enemy 
came at them from above and below umil grave fears passed through the 
believers' minds. Hypocrisy was prevalent among the hypocrites, to the. 
extent that Mu'atlii* ibn Qushayr said. "Muhammad used to give us hope 
that we would seize the treasurer of the Persians and Ihe Romans, and now 
none Off us feels secure when going to the privy F Also, Aws ibn Qavif xatd 
public fy 10 the Prophet (pbuhj. "O Messenger of Allah, our houses art- 
ex posed to the enemy so allow us to go home, for it is outside Madinah-" The 
Prophet fpbuhi and die polytheists spent more than tweiuy days, almosi a month, 
without war with the exception of some arrow .shootings, and the siege. 

When distress became tougtier on the Muslims, the Prophet (pbuh} sent 
to the leaders of die Ghatafan, 'Dyaynah ibn Uisn and Al -£lar ith ibn l Awf 
al-Muni. offering them a third of the fruits of Madman on condition that 

<n£) 



'Abdullah ibn Am~ Bakr reported thai they were driven out accompanied 
by their women, children, and properly in a proccMrioit uf music and ringing 
juris. Among them was Unim Amr m Salma. an exclave woman of 
*TJnvab ibnuJ-WMd al-'Ahsi. whom They haii bought from him. Their 
banishment was full of pontrwusnes!, and splendor as had never been shown 
hv any trthe of their lime, 

Weufth si ill remained lor the Prophet (pbirhi as booty, which he could a% 
he wished. He divided it among the early MuhajirCm and gave nothing to the 
Anvir, uitlMhe exception to Sahl thn Nunuvl .iial \Ki Dhu>m,i\i Siruinak M 
Kluirathah lor Their poverty. 

Sural Ai-tlttxttr was revealed entirely about Banu Ah-Nju£Ff. Ii is a 
record of Allah's Wrath on them, and He gave His Prophet (pbiiru control 
over them. Allah sa»d, 

4 He it is Who drove out the disbeliever among the people of the Srrip- 
Hire t i.e. tltt> Jews <}f the mhe of Band An-Nadtryfrotn their homes at the 
first i*&therw$. You did not thitik that they would %a out. And they 
thvufihr that their fortresses womd defend them from Alfoh! Bui Allah'*, 
iTormetit) reached them front n ptnee wherefif they e.tpected it nor, tmd 
11 f east terror into their hettrti. so that they destroyed their nwn (Ut'tl- 
iJMjtf.v with their own hands and the hnttdi of the fruiterers. * 

They demolished their houses down to the door liniel, laking it with them. 

■ Then take admonition. O yuit with eyex {in see}. And Had it not beett 
thai Allah hud decreed esilefor them. He \iymld certainly havr pttmxhed 
them in thtx umrUt f 

i.e. widi the sworo\ 

4 and in the Hereafter theirs shall he the torment of the Fire, a 

(AT-Jiashr : 2-3) 

m Whut van tO Muituml rut down of the pafm-trecr (of the enemy J, or 
you left them stanitin$ on their stems, it was h\ Leave of Allah, and in 
order that He nti^ht disgrace the Ftisiq&n (rebellious* dtsohedient to At- 
tain And what Allah jaw as booty t.Fay'l to His Afessen%er iMu- 
lutntmadi from them, for which you mode no expedition with either t-fiv- 
afry ttr camelry. But Allah gives power to His Messengers over 



of the Trench he made 3 mark li> be distinguished in his position. When he 
and his cavalry hailed, he ehalknged anyone 10 a duel. *AtT wcjii out saying, 
"0 " Amr, you made an oath to Allah that if any man of the Quraysh offered 
you two alternatives, you would choose'?" M Yes, 1 did," he said. "AH 
continued, 'Then I invite you to Allah, His Prophet, and Islam," lie said, "I 
am needles* of them.'' l Aii retorted. "Then dismount for the challenge." He 
replied, "O nephew, hy Allah, I do nor warn to kill you." Ail sajd. "As for 
me, by Allah. I want to ftiJJ you," This infuriated Amr so he alighted, 
hamstrung his horse, and struck its fact; then lie approached "AH, and had a 
fierce duel in which "Alt killed Inn; Their cavalry heiug beaten, hurriedly 
fled across the trench. Ikrimah ion Aht J ah I cast down his iance as he fled 
after "A hit's death. 

In the Battles of the Trench and EtanG Quray^nh, (he Muslims' cry was 
"tLu*Mtm\ lU They wit! not be helped." 

Allah described the Propltct (pbuhl and his Companions being in fear 
and difficulty when they were atiacked h_v their enemy from above and 
below. Nu'aym ibn Mas' (id went to the Prophet {phuhj telJIng him thai he 
had secretly embraced Islam, and his own people did not know it, and asked 
him to command him to do anything he iphnh) wanted. The Prophet tphuh) 
said, " You ore only one man among us, so go tun} incite distrust among thr enemy 
to ward thmt off us if you run, for nwr is a stratagem," 

Immediately, Nu'avm headed for BanCi Quravaah with whom he had 
been a comrade in his pre- Islamic days. After mentioning his good will 
towards them and of their special relationship, they acknowledged thai they 
did not lee! suspicious towards him. He said, "The Quraysh and the 
Ghutafan are not like you; the town is yours which encompasses your 
properly, wives, an <1 children; you cannot depart and go anywhere eke. The 
Quraysh and the Ghaiafan 4re here to fight Muhammad an J his 
Companions, as you are supporting them against him, but their land, 
property, and wives are not here, so they are different from you. If they find 
an opportunity they wit) seize it; but if the situation goes bad, they will 

return to 1 he if own land and let you confront the man whom you will not he 

^— ^ — 1^^^^^-^^— i— ^-^— ^^— ^^^— ^— »^»« 

1 Thttc \tl\tn TUvgJrf hdvc teen ur*rt « rcfCrnllf IO (crier* with whtrA mmc Strata nt 'm: Qm'ati 
re U Ad'Dtik!rJn> cumirrenvc .mil lbs* .ire (inr of ite mifqt'le* of ihc Qur'an flOd IWiw: huT Allah 
Atone kntriwAtheJf meaning 1 Ail vwt) 



until he was granted martyrdom in the Balile of ihc Trench, May Allah have 
mercy on the malt! 

* Amr ibn Umayyali Ad-I3amrf and an Ansiri of Banii * Amr ibn " Awr 1f * 
were out on their grilling ground. They recognized ihc death of their 
companions when they saw birds encircling their camp. Trying to 
investigate the ma tier, they found the men lying dead, white the if kdlcrs 
were standing near by on their horses. Amr suggested that they should 
inform i hi.' Prophet cpTuih) about the news, but the Ansari felt unable to 
leave the place where AJ-Mundhir hud been killed, so he fought the group 
until he was slain. 'Amr was captured, but when be lulu" ihem that he was of the 
Muclar tribe, "Amir ibmil-lufryl released him After he had cm his hair. It was 
alleged thai he did so to fulfil an oath taken by his mother to set a slave free. 

' Arm reached AI-Qarqarah ai the opening of a canal when two men of 
Banu 'Amir joined him in the shade of a tree. "Amr didnoi know that there 
was a pledge of protection between I he Prophet <pbuh) md Ban ft *Amir 
When he knew that they belonged to Banu ' Amir, he killed them while they 
were sleeping to avenge the tilling of the Prophet's Companions. Returning 
to the Prophet (pbuhj. lie told him of his deed, "Ytm have kilted two men whose 
Mood-money t should fufjli" said the Prophet "This is an outcome of Aim Hard'. 
/ did nai like and feared this (expedition}" When Abu Bara" heard the news he 
was extremely annoyed by Amir's violation of his pledge by killing the 
Prophet's Companions despite his promise of protection. 

Among those who were shim, was Amir ibn Fuhayrah. According to 
Hisham ihn 'Urwah. "Amir ibnin-IufayT asked, "Who was the man among 
them when he was killed, T saw him elevated between (he earth and the 
sky?" They answered, Tt was 'Amir ibn Fuhayrah." 

The Prophet Expludes Banu An-Na^ir, 4 AH 

The Prophet (pbuh) went (o Banfl An-Nadlr seeking their help to pay the 
blood -money tor the {wo men of ' Amir whom "Amr ibn Umayyah au>j3amri 
killed after he (the Prophet) had given them a pledge of protection. There 



I AI-MumNm ihn MiiELitmiiimi ibn ' I qhah 



message, Barm Qurayzah .said. "Nu'ayrn hud spoken the truth. The people 
want you to Tight. In case they have (her opportunity tbey will make the best 
of if : bUE in ease they do nut. they will flee in their own country and leave us 
to encounter this man here. So convey our message to the. Quraysh and rhc 
Ghaiafan. By Allah, we will not light Muhammad with them unless you 
give ns hostages." They refused to do so. Allah stirred up djsirusl among 
ihero. He sent a hitter storm against them on the extremely cold winter 
nights, which overturned their coo kine -pots and vessels. Having learned 
about iheir disagreement and how Allah had dispersed their confederation, 
the Prophet (pbuhi summoned Hudhayfab ibnuJ-Yaman to send him to 
them and li nd out what i\\\ had done that nighl. 

Muhammad ibn Ku'b al-Qura^l reported thai a man from Kiifah said to 
Hudhayfah, H Did you really sec ihe Messenger of Ailah and accompany 
him?" When he answered yes. lie asked what they were doing, "We used to 
live a hard life." tLwdhayfah said. He said, "By Allah, if we were with him. 
we would nnl have left him to walk on the ground, hut would have carried 
Mm on our shoulders." Hudhayfah said. "O nephew, by Allah, we were with 
The Prophet (pbuh) at the trench. After he had offered prayers for a part of 
the night, he rumed to us and asked. *WHo witt get uptimlgo to find out for in 
who J the vnemy is dump mul then return, and f ivilt invoke Allan rhe Almighty that 
he he my com™dc in Paradise'*' No one moved because of the ex I re me fear, 
hunger and cold which prevailed* When no one responded, the Prophet 
(pbulu called me, and t had 10 go to him when he called mc. O Ewihayfak 
gtp thrwtfth the ettemy and investigate what if ley are doing. Do nof do (tnytfwig 
if hv I until you c/mte ftack u* ux w ' said the Prophet {phuh'K So I went through 
Ihe enemy while the wind and the soldiers of Allah were dealing with ihcm 
as lhcy did, leaving neither pot. nor fire, nor lent standing in their place. 
Abu Sufyan go I up saying, 'O Quraysh. let every man see who is silting 
beside him.' f held the hand of the man at my side asking him who he was 
and he said, so-and-so'. 1 ly 

Then Abu Sufyan said. 'O Quraysh. we are not staying in a pcnmancni 
camp; the horses and camels have perished: BanO Qurayzah have broken 



I Eli S/iurh af-Mimtihib, ~W7wit ] lm* thu hund of ihe i,ute on my rijlhi^idc. tttdfeod lnm. 'Who jnt 
>ou' f ', and Ik roofed 'Mm wwtyaJi ibn Abf Sufyan Then 1 i<wfc fie .(mud. or the owr on my teft- 
suk h asked turn wh(* he was . and he said. " Amr iSpul- Aj°,* 



G£> 



prolonged my prayer," [i was (hen to Khubayb estuMhhcd the sunn ah of 
performing two rdk^itts before being executed 

Then He was uplifted unto a piece of wood on which they bound him. He 
satd, "O Alteh. we have delivered the menage of Your Messenger, so teil 
him tomorrow whai is being done to us," Then he said, X) Allah, count 
them by number, kill them .separably one by one. and leave none." Then 
They killed htm t may Allah have mercy on him, 

MiTawiyah Ibn AbiSutyan sard. "I was there that day with those who 
were with Abu Sutyan, a* he pushed me to (lie ground out of fear of 
Khubayb's invocation." They used 10 believe mat if one was cursed, and 
then slept on the side the tiwse would vanish. It was narrated that when 
'Umar Ibnul-Khaiiah appointed StfftJ ibn 'Amir ibn Midhyam ul-.liima£iT 
over a part of Syria, he suffered fainting fits while be was among the people, 
and "Unw was told of this. During a visit to Urnar. * Urnar asked him about 
his problem, so he said. "J have nothing <o suffer from, but I was among die 
attendees of Khubayb ibn "Adiyy's killing I heard his m vocation, and 
whenever I remember it when I am in a meeting I faint/' This augmented 
"Umur's admiration of hjm , 

Ibn * Abbas said. "When the expedition on which Marthad and "Ajjim 
were attacked in Ar-Rajf. some of the bypoerites said, 'Alas for those 
tempted fellows who died in such a way! They neither remained with their 
families nor did they deliver the message of their Companion,' Then Allah 
thy AJmtgJity revealed concerning the iuyine of fhe hypocrites, mAnd of mankind 
tttttr tshe whose speech »itry please yttu tO Nidmmnutdh m ihi* wur/dty tt[e * <>e. 
lie niuy use Uh tongue to say words with which he pretends ih.H lit is Mm- 
liin.^«(j^ he actUs Athth m wdtten Of to duit which h m his heart* although this 
eo ntr;i diets thai wfckh he *ays # wihc h the mtt&t quurretwne of the pppattfWi 6 
i.e. he i* argumentative when I* speaks wit!* yvi\ iAnd whet; he runts aivay-ffmm 
yott "O Muhammad" ) + i.e, when he leaves you */ft* effort in the land is ta make 
mischief f herein and to destroy (he vmps and the iuttie, and AhnH likes not mis- 
c/rte/i i.e. lie doc> nul like thai it should be made or spread. *Amt whtw it is said, 
to hint Tear AUuh\ he is ivd t>\ timtfrmce to tmarri crime So enough for him ix 
Hell and wont indeed t,t that place to rest! And of mankind is he wlut would sett 



Approaching their forts, the Prophei (pbuh) said, "O you hrathers &f mon- 
keys, has Allah ilisRtactd yau and $zni His mdi$ttation on yttuK They answered. 
"O Abut-Qasim, you were never a barbarous person/' 

When Ihe Prophet (phuh) reached Banil Qurayzah lit stopped by one of the it 
wells, adjacent to their possesions, called the Anna Weil. His Companions 
followed him, and among them were men whose last prayer was of the 
% tshS\ and they bud not offered the "Asr prayer in accordance lo the 
Prophet's command not to do so eacept in Banu Quraygah. They had been 
much preoccupied with war arrangements, unwilling to offer the prayer 
until they would be in Ratio Quruyzuh, complying with Ins order, Tims they 
offered the \Asf prayer there after the "IsM prayer. Yet I bey were not disgraced 
because of this by Allah, in Mis Book, nor did the Prophet <pbub) reproach them. 
Bonu Qurayzah were pm under siege by the Prophet fpbuh) fur twenty-five 
nights until they were fatigued and Allah cast terror into their hearts. 

Huyayy ibn Akrnab had stayed with Banu Qurayzah in their torts after 
ihe withdrawal of the Qtiraysh and the Gnaiafim. to preserve his word to 
Ka'h ibn Asad. It became evident for them that die Prophet fpbuh) was 
persistent to fight them, so Ka'b ibn Asad cried out, "O Jews, you can see 
what has befallen you; I propose to you three alternatives. Take which you 
like the best: to follow this man and believe in him. for by Allah, it has 
become apparent to you that he is a Prophet wiLh a Message and that H is he 
who is mentioned in your Book; and then you will secure your lives, wealth, 
women, and children," They answered, "We will never violate die rules of 
the Torah and never replace it with another," He said, "Then if you do not 
takt- this proposal, kill your wives ami children and I hen go out, men only 
with their swords to fight Muhammad and his Companions leaving no 
burdens behind you, until Allah judges between us and Muhammad. If we 
die, we die, without leaving children behind us to worry about, ir we win, we 
can marry other wives and have children." They said, "To kill these poor 
creatures? How can we live after them?" He said. "Then if you do not lake 
this proposal "Tonight is the eve of Saturday, Most probably Muhammad and 
his Companions will fee J safe, so why do we not come down and seize 
Muhammad and his Companions by surprise." They said, "Arc we to 
corrupt our Saturday and do on it what our predecessors' had dune as it is 
well-known to you that ibey were turned into apes?" He answered, ''None of 



Islam, so they needed some of His Companions to go with ihem to instruct 
them in religion, teach them how to recite the Qur'an, and to teach them the 
Islamic laws. The Prophet (pbuh) sent six of his Companions: Marthad ibn 
Abi Marthad; Khalid ibnul-Bukayn *Asjm ibn Thahit; Khubuyb ibn 
*Adiyy; Zayd ibnud-Dathinah inn Wawiyah; and 'Abdullah ibn lanq. He 
made Marthad as the leader* 

When they reached Ar-Raji'. a watering place of the Hudhayl towards 
AJ-Hijaz at the upper pan of Al-Hadah (between " Asfan and Makkah). the 
Muslims were betrayed so they called the Hadhuyl to help them against 
them. While tliey were off guard, they were suddenly attacked by men with 
swords, so they started to fight them: bat the men saitf that they were no! 
intending to kill them as they wanted to profit from delivering ihem to the 
people of Makkah, They pledged that they would not Jcilt them. As for 
Mart had. Khalid. and r Asim, Ibey said T "By Allah, we will never accept A 
covenant nor a pact from a polyiheisl," 

Thereupon a fight took place ami the three were killed. The Hudhayl 
attempted to lake pint's bead to sell it 10 Sulftfah, the daughter of Sa'd tbn 
Shuhayd, who, when he killed her two sons at Uhud. vowed that if she 
could get hit hcuLl. s}w. would drmk wine trom hi* ^kuM. When the Hudhayl 
approached Ins body, some hornets came between it and them, so they 
decided lo leave him until nightfall when the hornets would go away ami 
they would be able to take bis head. Yet, Allah sent a Hood m the vallev to 
carry * AsinVs corpse away, *Aaim had given Allah a pledge never 10 touch 
nor be touched by u poly the i si out of fear o( imparity. When he heard about 
the hornets that protected ' Asjm, Umar ibnul-Khaitab said. "AJIah protects 
His believing servant. "Asim bod vowed that no polytheisi shuuld touch him 
nor he would ever touch a pofythcist jn his fife-span, m Allah protected him 
after his death just as he had protected himself (he. from being touched by a 
polytheist) while he was alive/ 

Khubayh ibn "Adiyy. Zayd ibnuUDaihinab. and 'Abdullah ibn Iariq 
softened and yielded to their desire to live so they gave up and were fettered 
to Makkah to be sold there. In AE-^ahran, 'Abdullah managed lo unbind 
himself from the rope with which he had been fettered and took hold of his 



In the morning SanQ Qumyzuh succumbed to ihe Prophet's judgement 
and the Aws were aroused saying. "0 Messenger of Allah, they are our 
allies, not the Khmraj's. You know4tow you have recently treated theirs," 
Previously I he Prophet (pbuh) had hesieged Burnt Qavnuqa\ the ex-aJlks of 
the Kha/raj, As Ihey had submitted to his judgement, Ahdullah ihn tfbayy 
ibn Siiljll asked to have them and the Prophet <pbuhl agreed. However, 
when the Aws said those words to the Prophet (pbuh I- he said. "Would von fa 
sotixfied. O Aws. if war ofymtr awn tribe gives the judgement concerning th*m? u 
They agreed, *.i he >;u£!i>ested Sa d ihn NUf Sdh to be thai man, 

The Prophet (pbuh) hud made Sad ibn Mu'adh stay in n tent owned by a 
woman from the Aslam called Ruiaydah inside his mosque. She used to 
nurse and take care of the wounded Muslims. When Sifd had been injured 
by an arrow at the Battle of the Trench, the Propftei (phuhi ordered that he 
be pm in Rufayda\ lent Until he would visit him later. When ihe Pmphel 
{phuni selected runt to arbitrate on the issue of Banu Qnrayzah, his people 
went to him and pui him on a donkey a leal her cushion, as he was a 
corpulem man. Bringing liim to ihe Prophet (pbuh} they said, "Be kind to 
your friends, for the Messenger of Ail all jpbuh) haN appointed you to judge 
for lhat very purpose " When they kepi on saying so, he said, "H is time for 
Sn'd. in the; cause of AJIah, noi to fear the blame of any blamcr." Hearing 
bus words, one of iftose who were in his company went lo the household of 
Runu Ahdul-Astihal and preannounee to them ihe dealh uf Banfl Qurayzah 
be tore the arrival of Sa'd to diem because of the words thai he had just 
heard from Ihe latter. 

When SaM reached Ihe Prophet i pbuh J and the Muslims, die Prophet 
(phtihl said, "Co u> war Ctuef> The MuhajirCm of ihe Quray^h said that the 
Prophet (pbuh) meant ihe Ansar, while ihe latter thought thai lie addressed 
all ihe Muslims, so they £ot up and said, "O Abu ' Amr {meaning Sa dp, the 
Prophet fpbtih.} has put you in charge of your allies' affair iHiii you may 
arbitrate concerning them/' Sa d asked, 1- Do you make a covenant with 
Ailah that you pass the judgement thai I will pronounce on them'?" They 
said. "Yes 1 *, He added, "And lite one who is k-re?" {Turning) in the 
direction of the Prophet (pbuh) without mentioning I lis name oui of 
veneration. The Prophet (pouh) replied, "Yn~. Sad said, "Then my 
judgement is that their men should he killed, wealth divided, and women 
and children taken as prisoners of war." 

@> 



putttw. Likewise, their enemy would know thai ihc Muslims wcix mighty 
and that their lasses had not weakened them. 

Leaving Ibn Uinm MakiQm in eharse of Madinah. (he Prophet fpbuln 
reacted a place tailed Itanira til-Asad. about eight miles from MadFnah. He 
spent Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday there and Lhen rehirnctl to 
Madlnah. Ma' bad ibn AW Ma bad ai-KIiti/sTi met hi m. Both the Muslim* 
and pulyiheisw of the Khti2aah wen: confidant* of the Prophei <pbuh) in 
Trhamah, ti< they agreed among themselves thai ihey would never hitle 
anything from him or whai was happening ihea\ Though a polytfreisi. 
Ma" bail said, O Muhammad, by Allah we aie real J y sorry for what has 
happened to you and wivh ihat Allah would keep you sate among them." 

The Prophei ipbuh) met Ablj SLityim with his army ai Ar-Rawh.W 
They had determined to return to the Prophet and his Companions. They 
thought that while they had killed the best ol* the Mu>lims. leaders, and 
nobles, they wanted to attack their survivors to ok terminate them. When 
Abu Suty&n saw Ma* bud, he smd. ' Whiu is up?" He answered "Muhammad 
has headed off with his Companions to follow you with m army which I 
have never seen the like, fl amine with fury against you, Tho^c who 
previously slaved buck are now joining him; they deplore their 
non -attendance and ate violently infuriated againsi you \cver have I seen 
anything like it" He cried won dc ring ly, "Confound you, what are you 
saying'" He answered. ,r By Allah, I do nor think thai you should depart 
before examining the forelocks of the cavalry." "Bui uc have decided to 
attack them and uproot Their survivors/ 1 Abu Sufyan eon Tinned Ma' bad 
added, "But I forbid that you do it," Even tun J ly. Ma' bad eould change the 
mind of Abu Sufyin and his followers. 

A eaniviin of" Ahdul-Qays met him. Knowing thai they were heading for 
Madtnaii for provisions, he said. "Would you give a message 10 Muhammad 
for me and 1 will load your caravan with nusms in the nexr forum of'Ukag, 
when you arrive then:?" They accepted. He said, "When see him, lull him 
thai we are determined to march out to him and his Companions to 
annihilate them/' When the rkter> conveyed Abfi Sevan's message to the 
Prophet <phuh) while he was in Hamra'ui-A.sad. he exclaimed, "Alfah f Atone) 
w Sufficient far u\\ ami H? h the Best Dtspttser of affairs (far mi". 

I A Imrtl WW HiJEllt^ *WitV irmn Madftnttt 



Prophet (pbuh), offered prayers with him towards the two qihluhs 
1 Jerusalem -snif then Makkah) and swore ihe feally oi women to him, asked 
the Prophet lo give her Rtfaah ibn Samaw'aJ al-Qurayz? who wis an aduli 
and who had resorted to her, as he knew them before thai. She said thai he 
had professed that he would offer prayers and eat camel's meat. The Prop he l 
(pbuh) accepted and she .saved his life. Afterwards, ihe Prophet (pbuhj divided 
the property, women, and children of Banfl Qurayzah among the Muslims. 

Then the Prophet (pbuh} sent Sa'd ibn Zayd al-AnjM the brother of 
'Abdul-Ashhnl to Najd to sell some of the captive women of Banu 
Quray^ah for horses and arms. The Prophet (pbuh) had selected from their 
women for himself Rayhanah (he daughter of "Amr ibn Khunafah, who 
remained under his power until he died. When the Prophet (pbuh) had 
proposed to marry her and pin die veil on her, she said, h '0 Messenger of 
Allah, let me in your power, for ihat will be easier for me and you," Hence 
he kfi her. She had refused to convert to Ulam when she was seized and 
adhered to Judaism. Being displeased wilh her affair, ihe Prophei i.pbuhj 
secluded her. One day while be was with his Companions h he heard (he 
sound of fooisteps behind him, so he said, "This is Tfra'labah ibn Sa'yah 
coming to tell me the good news of Rayhanah's conversion to Islam/' He 
proclaimed the fact, which pleased the Prophet f pbuh}. 

Allah ihe Almighty revealed Quranic verses, concerning the Battle of 
the Trench and Banu Qurayzah, These verses are in Sftrat al-Atzab in which 
He mentions the affliction that the Muslims suffered from. His grace to 
litem, and His help when He relieved them after the evil words said by the 
hypocrites. Allah the Almighty says, 

i Oyou wfto believe! Remember Altah'i Favour to vm#, when there came 
against jvfjw futsts* and We sent against ihrm a wind and forces that you 
saw not {Le. troop? of angeb during the battle of At-Ah*tib (the Can- 
federaicxif. And Attn ft ix Ever Atf-Seer of what ynu tfo. k 

The hosts were me armies of ihe Quraysh, the Ghaiufan, and Banfi 
Qurayjah. 

<L When they came uptm you J ram above yttu and from beimv you, and 
\iht?n the eyes #rew wild a/td the hearty reavhed ta the throats, and yau 
were harbouring tuatbtx aboui Allah. ^ 



ones, elf, I And endure van pttfiendy (0 Muhatimuid), vtntr patient* U 
tutf hutjrnm A Huh. And grieve not over them {polytheism and /means, 
etc.}, and be not distressed heenkse vj what they phi. ^ 

(An-Nahl: 126-1271 
So the Propltet (pbuh) forgave them arid forbade mutilation. Then he 
(pbuh) ordered that Ham* ah be covered in a m untie; rhen he performed I he 
funeral prayer over biro, saying, "Allah h Greater" seven times. Then he 
commanded that all rhe dead be brought beside Hamzah. and he offered 
prayer over them, Payers which he hud performed over them reached 
seventy -two pray era. 

Ibn Isfcaq said. "Safivyah, Ihe daughter orAhdul-Mmudib came to see 
Hamzaru who was her full-brother. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered her son, 
Az-Zubayr ibnul-' Aww3m, "Meet her and hold her baek m that she wiitnot see 
wltat has happened m her brother. " He said to her, "O Mother, ihe Messenger 
of Allah orders you to return." She said Why? 1 have been m formed thai 
they have mutilated him. Bui so long as it is for the sake of Adah, whaicvcr 
happens to him satisfies us. T will be ealm and patient if Allah wills." Back 
to the Prophet tpbtilU. Az-Zubayr reported to him whai .she had said. He 
lold him to leave her alone. She looked <il iUiuzah and said T 'To Allah we 
belong and to Him do we return' . and then .she invoked Allah's forgiveness 
for htm. Then the Prophet (.phuh) ordered his burial. 

Some Muslims carried their dead to Madtnah to bury them there. 
However, the Prophet {pbuh) prohibited this a£l raying that they should be 
buried in the place where they had tiled. According to 'Abdullah ibn 
Ttia'labah. while impeding the martyrs of U]uid, the Pmphei (pbuh) said. 
"I am a. witness over these. Whoever is wounded fur the lake of Allah will he re- 
vived tm the Day of Restureaion *ith hix wmmds htcedlng wth the *ufor wfhlood 
and the. swell of musk. Find out ike one ^ho collected for kept hy heart i the 
Quran more (or hener) than his vom/mnwnx and moke him ahead of them m the 
gmve. " Two or ihree bodies were buried in one grave. 

On his way to Madinah. Ihe Prophet {pbutii met tjamndh, the daughter 
of Jabsh. As she met the army, they announced to her the death of her 
brother, 'Abdullah ibn Ja&sh. She said, "To Allah we belong and to Him do 
we return, I ask Allah's forgiveness for him." Then she was told of ihe death 



they (themselves} cmnenot to the Huh except a little. • 
to seek excuse Tor themselves through it. 

- Being miserly (awards yt>u (m retards help attt! aid in Allah's Camel 
Then what fear amies, you will see them looking to xau, their ryes t#- 
vvhmft tike ttttase of) one oxer wham havers death, foil when the fear 
departs, they wilt smite ycu with sharp ttm&ues, k 

Le. in their words which yon do not like since they do not hope for the 
Hereafter as well a> the rewa/d docs nut move them, for they fear death like 
i.be one who docs not hope for what i< after death. 

* misrrfy towards i spending anything in rmv/ goo/l [and ontx a>yea>m of 
booty and wealth!. Su<h have fiat believed. Therefore Allah makes their 
deeds fruitless, and thai it ever easy for Allah. Ttiey thint that Al-Ahz&b 
(the Confederate* } have net vei withdraw, <mil if Al-Atmib fiAr Con- 
federates) should Come (again). they would wish thex were in the deserts 
{wandering) among the Bedouins, seeking news about you (from a far 
place )i ami if they f happen i tit be atmmg you, they would not ftght but 
Utile, k 

Then Allah addressed the believer* saying. 

a indeed m the Messenger of Adah (Muhnmnaul) you have a good ex- 
ample to fallow for him who hopes in I the Meeting withl Allah and the 
Last Day and remembers Allah mitdt. p 

\ r thiit ihtiy "iliwiid not desirously care mare fur ihemsclvcH than himself 
ami not to be in a place where he \n noi. Then referring in I he beftevers. their 
JUficerily and belief in wLkal Allah promised them of trial by which He lested 
them. He said. 

* And when the believers saw Al-Ahiah (the Confederates}, they stud: 
Trtt.t flf what Allah and His Messenger ( Muhammad i had promised its. 
and Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad} had spoken the tnah t and if 
a/dy added to their faith and ta thrirsubmhsivenns (to Allah t. f 

I.e. tolerance of trial and affliction, acceptance of the decree, and 
verifitaiioii of I he truth of what Allah and His Messenger had promised 
them. Then He said. 



Mind, the daughter of Utbah and some women wiih her. Halted in 
mutilate the Muslim corpses. After ihcy cut <yff their cars and non*s making 
[hem into anklets necklaces, and pendanu. Hind gait* them to Wufasihi, die 
slave of Jubayr ibn Muf int. She even ripped open Unmzah's livtrr und 
chewed ii, hut she could nut stand lis taste and spat ii out. 

At*HuJuys ibn Zabban. who was ihe leader of the black ft ardors, passed 

by AhO Sufyan wliilc be was t&tfijg the side of HanizatYs month with the 

ed«c of his spear saying, Taste that, you insurgent." Al-Hubys exclaimed. 

O Band Kinafiah. is this the leader of the Quraysh doing this to his cousin 

while dead' Jk He said, "Confound you, keep it secret, for it was just a slip/ 

Hiivimr decided to ile|*arL Abu Sufyfin e I imbed up the mountain yelling 
at The Hop of his voice, "Good work! Victory in wwr goes by alternate 
success; this day Tor the day (of Badrl Re sublime Hubal (an idol)*' K Lc. 
uphold your religion". The Prophet ipbuhj told Uinar to get up and answer 
hint saying. 'Adah is more Sublime and Enaltcd. We are not equal. Our 
dead are in Paradise, while yours are in Ihe Heli-Fiie," Al this Abu Sufyan 
summoned limar to go m him. The Prophet tpbuh) told mm to go and see 
what he was up to. When he came AbG Sufyan said, "I beseech you by 
Allah, "Umar. have we killed Muhammad 7 " "B> Allah, you have not. he 
is listening to your talk. now. " he answered. He said, '1 know you arc more 
truthful and reliable than Tbn Qan« f ab who said ih;it he had killed 
Muhammad 

Tilt n Abu Sufyan exclaimed, "Among your dead some are mutilated. By 
Allah. I am neither satisfied, nor angry, and I neither forbade nor 
commanded mutilation." While departing: with his companions. Abu Sufyan 
colled out. "Your ntceting-place is Badr next year." "Ye*, ii is an 
appointment fur both of us/ answered one of the Prophet's Companions 
according to the command of the Prophet (pbubk 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) commanded Als. "Go after rhi-m. to tmce am 
iht'ir movements and intetttiaiL if ihny art* dismounting their horses and riding 
their camels they wilt Iw heading for Makkak whereas if they are riding their hor^r 
es and lending their eameh tftey iW/f he heading ft>r it (Mridttmhi. By the One in 
Whose Hand tx m\ smd, if they make far Sfwfittah i will march am fa diem and 
ftfiht." *AJf said thai he pursued them and found thai they were mounting 



J 5i}> 



\Md t "Ik has Mher arnim m writ. By Htm in What* JW.< \s my wul the a* 
m rejoiced us tnceivintf the spirit of Sad and the Throne shook far him " 

Three polytheism were slam: Munabbih ibn 'Unman ihn X%ayd who 
was injured by an arrow and died in Mufcfcah because of it. There was also 
from Barm Makhztlm ibn Yaqazah: Nawfal ibn 'AbtUUah ibnul-Muglilrah, 
who penetrated the trench and was entrapped in il and killed, so tlte 
Muslims too hold of his body. His people asked the Prophet (pbuhl to sell 
them his body but he (phuh ) told. TIV Am* m» w/w ft,,* ta/v ^ rfr j*£j, 
rnVifV/j coitht hr fxiidlfur if, and he let them have it. And rnmi Bnnti ^Arair 
ibn Lu'ayy, " Any ibn ' Abd Wurfd was killed by ■ AH ibn AM jaiib. 

On the Day of BanC Quray£ak KhallikJ ibn Stiwayd from the Muslims, 
was martyred, when a millstone was thrown en him causing a shattering 
wound 11 was said that the Prophet rpbuh) said that he would be given ihe 
reward irf two martyrs. Abft Sinfih ibn Mifann rbn Hun ban died during the 
siege of Banu Quiayzah and was buried in the burial ground of Banu 
Quray&ih. As I was told, after finishing lite trench affair, the Prophet tpbuhi 
Wild, TAf Qtmiysh will not invade you after this year, hut you wilt in wide them. " 
The Quraysh did not invade them afterward, but he <pbuh> invaded (hem 
until Allan (he Almighty permitted (hat he conquered Maktah. 

The Attack on Banfi Libyan 

After raiding Banu Qurayaah the Prophet (pbuh) spent six months in 
MadTnah Lrom Dhui-Hijjah to Jumada uMJia. He went out against Banu 
Liiyar* 10 take revenge for Khuhayb ibn 'Adiyy and his companions who 
were killed al Ar-Raji \ He pretended tliat he w iU i heading for Syna to arrack 
the people by surprise. He fcft Madman'" and set forth passing by Ghurab. a 
mountain near Madihsh at ihe road to Syria, then to Makhid. m Af-Batra\ 
and then he turned leftward to reach the valley of B?n, ihea to 
£iikhuyr3uj!-Yammam f then straightforward on the highroad to Makkah. He 
hastened the pace until he arrived at Ghuran, the location of Banu Libyan. 
Ghuran is a vafley between Amaj and 'Usfan up to a village called Sayah. 

1. Itr ipttuhi ten Ibn Uinni MaLiflm [nthin^jeyrMadTniOi, 



When the Muslims recognized the Prophet (pbuh) ihey look tijm and 

upended to a mountain pass. He was in the company or Abu Bukr, "tJmar, 
'AH, Talhah ibn "Ubaydillah. Az-Zubayr ibnul-WwwArn, Al-Harith 
ibim^Sinnnuh, and others. 

Reaching the jiJcn, the Prophet (pbuh} was pursued by Ubayy ibn KhaJaf 
who said, "O Muhammad* tidier you or 1 he will killed 1 ' The people said. 
'"Shall any of us kill him?'" The Prophet tphuhl said, "Uavt him nUmr." 
Coming closer lo him. the Prophet (phtitri took a lance from Al-Harith 
ib mis -Sim niah. As T was told. He shivered violently in such a way that all of 
them scattered in aJJ di reel ions at once. Facing him, the Prophet (pbuh! 
stabbed him in the neck so that he swayed and rolled orflus niare over and 
over. 

Previously in Makkah. Ubayy ibn Khalaf used to say to die Prophet 
(pbuh J. ,h O Muhammad. I have got a mare called AI-'Awdh which I forage 
every day with many quantities of com. I shall kill you, while riding it.'* 
"But I will kilt van tf/Ufaii ^vitte, " was the Prophet's answer. When lie returned 
to the Quraysh, he only had a small scratch on his neck. So when the hkiod 
became congested he said. "By Allah, Muhammad has killed me." They 
answered, "By Allah, you are afraid of death. By AHah. you are not hurt/ 
He replied. "He told me when we were in Makkah that he would kill mc. 
and by Allah, had he spat on me, he would have killed me." Eventually, the 
enemy of Allah died ai a place called Sarif. white they were taking him back 
to Makkah. 

When the Prophet (pbuh J arrived at the opening of the mountain pass, 
"Alt went io fill his leather shield with water from the watering place of 
AJ-Mihras and brought it to the Prophet (pbuh) lo drink, hut he refused 
because of its re puis* ve odor. Nonetheless, he used the Wider to wash the 
hi oo*1 from his face. I'Ouring it over his head he said, "Allah's Wrath is ^rcat 
on he who has bloodied (he Face of His Prophet." 

The Prophet ipbuhj tned lo mount a large rock on the mountain which 
blocked his way. Being older and weaker besides wearing two armors, he 
could not climb it, Jalljah ibn 'Ubnydillah squatted beneath him and 
enabled the Prophet (pbuh) to stand on his back until he stood on it. After 
Tallinn's act, the Prophet (pbuh) said, "Rtlhfiti i% eti$ihte (far Pamdtxt}* 



Waqvh, Sud ibn Zayd, Usayd jbn Zuhayr. 'Ukashah ibn MiMan. Mabtiz 
ibii Nadjah, Abft Qaiadah al-Harith ibn Rib'?, and Abfi 'Aayy&h Tbayd 
ibn Zayd, When they had come tngetfur to Ehe Prophet fphuhj. he appointed 
Sa*d ibn Zayd over rhem and told them to head for the band until be JiiniseJf 
would Mb* i hem wiib the troops. 

In ili« engagement, Abu Qntudah al-Hanih ihn Rih t killed fcfabib ibn 
'Uyayniih ibn Hi^n and covered him with his mantle; then he joined his 
fori*, The Prophet (ptiuhj proceeded with Mustim warriors. As they saw 
HaNb covered with Abu QatadWs mantle, they exclaimed, "To Allah we 
beiong and to Him is our return! Abu Qaiadah has been slain." The Pmphet 
tpbuh} said [hat u was not Abu Qaiadah but a man killed by him and 
covered with fits nnmtlc in order to know thar he was his prey. 

Ukashah reached Awbar and his son Amr who were mourning; on one 
camel, and killed the two of Them with one stroke of his lance. Some of the 
rtiilch-cjimck were recovered The Prophet c.pbuli) advanced until he 
stopped and alighted at ihtr mountain of Dhti Qarad. where the men joined 
him, and spent there a day and a night. Salamab tbnul-Akwa* asked for 
permission to go wish a hundred men lu recover the rest or the camels and 
be) tead the band. The Prophet tpbuhJ said, W<w they xtmstUI he having their 
twnittg ruiik-tlrmk arncmg the Chatafwr After the Prophet (pbuhl had divided 
the butchered camels, one for every hundred toga, he returned to Madinah. 
The wife of AJOhifari came riding on one of the Prophet's she-eaniels, She 
fold huu the whole Mory- Then she said, "O Messenger of Allah. I made a 
vow to Allah that I would slay this she-camel if He rescued me on it." The 
Prophet (pbuhs smiled and said, "What a had ward* Witt you slaughter rfrgffcr 
Allah hap mtmnu\l ytm an it ami deUvrretf ym* by it! Verity, there irvw wt> in rifr, 
rtbvdtenc? la Allah nor itimcriiing anything that i* not vaura. The she-tamel is 
mint, iff go Ixick to ytmr family with Allah's hfcxsingS 

The Raid on Banii Al-Musjtaliq" 

The Prophet (pbuh) remained in Madinah during the later pan of Jumada 
ahAklnrah and Rajab. tn Stfe'ibOn 6 AH, he raided Banft Al-Musialiq of (he 

■ 

f , Un uIm] CjIIciI 'Hit: Hmd <m AI-Muujai ' 



His friends asfeed htm why he di<i not finish him off. "He closed his body 
to me las ;i sign oj abject surrender) so the feelinc of puy for the Mood Tie 
prevented me and I knew lh.ii Allah would surely kill him." he said 

"A sim ibn Thabn ibn Abcl-Aqlah killed Musati ibn TaJhah and his 
brother AUluJIus by piercing both of them with a dan. Each came to hi^ 
mother. Suiafah. laying his head on her Jap. She asked, 'Who has injured 
you, my son 1 :?" n l heard a man while shooting me saying. Take il I am Ibn 
Abel AqJah." he replied. She vowed to drink wine in the skull of 'Asjrtl, 

HunKiihh ibn Ah? 'Amir, who was ealJed 'the Washed One', and Ahu 
Sufyiio met in battle. When HunjaJah had beaten AM Sufyati. ShaddSd 
ihnul-A:oyatl, wlio wits Ibn Shu fib. .smote :idd kiHod hrm. The Prophet 
ipbuh) said. "Your vomptmhrn fir- (£ungthift) it /vine wujJwl hy the Aiitteh, xt* 
ask his wife If there ivaswsometttmg. (thai happrnedi tti him. " When they inquired 
his wife. she said thai he rushed to ihe hnulcfield when he heard i he tall for 
war while being in a ^tatc of /«««/«/ Jr. "Then Allah sera down His help to 
the Muslims and ful 111 led His promise. They upnwied their enetov with 
their swords amil they dragged ihent away from their camp. It was an 
obvious defeai. 

A/-Zuhiiyr said "I saw Ihe anklcis of Hind, the daughter ofUMoab and 
her frtend< because they were folding up their dresses as lhey ran away. 
Noihing prevented anyone from catching them when the are Iters turned to 
the e li mp as the enemy had been Lhrown out of it. Thus we were attacked 
from behind bv the cavalry. Someone cried oul "Ha. Muhammad h;is been 
killed/ Wc relumed iind die enemy pursued us after we had killed the 
standard hearers, so that none of ihem would dare take it. Tlic standard 
remained on the ground umil " Am rah Al Hani hiy yah, the daughtei of 
Ak|aniah hoisted it for ihe Quraysb to gather round; they did so. T\k 
Muslims were beaten and the polythelia s had killed many of them. It was u 
day of trial and testing in which A Hah honored several with marry idoni, 
until they reached the Pruphet (ptJOil) who was hurt with stones so that he 
fell on his side, one of his teeth was broken, his face was hurt, and his lip 
wa* injured. The man who wounded hitn was 'Uloah ibn Abt Waqqai. The 
Mood began to flow on his faee and he kept on wiping it away, while 
saying. "Hoiv can a people succeed, when Wirv have, blotched the Jute qJ ihetr 
Pmpiu'i with WvtHl nhUe he valh them tit tfwir l^nl?* So AlJah sent down the 
following Vci'se, 



honorable man among his tribe so the Anfiar wtm were there with the 
Prophet jpbuh) tried to qrmpafhizc with Ibn Ubayy saving, <0 Messenger of 
Allah, it may welf be that the boy imagined what he said, and did not 
remember exactly the words uttered by the man." 

When ihe Propyl (pbuh) was on his way back. Usayd ibn Hudavr met 
him and greeted him saying, "O Prophet ol* Allah, you are moving off at a 
bad time: you have never done thai before," The Prophet (pbuh) said, "Have 
you net heard af what your Mmpttokm said:*" He said, "Which companion?" 
The Prophet (pbuh) said, W •Abdullah ihn Ubayy," He said, "What did he say?" 
The Prophet fpbtih) said, *$* said thai if he turned to Mvdtnak uideed the 
njow htwarahtt wrttdjl. expel the meaner." He answered, "But you, Q 
Messenger of Allah, can expel him if you wish, By Allah! he is the mean 
one and you are the honorable one!" He added, *Q Messenger of Allah, be 
kind to him, for Allah brought you to us while his people were about to 
crown him, and he believes that you have deprived him of a kingdom/ 1 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) having the men with him kepi on walking all 
through the day until the evening, then throughout the night until the 
morning of the next day. so the sun harassed them. Then he stopped 10 
alight. Once ihey were on the ground ihcy fell asleep. He (pbuh) was 
deliberate in doing this, so lis to divert their thoughts from the affair of 
'Abdullah ibn Unayy. 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) proceeded to a watering place known as Bsq*3' 
in AUiijaz a little above Al-NaqT. While on their journey during the night, 
u very strong wind blew which terrified them. The Prophet (pbuh! soothed 
them, declaring that this wind designated the death of one of the greatest of 
the disbelievers. Bade in Madman, they discovered that the one who had 
*lied that day was Kifaah ibn Zayd ihnut-Tabut of Ranfi Qaynuqa\ a great 
figure among (he Jews and a secret haven for lite hypocrites. 

Allah the Mosi Ffigh revealed a Surah about the hypocrites, Ibn Ubayy 
and die like. Thereupon taking hold of 2ayd ibn Arqam's ear, the Prophet 
(phtthj said, TAii fa the one who dev&tedhis ear to Allah", 'Abdullah the son of 
Abdullah ibn Ubayy heard of that and went to the Prophet (pbuh} saving, "I 
knew that you intend to kill ^Abdullah ibn Ubayy far what has reached you 
about him. If killing him is a must then please fei me do it and I will get 



show pride at war. Whenever he wore a red bund around his head, people 
kneu that he was going lo fight. When Iw took the sword from I he Prophet 
(phuhr, he banded his head and started to strut up and down between the 
ranks. Watching him, the Prophet fpbuhl said. This is u r rem! that Alhh dt- 
w&ts tM-ept in xuth siuititkm (i.e. *w in the muse vfAlkih). " 

Abu Suiyan said to the standard bearers of Banu Afrdud-Dar. spurring 
them to war, rr O Banu 'Abdud-Dar! You have been assigned in bear our 
standard on the Day of Badr and you know what ha* happened. The 
standard is the first filing that the enemy assails. Should it fall, we fall down 
too. Therefore, en her you guard Its safety or leave it for as. and we will 
certainly save you that task." They pot angry and threatened him, saying, 
"Do you want us to deliver you our standard Tomorrow when we will be 
engaged in the battle, you wi 1 1 he witness to our deeds." Such a reaction wa* 
what Aha .Suiyan had aimed al. 

wiu-n the two parties df^w eloser to each other, Hind, the daughter of 
'Utbah leading the Qtirashi women lappet! on tambourines behind the 
warriors lo ineile them. 

On the Day of Uhud, the Prophet's Companions used "Kill, MJH" as a 
slogan to call one another therewith; The people were engaged in fighting 
until the battle grew fierce. Abu Dujanab fought antil hel44M"t moved 
forward through the enemy's rows. He killed whoever stood m hi* way of 
the enemy, There was a man among the pofyi heists wa<* busy wuh finishing 
off the wounded Muslims. During the fight Aha Dujanuh drew closer lo thai 
man; so they were engaged in combat, exchanging iwo sword -strokes. The 
poly t heist struck Abu Dujanah, who warded off Lhe blow with lus shield. 
Ahu Dujunah struck Iiim and killed him. His sword hovered over the head uf 
Hind, the daughter of 'L'rbah. bui he spared it fiora her. Ul 

Hamzah ibn "Abdei-Muwdifo kepi on fighting until he slew Aria'ah ibn 

Abd ShurahbTI ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn "AbdudDar. one of ihc 

standard hearers. When SihS* ibn " AhdeK Uz*a al-Ghubsliant, dubbed Ahu 

Niyilr, passed by him, Hamzah said to him, 'Come on, you son nf a female 

circumcise r." 



I, Ahti Duj!\!uih Viikl. '( »aw .1 pcmir Knotty Ins'llin^ |jm«wmjf ,igitintl llie MutLunh nrui when I 
ntthvd In kill him, he stitit-iud! It wto 4 wtimati. I relu*ed to kill n wunwii with ihc litiaamhlc 
i>mni o\ the Pinfpfwi {phuhl.~ 



svmethinn fatter titan ihuiT She said, What * ii t O Messenger of Allah?' He 
replied, 7 will fulfil ymtr dtbt atui many ynu," She said yes and Ihey were 
married. When the people heard thai the Prophet (pbuh) had married 
Juwuyriyah, Banu Al-Mu&aliq became the Prophers relatives by marriage, 
so ihey emancipated those they held. Hence, it hundred families were set 
tree by this marriage. I have never known a woman who so great a blessing 
to her people ihan she was." 

From YazTd ibn Rfiman, the PmphcL {pbuh) dispatched AWaiTd ton 
Uqbuh inn Abi Mu'ayi 10 them after they had embraced Islam. When they 
heard dial he was coming, they went out to meet him, but when he knew 
that they were coming, he became frightened so he returned to I he Prophet 
(pouhi telling him that they were soing to kill him and thus had detained 
their alms. The Muslims were indulged in latk to invade them until the 
Pmphei {[Thuhi himseif was about to do so. In the middle of thK a 
delegation of theirs went to the Pmphei fphuh) saying. "O Messenger of 
Allah, we heard <>r your envoy whum you sent, so we went out to honor him 
and to pay due alms, but he turned back us rapidly as he could. Then we 
were [old that he alleged that we intended to slay him. By Allah, we did not 
come out for that" So Allah sent down on this incident. 

J Q ytta n<h<* bi'tirve? If a rviwllmts rn.il person comes f& ytm with a 
neivs, verify it. text ya» harm pn>plr in ipit>ranre, ami afienvnrdt vw 
hci-amr regretful tit what \mt have done. Atulhmw that, imams you there 
« the Mfitsen&er of Allah if he jftefc & ^frn yott j$ft follow your npinttms 
wul desircsi in murh ttfthc mmter. wm would surety fa in trouble,., V 

tAJ-iiu jurSt: 6-7) 
The Prophet iphuhj advanced in his journey until he approached 
Madmah. ' A'ishah wa* with him when the tiar* brought forth die slander 

The Slander during the Raid 

on Banu AI-Mu&laiiq, 6 AH 

'A'ishah fmay Alluh be picked wfth her) said; "Whenever the Prophet 
iphuh) wanted to set out ji journey, he used to draw Ms between his wives, 



(m> 



Abdullah ibn Uhayy ibn Saliil support the Prophet's tphuh} opinion* 
not to jzo out to fight them. The Prophet (nhulu JiU not like to fig hi on wide 
Madircah, bill some Muslims whom Allah honored with niarijrdmn ai Uhud 
and others who did noi attend Badr said, "O Messenger of Allah, let us go 
forth to our enemies, otherwise they will think thai, we arc cowurds und 
weak to fight ihertv" Ibn Satui s^iid. "O Messenger of AN alt, slay in 
Madmah. and do not turn U> them, h ha* never been that we went forth to 
tight an enemy hue we have been defeated, and none has come here against 
us hut have been vanquished- Thus leave them in their place. If they stjay, it 
will be the worst entanglement, while if they enter Mitdinah, men will fiidu 
theni women und children will hurl them with stone;; from the walls, and if 
they letreai. they will be feeling disappointed as they came," 

With the persistence of those who were eager to ftghi the Quraysh. the 
Prophet fphi.ih) went into his house and was armored. That was on Friday 
after prayer, On M day, Malik ibn Arm of the An^ar from Banii 
An-Najj5r died. After offering pntyer over the dead AnsarL the Proplier 
(phuh) headed fur war. Meanwhile, the people hlamcd themselves for 
pressing on the Prophet (phuh) to fight against his will, which they had no 
right to do, so when he came out to them they admitted thai if he wished to 
stay in Mndinah they would not oppose him. The Prophet <pbuh> remarked. 
It txnm appropriate fw a Pmphft toko hn pta art his armor w take ii **ti until hr 
iur ; joujiht." He set forth with ,\ thousand of his Companions, until they 
reached Ash-Shuwi between Madman and Uhtid. where 'Abdullah ibn 
Lfhiwy receded wiih a third of the warriors, saying, "He (the Prophet) has 
obeyed them and disobeyed me. We do not know why we should kilt 
ourselves hea\ O men." 

So he withdrew with his followers who were hypocrites and doubters. 
'Abdullah ibn Antr ibn Hariim followed them saying, "O people, I beseech 
you hy Allah not to forsake your people and your Prophet while I he enemy 
is nearby." They answered. "!f there <hnnld be a tight we would not 
relinquish but we do not think that there will lie a war/ When they persisted 
on withdrawal, he said, May Allah deport you, you enemies of Allah, fot 
Allah will make His Prophet dispensable of you." On thai day the An^ar 
asked, "O Messenger of Allah, should we nm seek the support of our Jewish 
at lies?" Me said." Wr have no nerd of litem." 



Oft our arrival al Madinah, I fell very ill, so I heard nothing annul il The 
report had readied ihe Prophet (pbuh) and my parents, foul Itey CWCeaW 
the matter from me. Vet [ km the Prophet's usual kindness to mc, is when I 
was ill he used to be compassionate to me, but at tms time he was not 
attentive to inc. When he visited mc. while my mother 1 ' 1 was present to take 
cure ol mc, he said no more ihaji, 'Haw is she? Tlius I fell sail and asked him. 
when 1 found his heedless attitude, "O Messenger of Allah, would you 
pemui me to go to my mother so that she could nurse me?' Otf,' he said, t 
moved to my motto's unaware of what was taking place until almosi 
twenty days had passed when I recovered from my uUness. We Arabs did 
not use the water closets used in the houses of the non-Awns. Instead we 
used to go out into the open yards of -Madinah. For women they used to go 
there ul night, so one night I went in the company of Omm Mistab the 
daughter of Abu Ruhm jbnuJ-MuiiJiIib ibn Abd Manaf, As wc were 
strolling, she faltered over her robe and cried out. "May Mistnh flounder!' 1 
said. That is a bad thing to say about a man of the Muhajirun who 
witnessed Badr/ She wondered, 'Do you not know the news. O daughter of 
Abu Bakr r 1 said, What is ii? Site kept on relating what the slanderers had 
said, and when 1 expressed my amazement, she assured me that alt she said 
had really happened. 

By Allah. I could noi even do what i was supposed to do and returned 
crying incessantly until 1 fell as if my liver wouid burst. ] said to my mother, 
'May Allah forgive you! People were speaking ill of me and you mentioned 
nothing of it; She answered. My little daughter, do not exaggerate the 
mailer, Rarely is iherc a pretty woman married to ■ loving man, while 
having rival wives, and rumors circulate around her" 

The Prophet {pbuh) delivered a speech which I was unaware of. After 
praising Allah he said, 

*0 fwopte. thtrt art mm who have httn me by saying false things about 
my wife. By Allah, I know twthm$ trttf $tutdofher, and ihey speak such 
things about a mim of whom, by Allah. I know only x&tni, who never 
goes to any of my lotuses hut with mi, ' 



l A^vcuttDnp en *hii Hi !,hini. her inroc **i Zayn nb, itir (bubble* of ' Ahi PaJimJln 



them. Verity, Allah guides nai those people who art the /Alt/nun ipol- 
ythehts and wnrngnioen and unjust k And yoh see those m whose heam 
there is it disease tofhypuerisyf, they hurry to their friemktsip. saying: 
\Vefear text some misfortune fifn disaster may befall its,* Perhaps Allah 
may bring a vieiory or a decision according to His Witi Then they wilt 
liectmte regretful far what they have been keeping its a sctjttt in them- 
selves.. And thvse whir believe wilt say: 'Are these the men f/iv/wrriViJ 
wbt* wore their .ttrongatt oaths hy Allah,. '*. \ 

Then Ihc story was mentioned to Allah's saying. 

* Verity, yttur Waif (thotnUtr vr Helper} It Allah, His Messenger, ami 
the believers, - those who perform AsSaltlt (tqanuu-as-Salttti. and give 
ZakuL and they bow down, {submit themselves with obedience to Allah at 
ptv\rri;± 

lAl-Ma'idah; 51-55) 

And. on 'UbSdah's atlilude of Hiking Allah, His Messenger, and those who 
had believed as protectors and acquitting his alliance and patronage with 
BanCi Qaynuqa. Allah the Almighty revealed. 

iAml whutitever takes Allah, I lis Messenger, and thetse who have be- 
lieved as Pmtecton T then the party of Allah nil! be the victorious, t 

{Ai-Ma'idah: 56) 

The Expedition of Zayd ibn Harkhah 
to Al-Qaradah Across the Waters of Najd 

The Quraysh were afraid lo pursue their usual road (o Syria after the 
Battle of Badr. so they took I he road to Iraq. Sonic uf their tradesmen went 
out. including Aoii Sufyan, carrying a large amount of silver which 
const i luted most of their trade. They appointed Fur&t ibn Hayy&n from Banu 
Bakr ihn WS'il as a guide to ihut route. Ai once the Prophet {pbuhj sent 
Zayd, who intercepted them by the watering place of Kajd and captured the 
caravan with its goods, but the men fled. He brought the booty to the 
Prophet iphuh). 



noL By Allah, 1 considered myself loo insignificant and trivial that Allah 
would reveal Qur'anie verses about rnc to he recited in the mosques and 
prayers, Yei, 1 hoped that ihe Messenger oJ'AIkth would set a virion in his 
sleep by which Allah would free me from *uch a lie. for He knows about mv 
innocence, or ihui there would be some sort ol report. To send down some 
Quranic venro nfomn mp. hy Allah. I K^Ti<?v^J ibas 1 was iw iiisignifiuini 
for thai. 

Turning 10 my parents, I asked [hem. Why do you not answer the 
Messenger of Allah? Tliey said. By Allah, we do not know what to answer 
hjmV* By A I (ah, I have never known a household which endured much as 
that of Aba Bukrdid in those days, When they did not comment, I broke out 
in rears again saying. I will never repent to Allah of what you have said. By 
Allah. 1 know that in ease 1 admitted what was said of mc, while Allah 
knows that I am innocent of it. 1 hen I would be saying something which did 
not occur and in case I refuted what they said, you would not l>c Sieve mc. T f 
tried to remember the name of Yifqfth but coutd not, so J said, 'But I will 
say what YOsufu father satd, 

iSo {far tfirj patience U mmt fitting. And ir in Allah (Atone) Whtuu h*lp 
run Im sanithi agidmt that which you uswrt. * 

(Yusuf: 18 )' 

And by Allah, the Prophet (phuh) was still in his place when a revelation 
cajiic to turn from Allah. He was wrapped in his robe, whereas I pui a 
leather pillow under his head. When I saw this I did not feel frightened, as 1 
wus sure of my innocence and lhai Allah tGlorified and Exalted be Me) 
would never be unjust io me. As for my parents, by Whom A'ishahs soul is 
in His Hands; once the Prnpltct (pbuhj recovered I thought that fhey were about 
lo die of fear lhai Allah wouJd confirm what had been said. Then the Prophet 
fpbuh} recovered, sat upright, and began io wipe out sweat which were like 
winter drops of water falling from hfs brow; he said, '8c of fitted rA*w. 
VTi'.s/jrt/i.' Allah has sail down vottr ttrtfttititil.' I said, "Praise be lo Allah/ 

He went- U> the people and spoke to them, reciting the Quranic verses which 
Allah had revealed to bini concerning the issue. Afterwards, he commanded 
that Mistali ibn Utharhah. Hassan ibn Thabit, and Hamnah the daughter of 
JaJlJih. the most express slanderers be flogged with the ordained stripes." 



Sufyan returned to Makkah along with the vanquished Qunayshis from 
Badr. he vowed that he would not bathe frotn sexual intercourse 1 *' until lie 
fiaiX invaded the l*rt>phcl (phuhi. Thereupon, lie moved off with two hundred 
Qumyshi* to execute Iks pledge. He look the Najdiyyah route and halted a! 
an inlet of a canal to the Thayh mountain, miles from Madman. Nighi1> be 
set forth to BunCt An- Nadir heading tor Huyayy ihn Afchtah, Knocking on 
ht* door, jjuy.ayy was feared to open ihe door, so Ahu Sol van went lo 
Sallam ibn Mi'shkum, the cbierol Banfl An-Nadtr and keeper of their public 
wealth. Saflum hooted and acquainted him with secrets about the Muslims. 
Back to his comrades at the end or the night* Ahu Sufyan sent some 
Qurayshis to Madtmth. In a ptaee called Al-*Urayd, they set fire io a bunch 
of palm-trees and killed a man from the Ansar with his ally while working 
in the fields. People knew about them, so ihe Prophet tphuh) pursued ihcm, 
leaving his place in Madinah to Ua.shir ibn "Abdc^Muruihir. He reached 
Qarqamtul Kndr but relumed because Abii Sufyan and his £roup hud 
escaped. They found that the raiders had discarded some of their items in 
the fields to tighten their load so they could run swiftly. On their return, the 
Muslims asked ihe Prophet tpbuh). "0 Messenger of Allah, do you think 
that this will be counted I to Allah) fur its' as an invasion"?" "jfe#\ he 
answered. 

The Invasion of Dhu Amarr 

After Ihe As-SawTq invasion, the Prophet ipb£ih) remained in Madinah 
for nearly the rest of DhuI-JUjjah. and then he set forth to Najd, aiming at 
Ghaiafan. This was the Invasion of Dhu Amarr. Spending nearty all the 
month orSufar in Njjd tie went hank to Mudinab without any fighting. He 
stayed in Mad mail almost all lIic month of Rabf ul~AwwaL 

The Invasion of Al-FuriT of Bahrain 

Putting Ibn I J mm Maktum in charge of MadTnah h the Prophet (ptylb) 
went nut for the Quiaysh reaching. Balkan, a mine in Al-FurU 1 in the Hija/, 
He spent two months there then resumed to Mad in ah without fighting. 

I BuillNij-' •Hit:! H=viidl Miirii/mifvc win puiUisrU ifl prelv!,uTi 

—■CIS) — 



Abu B;ikr said. "Yes. by Allah, I love that Allah should forgive me!" He 
returned (o h.is autom of financially supporting Misia^ saying "I will never 
prevent Si from him/' 



separate them, so ihcy lived tbfcther as Muslim and disbeliever. uniiJ I lie 
Prophet ipbuh) emigrated. Abul-' Adjoined the Quraysh on the Day of Badr 
but foe was seized among the captives and taken lo Madlnah with the 
Prophet i pbuhl When the Quraysh sen I to redeem I heir prisoners Zaynah 
sent money lo ransom her hn^iatiLl and the money included a necklace 
winch her mm her, Khadtjah, had given her on her wedding. When the 
Proplici ipbLibl saw Ihe necklace his feelings became greatly lender and he 
said tto his Companions \. "(fyou would thmk tfwt \au t «rr Iwr captive hushatxi 
free and repay her money. da so." Thev jill tptod mk\ did si> 

Thus, Abul-"As lived in Makkah. while Zaynah lived jn Madinah with 
the Messenger of Allah iphoh). AbuKAs wen I to Syria as a merchani widi 
his wcalih and thai which the Quiaysh had entrusted him with, as he was a 
reliable man, On ht.s way ?>aeL he was attacked by a Muslim raid which 
look his merchandise, but he managed 10 run away. When the raiders went 
away wiih their homy, Abid-As wem to Zaynab's house In ihe niehu 
seeking her protection as wcli as the rcium of his property. 

While die Prophet f pbuhl with the Muslims was performing the m'jnrni" 
prayer, Zaynah cried out from among the women * "Q people, I have given 
protection lo Abul-As. ibttur-RabiV After the prayer* the Prophet fphuh) 
made sure that ihe people had Ircard Zaynafrs declaration an J added, "By 
Him in Whose hand* is Muhammad's soul. I had known aothmg (about the matter) 
hefare hearing what y*w itave /ward. The Muslim* can protect whoever is lower 
than shim 1 He afterward headed for his daughter and said to her, "Make /i*y 
\JitY comfortable, bur dp not let him touch ytm, since van are upr lawful for him.* 

According to * Abdullah ihn Abi Bakr, the Prophet (phah) went to tho*c 
who raided Abui-Aj; saying, "V\\s man at you know is our relative, and you 
hare taken his prapeny. If you da a charitable at? and restore him his pfoprrts'. we 
like you to; ifrwi, it is a /nvjfy which Allah ttm bestowed on you, and you have the 
better ripitt w it" They expressed their wiU to return it. They were so keen to 
restore everything and not to withhold anything. AbuLA& went lo Makkah 
to pay all ihe due* 10 ihe Quraysrh making sure that no one had any further 
claim on Kim. "No." they said, "May Allah reward you: you have been both 
honest and generous." "Therefore", said he. "I hear witness thai ihcre is no 
i^od but Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant an J His Messenger. By 
Allah, nothing delayed me From embracing Jslam but that I feared you 



umi>rt£ the corpH^ Ihn Masud cut off his head and brought it to Ihe 
Prophet ipbuhi saying. "Here is Lite head of Uie enemy of Allah. Ahfi Jahl. " 
He said. + l/v rttfi/fi rtfir^r r/«™ Wham three is tiu $t*L is it 1 " Yes;' Ibn Mas MJ 
sitid, throwing tils head befmv ihc Messenger of Allah (pbuh). who then 
praised Allah the Almighty. 

When the Prophet (pbuh} commanded that Ihe corpses should be all cast 
into a pi |, all were thrown with the exception of thai of U may yah thn Khalaf 
which hud swelled within his armor io the extent thai it RUcd it. When they 
tried to carry his corpse, it disintegrated* so they left n where it was and 
heaped earth and stones on it. 

After throwing the corpses into the pit. ihe Companions heard the 
Prophet {pbuhi ai midnighi saying. "0 people *>f the pit, Uthah ifoi HobltA 
Shttthuh ibn Ruhr aft, Vmuyyah ihn Khahff, Abft JiM - and lie counted out those 
in t he pit. - have ynu found trjie what yttur turd kail promised vatt. fat / im\ e in- 
dt'td timrui mm wtwt my Lint had jmrmtttitl me:" Hts Companions said, "O 
Messenger of Allah, are you talking io ll'te deadT He said, "llrty can hear me 
more than ym hut thvy aititwi answer, m 

Afterwards the Prophet (phuhl ordered to bring together all the spoils of 
war mat had been collected in the camp. The Muslims disputed over them. 
The group which had cotlecicd them thought they were theirs; the warriors 
who pursued the enemy claimed thai they Tvcnj the cause for getting (hem: 
while the guard* who escorted the Prophet ipbuh* to defend him from the 
enemy, claimed thai they had wanted to coljcci the spoils hut they feared 
thai ihe enemy might return, so they kepi their position with the Pmphel 
^phiihr- 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) dispatched " Abdullah ihn Rawahah with ihe 
news of victory to the people of Upper Madinah, and Zayd ibn IJiH'Jlhuh to 
the people of Lower Mad in air Then Ihe Prophet qrhuhi began Ins journey 
back to Madinah with the disbelieving captives, among whom were 'Uqbah 
ibn Ahi Mil" U and An~Nuir ibntd-Haritb- 

Then the Prophet Iphuh) advanced unitl he reached ihe pass of A£-£afru 
where he slopped on the sand h>ll between [he pass and An-Naxiyuh where 
he equally divided ilie spoils which Allah had granted io the Muslims. He 
traveled to Ar-Raw^H' where ihe Muslims congraiulmed him und the 



ordered them to say t "We ask Attah'x forgiveness and up repent to Him* After 
they had done so, he said, "By Alton, this is the (saying) 'Forgive hs* which was 
ordained on ihr Children oj Israel but iheydidnot say it/' 

The Prophet (pbuh » gave orders to travel towards Lhe righi, Ihmugh sally 
growth, on the way [trading to the spot of thaniyyai al-Murar onto the sfope 
of AJ-Hudaybiyah befow Mafcfcab. 

When lhe cavalry of the Quraysh noticed the dust of the Muslims" forces 
and thai (hey hud averted them, they galloped back to their Quraysh. When 
The Prophet (pbuh) reached Thaniyyai aJ-Murar, his she^camel Sutelt down. 
The men believed that it woujd not get up. The Prophet (pbuh) commented. 

7* has never freer) stubborn, as it ft not in nature, but it has been with- 
held fry wttM restrained the eleplumt Jrom Makkoh. Today I thai! accept 
it'hatever plan through which the Quraysh ask me to confirm kindred 
u'es\ n 

Then he told the people ro descend. They hesitated at first , for there was 
no water at which they couid stop. Thus, lhe Prophet (pbuh* took an arrow 
from his quiver and gave it to one of his Companions to prod in the middle 
of a water hole. The water thereafter gushed out until the men and their 
camels had drunk to their fill. They encamped there. 

White the Praphel (pbuh) was staying Lhcre, Budayl ibn Warqi' 
al-Khuzi'i came with some men of ihe Khuza ah asking him about the 
reason for his coming. He told them that il was not for war but io vLsii and 
venerate the Sanctuary. Then he repeated what he had said to Bjshr ibn 
SufySn. When they conveyed his words to the Quraysh, they suspected them 
and were rude to them, saying. "Even if he is not coming for war, by Allah, 
he shall never enter it against our desire, nor shall the Aran* ever utter that 
we have accepted it." 

The KhuftVah tribe. Muslims and polyi heists, were confidants of the 
Prophet, always keeping Itim informed of everything that was taking place 
in Makkah. When the Prophet (pbuh) saw Mikras ibn JMi ibrtul-Akhyaf 
who was sent by the Quraysh. he said, This u a treuchenms man'" When he 
approached and "ipokc to him, he answered him with the same words :ts he 
had said to Budayl and his companions. Mikras returned to the Quraysh 
reporting what the Prophet (pbuh) had said. 



Get up, hence, and call for your patl with them and the killing of your 
brother." \*\mir yelled, "Alas for l Amr! Alas fe>r"Ainrr War Wi|* stinvd up. 
all were infui-tdicd, the people held steadfastly to ihcir evil cause, while 
'Utbah's advice was Icfi unheeded. 

AJ-Aswad ibn "AbueTAsad al-MakhzumT. a fierce bad- tempered man. 
stepped out swearing.. "1 swear by ATlab ■ lhat I will surely drink from their 
cistern or demolish it or die before reaching il" Kam/ab ihn 
Abde 1-MuHalib engaged wiih him, and struck him, sending his fool with 
half of his shank flying. He fell on his back and his fool was streaming with 
blood towards his friends He scrambled to the cistern and threw himseff 
aiming m fulfil his oath, but with another blow JJanuab killed him in the cistern. 

"tjtbah ibn Ram" ah came out between his son Al-Watid and his brother 
Shay bah, from me lints of the Quraysh and called for a duel with the 
Muslims. Three young men of ihc An^ar stood agiitnsl him: "Awf and 
Mu'Jiwwtdh the sons of AJ-H&jth and 'Abdullah jhn Rawahnh, When the 
Qkiraysh knew that they were from the Att&jlr, they said ihey had nothing to 
do with them. Thereafter one of them heralded, "O Muhammad! Lei our 
equals of our people conic against us!" The Prophet (pbuh) said, Come on, 
O m tfintyiiati iitrtul-Haftth, tam* a^ O. Homzak uiulcome onO All " 

Coming closer 10 them, the Quroysh asked. "Who are you? 1 * After each 
had introduced himself, they said, "Yes. Our equals and most honorable." 
'Uhaydah, their eldest, dueled with 'Ulbah ibn RabPah while Hamzah went 
agalnsl Shaybah ibn Ram" ah and 'Ait against Al-WafTd ibn L'lbah, It was 
not long before Hamzaii killed Shaybah and AH killed AJ-Waifd. Sinking 
each other T "Ubaydah and 'Uibuh were seriously wounded. Then Ham/ah 
and "All struck Uthah with iueir swords and slain hrm. They carried their 
friend back to his people. 

The iwo parties moved forward closer to each other. The Prophet (pbuhj 
had commanded his Companions not to attack tin hi he gave the order, and if 
they were encircled by the enemy, they were to resist them with showers of 
arrows. He himself remained in the run with Abu Bakr. The battle of Badr 
took place on Friday morning on the seventh of Runuiditn. 

The Prophet (pbuh) straightened the lines and then again, siaycd in the 
hui with Abfl Bakr. The Prophet (pbuh) was appealing to Allah for ihc 



The Prophet (pbubj told him the same words that he had said to I hose 
who had come before him. nuniety, that he had not come to fight against 
them. He left ihe Prophet tpbuh) after seeing how the Muslims treated him 
Whenever the Prophet ipbuh} finished his ablution, they ran after him to 
obtam the water he had utilized; if he expectorated they hurried 10 it; and in 
ease a hair fell from his head they rushed lo pick il Up, Hence he relumed to the 
Quraysh saying. "I have been 10 Chosroes. Caesar, and Negus in iheir 
kingdoms, hut never have 1 seen a king among his people like Muhammad among 
hb Companions. They will never leave him in :iny case, so make up your mind," 

The Prophet (pbuh) Sent Khinlsh ibn Umavyah al-KhuzaT to the 
Quraysh in Makfcah. and made hint ride one of his camels called 
Alh-Tha~lab> to tell their notables the reason for his coming. However, they 
hamstrung the Prophet's camel .mil were about 10 stay ihe man, but the 
blacks protected him and released him, so that he returned safety to ihe 
Prophet tpbuh). 

Afterwards when the Prophet tpbuh) summoned "Umar to convey the 
same message to Makkah. " Umar told him he Felt dial they would kill him, 
especially no one from BanA 'Adiyy ihn Ka b was in Makkah to defend 
him, and the Quraysh were aware of his animosity and rudeness towards 
them. He recommended that he ahoulri dispatch a man who was dearer to 
them ihan himself and he named "Uthman ibn Affan. The Prophet (pbuh) 
sent Um man to Abu Sufyait ami Ihe celebrities of the Quraysh to inform 
them that he had not come for war hut only as a visitor to the InvioJahlc 
House and to glorify its sanctity. 

As he was aboui to enter Makfcarr "Uthmfin met AbAn ibn Sa'itt 
ibnul-As who drove him in from of him. He further provided him with 
protect inn until he reported the Prophets message to them- After stating the 
whole message. They said to him. If you wish to circumambulate the 
House, do so/ He answered mar he would not until the Messenger of Allah 
(pbuh) could also do so. The Quraysh imprisoned him and the Prophet 
tpbuh) and the Muslims were told that 'Uthman had been slain. 

The Willing Covenant 

Ibn Ishaq satd ihai "Abdullah ibn AM Bakr told him thai when it reached 
the Prophet (pbuh) that 'Uthman had been killed, he said that they would 

<££) — 



a dense surface which did nol prevent tlic Prophets movements, hm 
severely confirm! Ihe movements of the Qumysti The Prophet cpbuhl 
hurried lo the water. Getting to the proximal water of Budr, he willed down. 

Al-Huhyh ibnur-Mundhir said, "O Messenger of Allah, is this tin; spot 
which Al J a ft has inspired you to occupy. so that we cannot move from it. or 
is it q matter of stratajpm of war and the product of consultation?" When 
the Prophet (pbuh) said that it was a Stratagem of war and consultation, 
A I Huhiib pointed out. "h is nol a good place to stop in. Let us continue and 
encamp by the nearest well of water and make a ciMem full of water, ami 
destroy the other wells: (hen we can fight our enemy who will have nothing 
10 drink. 

The Prophet Iphuh) approved of his excel lem plan which was 
immediately carried out; Hh* wells were destroyed: a cistern was constructed 
anil filled with water from which his men filled Iheir drinking- vessels, 

Sad ibn Mu'Qdh said, 'O Prophet of Atlah T tet us mafce n hut for you to 
slay in. having your riding boasts await; then we will go nn lighting the 
enemy and if A I tail j rants us victory, that is what we wish; k k is defeui, 
you could ride your e«mds and go hack to Madinuh to oue people who are 
left behind, (or Lhey love you ax much as we do. If they knew thai you 
would go Jo war they would not have remained he hind, Allah will protect 
you with diem: they will give you good advice and strive m the cause of 
AUah with you." The Prophet [pbuh) praised him and prayed to Allah for 
his good. Then a trellis was built fonhc Pmphet (pbuh) and he stayed there. 

Having moved in the morn tug, the Prophet tpbuh) saw the Qufaysh 
approach in% from the 'Aqunqui dune into the valley, he exclaimed 

"0 Atttttt. twrr is the Quroyjih rmmnx xn their amceii <md httushtwess 
chtxltenghig Ytnt ami hdyuig Ymtr MrMtmgitF. O Allah, gmnt me 1 1 1 tnty 
whuh you have fmmusetl O Alhih 4 tif stray ihcm litis momut$r 

When the Quntysh settled down, a number of them, amimg whom was 
Hakim ihn Nizam, went to the Prophets basin to drink. The Prophet (pbuhl 
let them drink, hut whoever drank of it on that day was sfam with the 
exception to Hakim who fater became a devout Muslim and used to say. 
when be was fervid in his oath, "By Him Who rescued me on ilw Day of Badfv 



Cb> 



know ihis. Write wstead In Yattmame, O Allah:' TUt Prophet (pbuh) agreed 
to write that. Then he said, "Write ^im Tliix is wirat Muhammad, the Mes- 
senger of Adah has reconciled wnh Suhayl ihn Amr" Suhyal objected. "If i 
witnessed that you are AJ lab's Messenger, [ would not tight you. Write your 
own name arid your father 1 *." Tin* Prophei (pbuh) said, 

"Writt Thin is what Muhammad ibn Abdullah luu reconciled with Su- 
hayt ihn Amr. They haw agreed to stop till fighting for ten years, during 
»HitJi time ike people wilt hve safety, restraining ftmn timmmilie* on 
amditkm that in cine anyone goes to Midiommad wtthtmt hit guardian 's 
permission, he will send him back to them; and m vase thai anyone of 
Muhammad's folfowers gves to the Quraysh they will not xvtui htm fmtik 
to him. We wilt not show hostility one to another and there witl be no 
theft or treachery, fie who wishes to enter into a cmenant and agree - 
menr with Muhammad may do so wul he who wishes to enter ititu a cov- 
enant and agreement with the Quraysh may da so.'" 

The Khuza ah chow to enter into a bond and agreement with ihe Prophet 
fpbuh), while Banu Safer chose the Quraysh and said to the Prophet (pbuh). 
"You should keep buck from us this year, not enter Mukkah against our will. 
As for the next year, we will leave it for you to spend three nights with your 
Companions. Thereupon, you may bring with you nothing more than ridens' 
weapons and swords in sheaths." 

While the Prophet (pbuh) and Suhayl were writing the agreement, Abu 
Jandal ibn Suhayl ibn "Amr suddenly showed up in fetters, having tied to 
the Prophei fpbuh). The Prophet's Companions Eeft and they did not doubt 
the conquest of Makkah. for they depended on a vision (dream) which the 
Prophei (phuh) had seen. When they saw the talks for peace and withdrawal 
taking place and what the Prophet (pbuh! had endured, they were extremely 
depressed almost to the point of death. When Suhayl saw Abu Jandal + he 
slapped him on the Fate and gripped his collar, saying, "O Muhammad, the 
issue between us was resolved before this man arrived to you."' He agreed, 
Suhayl pulled him violently by his collar and drew him away to send him 
back to the Quraysh, while Abfl Jandal yelled with all his Mrenglh, "O 
Muslims! A m 1 to be sent back id iht poly the i sis to seduce me from my 
religion?" This augmented the people's grief. The Prophet (phuh) said. 



Then the Prophet (pbuh I halted near Badr. He rode on Willi one of his 
Companions until he met an old Bedouin, He asked him about the Quraysh 
as well as about Muhuminud and his Companions, and whether he had any 
information about them, The old man Mated. "I wiJJ noi tell vou until vou 
Tell me which of tho iwo you arc." The Prophet (pbuh) retorted, "ij you an- 
iii^r ru, n.r $# rert wm. k He said "Tit tor lai?" "Yes", he replied. The 
Bedouin said. "1 have Jieard thai Muhammad and his Companions moved on 
such-and-such a day. If that is right, they today should have reached 
sueh-jindrsuch a place. (referring to where the Prophet (pbuh I actually wasi. 
Also J heard that the Quraysh marched out cm such -a mi -such a day. so today 
they should have been in such- and such a place." whefe they actually were. 
When he had finished he suid, "Where did you come from?" The Prophet 
(pbuh J said, "We tuvfrt/tn m/i Al K" Then he departed, while the uld man was 
saying, "What doei this mean? Js he from the Ma' o#Ir*qF 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) went back to his Companions In the evening, 
he sent "AIT ibn Abi lalib, Az-Zubayr ihnul-Awwam. arid Sad ibti Abt 
Waqqaji with a number of (he Companions to the well at Badr in search of 
news, where they seized some of the Quraysh wnlcr-nicn, among w Jin in 
were Aslam ol Banu Al-Hajjaj, and Acid Abo Yas&r of Band A I- "As ibn 
SaTd. They caught I hem and inquired of them while the Prophet (pbuh) was 
performing prayer. They said, T We are the water-men of the Qutaysh; they 
sent us to hrinc. them water. * The people did not like their answer, as they 
hoped I hat they belonged to Abu Sujsan. Thus, they heal them severely 
until the two claimed that they belonged to Abu Sufyaii. So they released 
them. When the Prophet (pbuh) finished his prayers, he said, "When rlteywU 
yfttt the tmrh wu heat them: and when they tirdyfut released them* Tftey sp/tke the 
irttlh for they heltnty to the Qurtivsh. fttfvtm me fymt fnoj wltat about the Qu~ 
m&ht* They retorted, "They are behind this dune which you s*ee on the 
remotest embankment/' The Prophet (pbuh) asked them about their number 
and I hey said that they were many but they did noi know their exact 
number; henee he inquired ol" them about the number of beauts they 
sacrificed each day. When they said nine or ten. he said, "The peaple ore be- 



I In Arjibr^ iJifs word itcum wjiicj", which can Jilhn he u*cd K> *tfcr to i^men out cif which jiurn ih 
treated Tht Prnphiti iphuhi itumiijt flic laim hut he u.>cd ttta', and nni [ipjerm, in niafcc ii arnrngu- 
Ottv foT the mail and awid telling Iec* at [tie vame time, a* MA' it aiao rfoe name of n plact iKe* 
*1MI> 



Az-Ztihrf said that no previous victory was greater than this. It wus only 
fighting when people met, however, when there unv an armistice instead of 
war, people fell secure, sat together, and negotiated to settle disputes. Thus, 
none rationalized what was said concerning Islam but embraced it. In liiosc 
[wo years as many embraced! Islam us ever before, perhaps more,' 1 ' 

The March to Khaybar in Al-Mubarram, 7 AH 

After his return from Al-Jiudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) spent 
Dbul-HUJah and part of Al-Muhurram in Maduiah, whiJc the polyt heists 
were in charge of pilgrimage > Then in the remainder of AUMuJiarrarn he set 
forth against Khaybar. Abu Mii'uttib ibn 'Amr related, "When (he 
Messenger of Allah oversaw Khaybar he said to hi* Companions, while 1 
was among ihcm, 'Sup, Then he said, O AUuK Lord of the heavens and what 
they aversiuuhw. Lordnftht htndsund what dtev nuike to xprvtuk ford of The dfetf- 
its and what they teati astray. ijotd of the tvinds and what they winnow! We axk 
You the gomfaesx ofthix town, the goodness of its people, and the gmnttteto ttfnlm 
is in it. We seek Your Fejitfie from its eviL the evil of its people, and the evil ofwitat 
is in it. Praeeed in tlte name of Allah. 'Thai was what he used to say on entering 
every town." 

Anas ibn Malik related, "The MesMingcr of Allah (pbuh} ased to tniOtc 
his raids in Ihc morning. If he heard the call in prayer he would no* advance, 
and if he did not hear it be would raid. We reached Khaybar at night, and 
ihe Prophet (pltttfl) spent the nigtrt there. In the morning sis he did not hear the 
call to prayer, he rode and wc rode with him. and I was riding behind Abu 
lalfaah wiih my foot touching the Prophet's. We met the iaborersof Khaybar 
in the morning with their spades and baskets. On seeing tile Prophet (pbuh) 
and the army they yelled, "MuJutmmad with his army," and turned tait and 
escaped. The Prophet (pbuh) said. "Ailnhn Akborf Khnyhur ixdenrnved When 
we alight in a people's yiard, d U a bad morning far thpse who are wanted* ' " 

Ibn Is^aq said, "Hie Prophet (pbuh) stepped om from Madlnah to 
Khaybar throughoui "]^ 2 \ where a mosque was constructed for him; Ihen 



1 Ifrn HtaHlhn wd ihsl ihe evinlcftv-E frir Al-Zafrrft minds was itwij Uie McswrtjaroJ AlUh 'jiMl i wenr 
m Ai ^utlj.tKi^jli * ( ih om! tthXiiunJ miuJ l,nit lit(tn\nm men, while in ihc nnrmiiciti «r>ibir ibn 

AhitUlh in Ihe ycai -iif tix Cortpu^ ui M&ktfr. «il) iuu \nt% lass. he wwn) with ten iWwu) mea 

2 A iiHiMtuiiin hdwcctr MndTnati and AJ-Far vAlky. 



its ihe form of Suraqah ihn Milifc inn Jushum raying, "I pledge dial 
Kinanah wit I not assail you in the back," so ihcy dashed swifily, 

A few nights had passed of foe month of Ramadan, when the Pmphel 
(phtilu went to war, He charged ' Amr \bn Umm MaklQm to lead the people 
in prayers and called Abu LuMbah from Ar-Kirwha' to superintend 
Mddiu^li, He ^u\c tile white standard to Mus. ab irm L'mayr, I wo black 
fte were in from of the Prophet (pbuhl. one with All ihn Abi Tiiiib coiled 
Ai** Iqab and the other with one of the Angar Only seventy camels were 
owned by h»s Companions who rtide on eaeh Eternal ivety: the Prophet 
(pbuhl with *AT1 and Mart had ihn Abi Mart had al-Gtaawi on one camel; 
Hamwh ion Abde I -Muslin. Zayd ihn Han t hah. and Abu Kabshah and 
Anraib. two mnwhh. of the Prophet on one: and Ann Bakr, 'Ulnar, and 
A bdur- Rahman ibn Awf on one came J. 

He marched out the road to Makkah by die upper course from Madman, 
going through AI-'AqTo,. DhLtEdHalayfuh, and LTjutuI Jaysh, passing by 
Turban. Malal. G&amrsul-Harnarrn Sukhayraml-Yamarn. and As-Sayalah: 
then by the chasm of Ar-Raw^T to Shanakah, Reaching ■ \n]ug-7^byuh. 
they met a nomad and asked him about the Quray&h, but he knew nothing, 
The people said. ''Greet the Messenger of Allah, 11 He said, "Is he among 
youT and when they said he wan. lie greeted him and said. "If you are Ute 
Messenger of Allah, then tctl me what Ihe gut of my she-camel contains." 
Salumah ion Sal am ah said lo him, "Do not ask the Prophet; come to mc and 
I can teH you about it. You leapt upon her and slfc? ft pregnant of a little goat 
from you!" Tftc Prophel I pbuhl said, "Stop hi Ymfon* spattim nbsvawly to the 
hum. ' Then he Jeft Salamah, 

The Pmphel ipbuh) halted at Sajsaj, the well of Ar-Rnwha*: then traveled 
to Al-Munsiaraf. departing from ihe ruad of Makkah leftward, turning to the 
right to An - Nik t yah heading for Bailr. Proceeding in that direction, he 
crossed a vajley called Rufiqnn between An-Naziyah and the si rati of 
As-Safra': then along Hie stnaii to near AvSufra. He (hen sent Ba.shas ibn 
Auu oKluhuni and Adiyy ihn AH az-ZaghbiT al-Juhan! to Badr to find out 
news ahoul Ahu Sufyan and his caravan. Having sent them on ahead he 
departed. 

Reports came to him that the Quraysh h;td marched to defend their 
caravan. He consulted his people. Abu Rakr gel up and spoke well. Then 



to death. On Mullah's death, his brother Yuair arose to duck Hisham ibn 
'Urwah suid that when Az-Zubayr ibnut-'Awwam emerged to fight Yasir, 
his mother Saftyyah. the daughter of T Abdul-Mui$alib said, ,J [ Wit J you let 
him} kilt my son. O Messenger of Allah?" He answered, "But your son will 
kilt him, i/Afiah with-" Az-2ubayr went out and killed Yasir, 

Salamah ibn 'Amir ibnul-Akwa* related, "The Prophei tpbuh) sent Abu 
Bakr with the standard against some of the K hay bar strongholds. He fougbt 
until he became exhausted and returned without a conquest. Afterwords, he 
sent "Umur hut with the same results. The Prophet (phuhl said, "Tmnarww t 
m ill givf site bonnet to a man who low* Allah and his Messenger Allah will over- 
come it with his httntix, and he ne\vr eseapex." Hence the Prophet (pbuhj 
summoned Alt who h;id haU a problem in hi* eye at that time, so he (pbuh) 
spat in his eve and said, "Take ttm swmtard and proceed with ih until Allah 
grams you victory* 

Sal amah said, "AIT harried away with it. gasping as be rushed, while we 
we it behind him lb I lowing his traces until he fixed the standard in a pile of 
stones under the folttgSs; From the topmost part of the fortress, a Jew 
looked down ai him and askerl "Who are you?" He replied. '1 am " Ali ibn 
Abi lalib." The Jew continued. "You will be grunted victory, by what was 
sent 10 MiteuT He did not return until Allah had made the conquest through 
his hands. The two strongholds of Khaybar. Al-Watlh and As^SuJalim were 
besieged by the Prophei (pbuht until the Jews there were snre of their death 
so they asked hiui LO Jet them leave and spare their lives, and he (pbuh) 
aceepfed. He (pbuh) had taken control of all their property , Ash-Shaqq. 
Naiih, and Al-Katfbah and all their fortresses evcepl those two strongholds. 
When the people of Fadak knew thai they had done so, they sent to the 
Prophet and asked him to treat them in the same way, 

MuJiaysah ibn Mas fid, the brother of BanO Hurithah, was amon» the 
mediators. The people of Khaybar asked for surrender and that the Prophet 
i phuhl would let them undertake their property against .1 lull share of the 
ourpul. saying, "We know it better than you and we are better growers." The 
Prophet (pbuto) accepted their proposal but stipulated that "If we wixh to exile 
wit, fete will da j/." 1 lie matte a similar reconciliation with the people of 
Fadak. Thus. Khayhar conceded to the Muslims, while Fadak was fuUy for 
the Prophet {pbuhl since they made no expedition with either cavalry or 



them thai Muhammad aod his Companion?; were waiting for it. Danidam 
rapidly headed for Makkah, 

Three days prior to Damjam's arrival. "Alikah ihe daughter of "Ahdtil 
Muttiilib saw a vision which terrified tier. She sent for her brother 
A)-' Abbas saying. M Brother. I had a vision East night which terrified me 
and 1 fear that evil and adversity will afflici your people. So keep what J fell 
you as a secret. * He asked vvhut she had seen and she said* "I saw a man 
riding a came, who stopped at the valley. -He yelled at the lop of his voice. 
'Rise, Q people, do not let your men confront a calamity that will tome in 
three days rime." 1 saw the people gather around htm. He then entered the 
Mosque and the people followed him, While they were surrounding htm his 
camel got up onto the top of the K a" bah. Then Ive repeated ibe call with the 
same words. Afterwards his camel rose to the top of Abu Qubuys, he 
shouted oui again, took a rock and loosened it, which kept on falling down 
lo the bottom of the mountain where ii was divided into small pieces. There 
was no house or residence in Makkah but got a hit of it," A!-' Abbas said. 
"By Allah, verily it is a vision, and you had better conceal it and not 
me in ion ii to anyone/ A I -"Abbas then met AJ-Walid ihn Uthah who was 
bis friend. He informed him about it but asked him to keep it a secret. Yet 
AI Walid told hts father anil ihe story prevailed in Makkah so that the 
Quniysh were speaking about ii in (heir puhltc assemblies. AK Abbas >aid, 
"I woke up in the morning to circumambulate tlie Mouse* whereas Abu Jahl 
was sitting with a group of the Quraysh discussing "Alikuh's vision, When 
he saw mc he sajd« 'After finishing your art; urn ambulation come and join 
uk ' When I sal with them, Ahfi JahJ said, 'O son of " Abthit Muiiulib when 
did such prophecies happen among you?' 'What do you mean by thai? I 
asked. "That vision which Atifcah dreamt of," he replied. I said, 'And what 
did she see 7" He ,sajd. Ts ii not enough Tor you that your men pruphesi/c 
than that your women do the same* \\ukah churned in her vision that 
someone said. 'Rise to war in three days.' We shall await the Fie three days; if 
her saying is irue, (hen ii will he *;o; yet if alter the three days nothing has 
occurred, we wjll write a document ihai you are the ereaiest liars among the 
Arabs.' By Allah . did nothing mme that* repudiating and denying that she 
had seen anything. 



had done to them. ,r Messenger of Aiiali, what has happened to me i* the 
same as wliai has happened to you,* said BiKLI. Hit Prophet (pbuh) 
admitted, "Ywt are right." Then the Prophet tpbtih) rode his camel for rather 
a short distance, where he made it kneel, so that he and the men performed 
ahlulion. He commanded Bilal in call for the prayer. The Prophet (pbuhj fed 
people (n the prayer and when they ended iL he approached die people and 
said, "If ymt fhrget to -perform your prayer, perform it one* jmh renumber it, for 
Allah. Clarified and faaited lit He. suyx, + ...and perform Aj-Salah ilqamat-ai- 
£tilah\ for My Renttmbmnce * (T3M: 14)," 

I heard thai (he Prophet iphuhl provided Ibn Luqaym aKAbst with the 
chickens or livestock of Khdybor. Tlie conquest was carried out in £afsir. 

The Arrival of Ja far ibn Abi lalib from Abyssinia 
(And a Report on the Migrants to Abyssinia) 

Ibn Hi sham said from Ash-Shu'abf. "Ja'far ibn Ah! Julib came to the 
Prophet tpbuh) on trie day when he conquered Khayhar The Prophet f phiih) 
kissed Iris forehead and hugged him saying, V do tiai know which muk*\i me 
happier, die conquest of fC/tayltar or The arrival of Ja far.'" 

Ibn E$$tj said* "Some of the Prophet's {pbuh) Companions remained in 
Abyssinia unlit he dispatched "Arnr ibn tJmayyah ad-Damri to the Negus to 
brimj ihem back in two ships. They arrived while he was in K hay bar after 
Al-Hudaybiyaft Their names were as follows: 

From Banu Hflshim: Ja'far ibn Ahi TaLih wiib his wife AsmiT the 
daughter of "Uniays and Ms son " Abdullah who was burn in Abyssinia, 

From Banu "And Shams ibn Manaf: .KhalicI ibn Sa'id ihnul-'As Ibn 
Umayyah ibn v Abd Shams with his wife Aminah the daughter of Khalaf tbn 
As' ad; his rwo children Said and Amah, who were born in Abyssinia^ and 
his brother *Amr. There were also Mtf ayqih ibn Ahl Fan man. who became 
guardian of the Muslims public treasury under the rule of "Umar 
ibnul-Khayab. and Abu Musaal-Ash'arT. 

From Banii AwkI ibn Abdel- UK*a: Al-Aswad ibn Nawfal ibn 
Khuwavlid. 



Uihmun ilm AbdullOii wd Al-tlukum ibn Kuysin wtre opiivuted. NawLil 
lied and evaded them* " Abdullah ibn Jahsli and his companions returned lo 
M;idmuh with [he caravan ,\nd the two captives. 

When they went (o the Prophet (pbura he said. 

7 ilu! not iwrntnini! unt tt*]ij;hr *'* tin: Stirred mtmttht " 

He retained Lbe enravnn and Ihc two prisoner* and forbade taking 
anything Itoro them. When (he Prophet iphuhi said $o« ilw men felt 
desperate -a ml though! they were doomed. The Muslims eensured them for 
how they acted Tee Quraysh said, "Muhammad and his Companions have 
permitted lighting in) the inviolable imwih* shedding blood iherein. taking 
spoils., and nnprtwnmg men." The Muslims in Makkuh who refuted them 
said that ihc whnJe thing had happened in S ha* ban. 

When a lot of talk was pmvokctk A II all sent down in His Prophet 
(phuh), 

■ Ttwy mk vim co/ireming fighting in the. Savred Month* fi.?> /.>/. 7r/i, 
////; ami 1 2 Ui months of 1 fir httitmr ixdetuhtt). Say, 'Fighting the tf tit i$ 
u RtYitr {iriintgivsxirtni fan tt great? t (trwtsgmmimii with Allah is fapre* 
Witt mankind jt*w) Jallmvitttf the Way of AHtdu to tlt$ft*Utve in Him, m 
prevtm mrtsx TO.AI-Mttsjul'til-HammimhfakkahL atuJ w drive ma ia: 
mhitlnnmtiLy \ 

(AIBaqarah:217> 

This means jf you have killed (some of them} in the Inviolable month, 
they have drawn you back from the way nf Allah with their disbelief Iti 
Hirn. and from Ihe Inviolable Mosque, and expelled you from it when you 
were its people. This is a greater violation than the slaying of (hose whom 
you buve killed. i ,.MtidAl-FiiitttW u h www tfmn ki!Hn):,„* Le, they used i» 
seduce The Muslims m hi> religion to mm them back from iheir religion and 
that ii is worse io ihe sight or Allah than killing. 

4^, And ihey will never c&uut fifth-wig you tmitt they turn you hadtfriwi 
yuitrrrlijiuni it atomic Mtmothvistni if they atn>-> jh 

(AMtaqarah: 217j 



Sl.1i j. ii., ii uiii.ii ! .itiiJ iipfircH'-iiiiL 



House concealed him from the po I yihe island then he touched the Southern 
Comer. He walked to kiss the Biaek Stone, Fie ran in the firsl Lhree rounds 
and walked the rest,'' 

According to Ibn AbbaX the Prophet (pbuh} married Maymunah the 
daughter of Al-Harith in this visit when he was in the suue of ikr&th 
AJ-'Abbfe it>n 'Abdul-Muttalib was the one who married him to ber The 
Prophet (pbuh \ spent ihiee days in Makkah. Huwaylib ibn "AbdeKUE/i 
wem to him on the third day with a band of the Quraysh. as the latter hud 
charged him to let the Prophet {pbuh) leave Makkah. They said. Tour term 
has ended, so leave us," The Prophet (pbuh) answered, 'Why do you wt let me 
stay ro wed umon$ mr and prepare a feast for yaa ut attend? They said. 'We do 
no* need your food .10 get away." Henec, the Prophet (pbuh) departed, 
leaving Aba Riff his mawld to take care of Maymunah until he drove her to 
him in Sarif where the wedding took place* and then they continued on thejr 
way 10 Madlnak 

Ibn Hisham said (hat, according to AM "Ubuydah, Allah revealed to him. 

4 indeed Atlah slmlt fulfil the true vision which Rt xhnwed to Hh Mes* 
sengcr [i.e. the Prophet Jaw u rire&iu that he has entered Makfcuh along 
wjih his companions, having rheir (head) hatr shaved and em short] En 
very truth Certainty, yitu skdl enter Al-Masjid-at-Hartim; ifAlajhwUh, 
seetire, {.tome} havrng your heads shaved, and fsomel having your head 
hair cut thort t htirinR no fear. He htew what you knew not. and He 
granted besides that a near vietory. L 

{Al-Fai&27> 

The Raid on Mu'tah^ in JumAdA al-tilA, & AH 

The Prophet (pbuh) stayed in Madmah for the rest of Dhui-Hijjah, as the 
polytheists conducted the pilgrimage, until Rabf al-Awwal and RjbV 
al-Akbir. In Jumada aI-013 in (he year AH, he sent a mission to Mu'tah in 
Syria, putting Zayd ibn Barithah as commander, to lie replaced with J a" far 
ibn AbT Talib if be was killed and Abdullah ibn Rawahah if J a far was 



I A sdiigEiH Al-Bulitf 4 jft Syria. 



returned 10 Mud in ah without fighting, and stayed there for the fflt of 
RabfuJ-Akhir and a purl of JumMa al-Ola, 

The Invasion on Al-'Ushayrah 

The Prophet iphuhi invaded the Quraysh through the path of Banu 
Diruir, Fayfa'ul-KhAb;U\ and stopped under a tree at the valley of Ibn Azhai 
wtwSW he offered prayer and founded hi.s mosque. Food was prepared and he 
ale accompanied by those who were with him The site of itie stones of hi*i 
cooking-pol is still knouii. He drank from The water of a place called 
AI-MtisFiUmh. Then he departed Al-Khalaiq leftward in the direction of a 
gfen called Shi'bai Abdullfrh; Lhcn 10 the lel'i again until he went down 10 
Yalyat and stopped at us crossing with Ad-fiahuah He drank from the well 
at Ai-D;ihu ah traversing the plain of Muliil until he met the track in 
Sukhayrat aJ-Yamam straight to At-' U shay rah in the valley of Yanbu' 
v/hctc he stayed throughout the month of JumaJa al-Ola and some days of 
the following nionUi. He made a pact of peace there wiih Banu Mudlij and 
their allies Banu Qamrah. and returned to Madtnnh without a fight. 

The Expedition of Sa 1 d ibn Abi Waqqas 

At the saute lime, the Prophet (pbuh) sent Sad ibn Abi WaqqSi with 
eight men oi the MuMjiriin, who reached Al^Kharrar in Al-Hij&z^ Tlicy too 
returned without fighting. 

The Invasion on Safawan, 
the First Invasion of Badr 

After the invasion on Al-U^hayrah, die Prophet (pbuJu had stayed less 
than Len nights in Madman wlieri Kurz ibn JSbtf al-Fihri raided the grazing 
camels of Mudinah The Prophet tphuhi pursued him, until he reached a 
valley caJled Safawan. in the direction of Budr Kurz tied and coukl not he 
caught. This was Lhe first invasion of Badr Afterwards^ the Prophei tpbuh) 



with il until when he was in the heart of ihe batik with no way out, he 
alighted his roan horse, hamstrung it. and resumed fighling until lie was killed. 

Ibn Hisham said *A schoJai whom I trust told me that Ja far held the 
standard first in his right hand, hut it was cut off, so he seized it with his left 
hand which was also cut off. Then he damped il to his breast with his ufitis 
uniil he was killed. He was thirty-three years of age. Consequently, Alt ah 
rewarded hini with Two wings id Paradise with which he Hew wherever he 
wished, Ii was said thai a Roman warrior struck him. cutting him a sunder " 

Ibn LsJiSo, said thul after the killing of Ja'fur, * Abdullah ibn Rawahah 
hdd ilu: standard and stepped forward with it while riding his horse. He had 
In repress himself as he felt hesitant to proceed, but he blamed himself and 
got off. Then his cousin offered him a meat bone, saying. "Support yourself 
with i his, for you have suffered a lot in these difficult days, -1 He look a little 
bite, bin when he heard the sounds of disorder and crowd in the army, he 
hurled it away, saying to himself. "Are you (Mill living) in this world?" He 
gripped his sword, advanced, and fought unr.il he was killed. Then Thabil 
inn Aqram the hroihcr of BanG Al-*Ajlan took the standard. He cried out, 
"O Muslims, come together round a man of you. 11 They said. "You (be this 
mm)? But he objected so they rallied to KM! id ibnuI-WaJld. As he took the 
standard, he parried ihe enemy to avoid an encounter. Then lie withdrew and 
the enemy averted from him until he retreated with the army. 

According to what has reached me, wJien Ihe army was crushed the 
Prophet (pbuhJ said, "Zayd held die standard and fmght with it until he wm 
killed m it matrvr: then Jit' far itatk it and fought with ii toiid he was killed at a 
martyr. " Then he fpbuJil kepi silent, so the laces of the Ansar changed color 
for they thought that some mischief had happened to Ahdullah ibn 
Rawitij^ll. Vet he continued. "Then AMutfah Urn Rawdimh held it and Jrut^ht 
With it until hr n.fji killed as a martyr" Then he said H 'They were tamed tfp to 
me in Paradise, ax t s{Bfr in a wsittth *w beds ofg&td. i saw 'Abdullah's bed turning 
aside fntm the beds <ifhix km fellows fLc, Zayd and J a' far). When t asked jtirihr 
re&xrtii, I ntt,t hdd that they nwed on ^withoui hesitation) but he severed hffitrr 
he moved on." 

Khalid ihnul-Walld with the army, was getting cJosc u> MadTiwh when 
the Prophet (pbuhi weni oui 10 welcome them together with the Muslims 
and Ihe boys who went ainning whereas the Pjnptvot ipbuhl was mounted on 

<£|J>«— 



revenge. By my life, you rob in Lhc invjolabie area, will you aoi then avenge 
in it?" 

When (hey attacked them at Al-W;uir at night they killed Munabbah. a 
man Who hud a weak heart. He told Tamfm ibn Asad who accompanied 
lum. to Jlec for he wm sum that he would die* wliemer they kilted him or scl 
him tree, since he had a problem in his heart. Hence, Tamim nonaged to 
escape, while Munabbah was caught and kiJted. On entering Makkah The 
Khu?a ah resorted to die house of Budayl ibn Warqa' and that of an ally of 
the ire called R3fi\ 

With the attacks of the Quraysh and Biinu Bakr against The Kbu^ah 
killing some of them, they were in fact violating their treaty with the 
Prophet fpbuh) through their aggressive attitude IDwanU the Khu^ih who 
were in bond with hi in. Under in is iiuutioh. Am ibn Safim al-Khuzn and 
one pf Banu Ka h went to the Prophet (pbuh) in MadTnah. Tliai was among 
the causes of the Conquest of Makkah. Arnr stood by him while he was 
sitting with the people in the mosque, told him about the breach of tne 
pledge, and asked tor help. The Prophet sphuh) said. "r»a wift prhefa O 
Amr ihn StilimS* When a cloud appeared in lhc sky to htm. he said. "Verity, 
this ctmat m ill prwr dtthi-n with the Victory of Ban ft Kab* 

Together with a band or the Khuza'ah. Budayl ibn Warqa' went to the 
Prophet tpbuh} in Madinah to inform him of I heir affliction and how the 
Quraysh were supporting flanti Hnkr against them. After meeting him they 
returned to Makkah. The Prophet tpbuh) had said to them, 7# mm (hut you 
wiit jw Abu Sufi&n coming ty winfarct titr treaty and *±tetul tut Term." When 
Budayl and his companions had reached 'Usffln they met Abii SufyAn ibn 
Harb, who had been dispatched by the Quraysh to reinforce the treaty with 
the Prophet (pbuh J and to make an extension, as they feared I he outcome of 
what they had done. When Abu Suty&n saw Budayl, he asked him from 
where he was coming, as he suspected that he had been to the Prophet 
(pbuh), He answered that he had been moving with the Khuzaali along that 
coast and at the bottom of that valley, while he denied that he had heen to 
Muhammad (pbuh). when he had asked him so, Budayl had continued to 
Makkah, and Abu Suty&i did not believe him as he said to himself. "In ease 
Budayl went to Madtnah he would have fodkSered his camels date-seeds to 
eat there " Me went to the plaee where camels had rated, split Up their dung. 



listed wheiher Muhammad h;td pcrmtiied it. He said no. Thus, they 
suspected that *AIj might have been fooling him and all what he hud done 
wus useless. He said. "By Allah, t found nothing else io do." 

The Prophet fp&uh) gave orders w the Muslims lo prepare for an 
invasion, Abu Bakr was visiting his daughter 'A'ishah who was making the 
preparations. When he asked her about the place they were to go. she told 
him thai she did not know. Later the Prophet f pbuhj announced'that he was 
gomg to Makknh and ordered them lo be ready. He said, *0 Allah, tnkr awy 
thr .17/1*1 and rmnfrom the Quraysh yy t/iai we may take them bv surprise in their 
W£ H The army got ready. 

When the Prophet (pbuFi) determined In march to Makkah, \\Mh ibn Ah? 
Baluf ah wrote a message to the Qumy.sb to (ell them about mc Prophet's 
decision to raid them. He gave it to u woman to whom he paid >nmc money 
10 convey it lo the Quraysh, She put n on her head, then plaited her oraids 
over it and left. The Pjophei Ipburt) received a a-pon from heaven of rjalirA 
deed. Thus, he summoned All ibn Ah! Ialih and Az-2uhayr ibnul^ Awwam 
and said. "Go after a wvman mth wham there is tt letter from Hurll, ibn Abt Hal- 
ititih tti the Qurayxh naming them t*j our rfecte&fl agatntf them." They overcook 
her m Al-Khaliqah or Banii Abu Ahm-id. Making Iter get down, they looked 
into her baggage but found nothing, All swore by Allah to Iter lhat the 
Prophet was never to be misinformed nor were they, and that if she did not 
give the totcr they would strip her. When .she found him serious, she told 
them to turn aside. She undid her braids and gave me letter tu him. When 
the Prophet <pbuh) got the letter from him, he called Haiib and asked him. 
-Wfutt imim-at you to do a** He said, By Allah. 1 believe in Allah and His 
Messenger and my hehef has never changed. But I am a man of no position 
among the Quniysh and I have children and a family there so [ had to do 
something fur their sake," ' Umar asked the Prophet lo let him behead Haiib 
considering Kim a hypocrite. However, the Prophet (pbuhl said, -'Hon d» w, 
ktimv 'Umar! Perhaps A&A touted at thw >vlm attended Badr on the i) u y of Hadr 
and Miht Do to yott tike, for I have forgiven you* 

Allah the Almighty sent down concerning Jl^ih, JO yon who believe! 

Hike not My rnrmtei and yoirr enemies (U disbelievers and polythelia, etc,! m 

friemls, shoving affection tabards litem. ^ (o 4 Indeed iher? has been an ex- 

vetk/tl example for yrm in Ihrohimi (Abraham) imd those nidi him, when they Mini 



A Report on Those of the Prophet's Companions 
Who Suffered from Fever: 



^A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said. "When the Prophet 
iphuhi arrived ai Mndmah, ii was the must place plagued with fever on 
eurlh. It infected his Compamoas who suffered a severe affliction* Vet. 
Allah kepi il from Hh Propliet. Abu Bakr's mawlm. "Amir rbn Fuhayuili 
and Bilal. were with him in one house when the fever jtuekeil them I went 
to nurse them, for that was before the veil had been prescribed for women. 
Only Allah knows how much they were agonized from lever, I approached 
my father and asked him how lie was doing. He answered, 

Any man might be greeted by his family m the morning 

While death was nearer ihan ihe thong of his sandal 

I said. 'By Allah, my father does not know what he is saying.' Then I 
went to 'Amir and asked the same question. He said, 

I have experienced death before actually tasting it; 

The co ward's death comes upon him as he sii^. 

Every man resists it with all his might 

Like the o* lhat protects his body with his horns 

I said, Bv Allah - Amir docs noi know what he is saying.' BilSI, when the 
fever swayed hi in, lay down on the ground of the house, and raised hh voice 
saying. 

Shall lever spend a night again in Fak!ith ltl 

With sweet herbs and thyme around me".' 

Will the day dawn when I come down 10 the waters of Majannah fit 

ShulJ I ever see Shaman and lafrT * again? 



1, 4 A place uuiaite Mafckub 

2. Stajatrriflh wa* *mw^i lidJ hdnw Makknk 

J, Shfliuah ami Tafi[ *xfe iwn nifujnrjim m Muktah. 



eternal end of the Quraysh." A1-' Abbas continued. "Riding the Prophet'* 
white mule, I reached Al-Ar3k, as I thought 1 might find some woodcutters, 
milkers, or anyone who could go to the people of Makkah to tell them about 
the Prophet (pbuh} so that ihcy could ask for protection before he entered 
the place by force. White having such an intention, 1 heard the voice of Abfl 
Sufyan and Budayl speaking to each other. Abu Sufyan was saying, I have 
never seen such fires and camping before.' 'By Allah, it must be the 
KhuzS'ah coming for war,' answered Budayl Aba Sufy3n Said. The 
Kh Liza" ah are too trivial and few to have such flies and camps,' Thus I knew 
him by his voice as well as he did. I told him about the Prophet tpmih) and 
his array, and showed conecm for him and for the Quraysh, If he reaches 
you he will cut off your head, so mount on the back of this muie and I will 
take you to him and ask safety for you.' He sat behind roe, while his Jwo 
companions went back. 

Pawing by the Muslim fires, they first became alert, wandering who we 
were hut calmed down saying that ii was the Prophet's mule ridden few his 
uncle. Until we were alongside 'Ulnar's fire, he saw AbG Sufyan on the back 
of the mule and cried out. f Abu Sufyan the enemy of Allah! Thanks to Allah 
that we can seize you without agreement or covenant/ Then he went lo the 
Prophet iphiihj running, while J made the mule go at a gallop, and the muic 
won: it was like a slow beast outrunning a slow num. I descended and 
hastened to the Prophet (pbubh and "Umiir entered repeating what he had 
said about Abu Suryan and added, O Messenger of Allah! Let me behead 
him.' 1 said, O Messenger of All ail. I have given rum my protection: Then I 
sat by the Prophet (pbuh), holding hfc l^ad and said, "By Allah, none shall 
uifk sccnttj to Jimm tonigln widjots n ■> prtsenee 1 As 'Ihitiu etimtotted to 
object r said, Gently ^Umar! By Allah, in case he was of Band Adiyy ibn 
Ka" b you would not have said this; but it is because you know that he is of 
Banu "Abtl Manaf.* He answered, "Gently ' Abbas E By Allah, the day you 
embraced fclum was dearer to me than that of Al-K.hatiiib if he would have 
become a Muslim' The Prophet (pbuh) (old n*e to tiike Abfi Sufyan with me 
to my dwelling and return in the morning. 

1 did what lie had told me, so early in the morning t took him to meet the 
Prophet tpbuhf. On seeing him. lie said. Woe to you AklSirfyan. is it not time 
that wm know rkat there is no gt«f hut Altah?' He answered. 1 ransom vim with 



Establishing Brotherhood 
between the Muhajirun and the Aii£&r 

lb it IshSq said. "The Prophet fpbuh) established mutual frmiherhtwd 
between his Companions of the Muhajiriin and the Ans/tr. According to 
u'hm hi^s reached me, and 1 .seek Allah's; protect ion fmm aimbuting to him 
words that he did not say, he said, 'Be hmihersin Altuiu pairhypuit* He held 
the hand of 'AM ibn AM Talib and said. This is /nybraihrt.* The Messenger 
of Allah, was the muster of the Messengers and I main of those who arc 
eonseiotis of Allah, the Messenger of the LonJ of the Worlds, and the 
peerless and incomparable. He and "All ibn Abi IMib became brothers. 
Hamzah ibn ' Abdel-Muualib, tin: lion of Allah and His Messenger, and the 
uncle of the Prophet, became the brother of Zayd ibn Harilhah. the Prophet's 
mawla f Unnizah 1>equealhcd to Zayd on die Baute nf Uhud. in case of his 
death. Jn'far ibn Abi Xatib 'the one of the two wings, and the flier im 
Paradise)" and Mu*adh ibn Jabal the brother of ibn Salamuh became 
brothers. 

The pair* were as follows: 

Abu B ukr and KhSrijah ibn Zu hnyn ' Umar lbmd-Khauah and " IthJlri ihn 
Malik; Abu 'Ubaydaii ibnul-Janah and Sad ibn Mu fidh: " A hdur- Rahman 
ibn "Awf and Sa l d ibn ar-Rahl ; A/_-2ubayr ibnuKAwwarn and Salamuh 
ihn Salntnah ihn Watjsh: Uihmfin ibn "Affan and Aws ibn Thabii 
ibnul-Mundhir. lalfrah ihn "Uhaydillah and Kab ibn Malik; Sa id ibn Zayd 
thn Amr ibn Nufayl and Ubayy ibn Kab: Mus/ab tbn 'Umayr and Abw 
Ayyuh Khahd ibn Zayd: Abu Rudhayfnh *bn Utbah and *Abbad ibn BLshn 
"Ammar ibn Yasir and Undhoyfah ihnuI-Yaman; Aha Dharr aUGhifari and 
AL-Murnlhir ibn \Amr: H^iib ihn Abi BuliiTah arid % Uwaym ibn Sa^idah; 
Salman the Persian and Abud-Darda 1 ; and Bilat the inawJa nf AbQ Baki and 
the Prophets Mu'udfitliiin t caller m prayer J and Abu Ru way hah. 

These were the men who have been mentioned lo us as the Prophet's 
Companions with whom he cemented tics of mutual brotherhood ." 



continued, 'And he who shuts his door is safe, and he who enters the 
Mosque is safe'. Then the people diffused to different directions, totoeir 
houses and the Mosque." 

'Abdullah ion Abi Bakr related that when the Prophei stopped at Dhu 
Fuwa, he was riding hrs heasi wearing a turban of red Yemeni doth. When 
he saw how Allah had honored him with victor)', he lowered hi* head in 
humilii> to Allah until rue beard almost touched Hie middle of the saddle, 
Asma' the daughter of Abu Rukr related ihai when (he Prophet (pbuh) halted 
in Dftu Iuwa. Ahu QujjaTuh asked one or his youngest daughters, to take 
him up to Abu Qubays fa mountain in MakfcihJ, He had almostlost his 
sigh;, -no when ihey ascended he asked her what she could see. "A block of 
blackness," she said. "It is ihc cavalry/ he said. Then she told him Hint she 
was seeing a man running up and down in front of them. He said, "Q 
daughter, it is the adjutant," i.e. the one who gives and forwards ihc orders 
to the cavalry. Then she said, "By Allah, the blackness has diffused/' He 
said, 'Therefore the cavalry has been set free, so hurry and escort ine to my 
house.' While she was taking him down, the cavalry met them before 
reaching his house. As the girl was wearing a silver necklace, a man 
encountered her and tore it from her neck. When the Prophet fpbuh) entered 
the Mo>que. Abu Bakr went to him lending his father. On seeing him the 
Prophei j phuh J said, " Why did ymt not km* rV o td man in his haw <md hi mr 
no to him there** Abu Bakr replied. It is he who should come to you*, fie 
made him sit before hun and stroked his breast and asked him to embrace 
Islam and he did so. When Abu Bakr accompanied his father who was 
white-haired, the Prophet (pbubj told them to change thai erayness of Ulc 
hair for him. Then Abu flakr got up, held his sister's hand, und said, "1 
tmplorc by Allah and Islam for my sisters necklace". No one answered him, 
so he said, "O little sister, save the reward for your necklace with Allah, for 
honesty is rare among people nowadays." 

The sto^an of the Prophet's Companions on the days of Makkah, 
Hunayn. and AMSif: for the Muhajirun was O Banu ^Ahdur-RahmaV', for 
Ihc Ktojaj. "O Banii 'Abdullah", and for the Aws. ' O Banu UbaydjllaV. 
The Piophcl (pbuht gave instructions it> the Muslim ksdeis when entering 
Makkah not to fight, except certain individuals who must be killed even if 
they were found under the curtains of the KabarL Among them was 



-Abdulteh ibn SQ-d, Hie bromer of Bflri ^Amir ibn Uayy. The Prophc 
(pbuhi ordered thai he should be killed because he w;ls a Muslim who used 
to write down the- Revelation for the Prophet <pbuh). bui he apostatized and 
returned to the Quraysh. He resorted to ^UHmdii dm **Sto who was his 
foster-brother. He conned him until the audit tons in Makkah tclllcJ and 
then he brought Dim to Ite P^phcl 1pbuh). asking if he rmghr be grunted 
safciv Some said that lb. Prophet < P buh) kept silent for a long time .mil 
finally he said yes. WhnTUlhmfin had gone he said to his Compos who 
were there, "I rcimbmi silent so that one O/JW «nuht rit* and bttumi lum. 
One of the Ansa said, "Then why did you noi give me a hint, O Messenger 
of Allah?" He said, "A Prophet iter* not kill Iry gttW&i ' 

Another one to be kilted was I Abdullah ibn Khaiat of Bam. Tayyim ibn 
Ghftlib He was a Muslim and once the Prophet (pbuh) sent him with a man 
to collect ZakaK Ibn Khafcij had with him a mtmlA of his to serve him. 
When they alighted, he usked him lo slaughter a goat for him and prepare 
some food, and then he slept. When he awoke the mawM had done nothing, 
so he killed him and apostatized. He had two female singers Faruini and her 
friend who used to sing sarcastic songs about the Messenger of AlJdi 
<pbuh), so he commanded that ihey should be killed with him 

Al-Huwayriiii ibn Nuqaydh was to be killed for maltreating the Prophet 
robin) in Makkah. The Prophet (pbub) ordered that Miqyus ibn guhAbah be 
killed since lie had slain an Ansjiri who formerly killed his brother by 
accident, and went to the Quraysh as an apostate. Also. Sarah who had 
insulted him in Makkah was a maw lab of Ban* ' Abdul -MftUalib. 'Eminoh 
ibn Abt Jahl was mentioned to he killed, but he escaped to Yemen. His wife 
Umm Hakim the daughter of Al-HSrith ibn HishSm embraced Islam. She 
asked saletv for him and the Prophet < pbuhi accepted, so she went alter Iter 
husband in\emen and brought him to the Prophet (pbuh) and he became a 
Moslim. 

Abdullah ibn Khaial was slain by Said ibn Hurayih al-Makhzumi 
logethcr with Abu Baizah al-Adami. Miqym ibn Subabah was killed by 
Numaylah ibn Abdillab, one of his dan. 

Unas ibhtiMttinLifr and lh*1 of tltlitnSn jiUcr iiim 



As for lf>rr Khaial's two femaie singers, one was killpd and the other fled 
unul the Prophci gave her safely. The same happened to Sarah, who lived 
until ihe rule uf *Umar when she was killed down in the valley of Makkah. 
Al-iluwayrith ibn Nuqaydb was killed by All ibn AMTalib. 

Umm Hani 1 llu.- daughter of Abfi IaTib said, "When me Prophet tphuh) 
stayed in the upper pan of Mafckah, two of my hro&hers-in-Uiw of Bami 
Makhzum escaped and Kid in my house/' She was the wife of Jlubayrnh ibn 
AM Wahb ul-MaktoiCffli. She continued, 'My brother ^AII ibn Ahi labb. 
came in avowing that lie would kill them, so ! locked the door of my house 
on them and directed 10 the Prophet (pbuhV He w;ls having a bath, while his 
daughter Fltimuh Was covering him with his robe. When be finished, he 
wrapped himself in his robe and offered eight ratlin, for the Quija prayer 
Then he fumed to welcome me and asked me about the reason for my visit, 
so 1 recounted to him what had happened concerning the two men and Alt. 
He said, 'We phc protection and safety to those you havt $p*n protection. He 
shall not tilt thetn." 

Safiyyah the daughter of Shaybab reeled that, being in Makkah alter the 
people had settled down, the Prophet (pbuhl went to circumainbuliue tlie 
K;fbah seven limes on bis camel touching the Comer with his rod. 
Afterwards he called " Lithman ibn lalfcah to take the kev ot" the Kabali 
from him- When the Kabbah was orated for him, he found a wooden pigeon 
which he broke with his bands and hurled it away. Standing by the gate of 
the Ka'bah. the people were assembled with him in the Mosque. 

Ibn fsfaaq said. "Some scholars told me that the Prophet ipbuh) was 
standing by the gate of the Ka'bah when he said. 'There h no g™/ but Allah 
alone with nv associate- He has torn Sincere in Hts promiw ami has &iven victory 
to Hii it tram. He alone hux vanquished the Cart/file rates. Behold! Every pre- 
tension of privilege, hlootl or property is now under these two feet of mint with the 
Exception of serving the House and f7#ft$ ftkpr to the piigrims. Behold! (Con- 
re riinvJ the one who £r ihtin hv mistake and semi- intentionally hy a whtp or stick, 
(aixfiitmh'l should receive the solemn blond-money, (vthieh tij p hundred camels, 
among which forty tftoukl Iw pregnant O people ofQaraysk Allah has taten away 
front you the to nuance of ignorance f pre -Islam} and veneration of the forefathers, 
Man is from Adam and Adam is from dust, ' Then he recited the Quranic 



-Cn*}- 



to you « an honored brother, and the son of «• hoi"** hrolher. He 

'Co. for yatt are free. *" 

The Prophet (pbuh) was silting in U* Mosque, when ' Alt ibn W I«l* 

came witfa .he Key of the Ktf-h. He «fcd the Prophet (phu . « «-gft 

clan the task of guarding to Bfb* as well .us g.vmg £*»* £*""£ 
Nevertheless the Prophet (pbuh) summoned -Ulhman ,bn J* hah and *«]. 
"Here it murlev. f ihmfa. Todny is«d, V <rf rigbmmsnns a»d hyalty. 

Ibn H&Mh, said. "Srnnc scholar, told me that the Prophet (pbuh, entered 
,he Hou.se on the Day of the Conquest. He saw the pictures of the angels and 
a picture of Prophet Ibrahim holding the ic/fir... Thy*** Cunt *"** 
,„'„,'- ho said, i Thn- have made our Sheikh «t ailon, Wto has >A™Af* C * 
M „/, ,,«* iMnp"' Then he recited. 'IbrM* < Abraham) .«« »e«Aer J*« '«" " 
£V,»,/,«n. W be m « -*« H*#m ^-T« «*■* «■«■*«* " » *™*W w* 

k<r Mod Ato»; m »> >«» ""' ^aw*-*** 'p"'.v"'«" s "'"' ** "'"■ > ' , 

• hnran: W He (pbuh) then ordered that all t»* pictures should be destroyed. 
On the year of the Conquest. when the Prophet (pbub) entered the 
Ka'hah. he was accompanied by Bittl whom he asked w cull the people u. 
prayer. Meanwhile. Abu Sufyin ibn Harb, "Allah ibn Atfd and Al-HJrUh 
ihn Hishim were resting in the yard of the Kabah. "Auto ibn And said. 
-Allah has honored Asid in not hearing this, otherwise il would have 
infuriated him." AMUrilh .aid. "By Allah, if 1 knew that he is right I wouM 
Have followed him." AbO SurySn said, "I will not say anything. If 1 were to 
niter these pebble* would inform of h." Thereupon the Prophet (pbuh) went 

to thein and said. "I fit** «*« J™ """ > eiJ " ""* rc ' sawd lhcir S2y f !]■ 
Al-Hflfhh and ' AlUSb said, "We testify that you arc the Messenger of AUah. 
Nobody was with us who a»uld have heard our talk so thai wc could say 
that he had informed you." 



Ihn Hisham said, "Ibn 'Abbas related that when the Prophet (pbuh) 
entered Makkah on the Day of »he Conquest, un his tame], he 
circumambulated the Ka'bah which was surrounded by idols sei in lead, so 
he kept on painting at them with his rod, saying, "Truth {i.e. Islamic 
Monuthcism or this Quran or Jihad against pofytheists) has mmr ami Basil 
i falsehood, i.e. Satan or polytheism, etcj fan? yanijJrrt/ Stiffly! H<)tH a. ever 
Inmmf to vunisft"J li Whenever he Ipbuh) pointed to an idol it fell onlu it!* 
back and whenever he pointed to it* back it fell onto its face, until all fell 
down. 

Fiidulah ibn 'Umayr at-Laythl intended to kill the Praphei ipbuhj while 
he wa* ciicuniiifiibulaiiiig ihe Ka'bah in the year of (he Conquest. When he 
approached him, the Prophet tphuhl *aid, TAf* jftw Fud&ah?' > He answered, 
"Yes. I am Fagulah. O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet (phoJij asked him. 
"What vw* you muthtrinn*" He said, "Nothing, just mentioning Adah!" The 
Propltei (pbuh'j laughed and said. 'Ask. Allah la forgive you," then he pul his 
hand on the man's breast and his heart became composed. Fadjllah used to 
say. "As soon as he removed his hand from my breast nothing of Allah* 
creation was rieajcr to mir man him." Afterwards Fadalah returned to his people. 

Ibn ishjiq said, "The totaJ number of Muslims who witnessed the 
Conquest of Makkah was ten thousand: Banu Sulayra seven hundred, and 
some said one thousand, Banu Ghifdr four hundred. Aslam foot" hundred. 
Muziiynah one thousand and three, and the rest were from the Quraysh, the 
Ansar and iheir allies, and other Arab tribes from Tamim. Qays. and Asad 

The Day of Hunayn, 8 AH after the Conquest 

When the Haw tain heard that lite Prophet hud conquered Makkah, Malik 
ibn " Awf un-Nasri held a meeting which was attended by all tJir Hawazin of 
TTuiqTf, alt the people of Na^r and Jusharo, Sa*d ihn Bakr, and a few from 
Banti Hilal. No others were there from the Qays of 'Avian. Ka'b and KiUih 
of the Haw&sin stayed away and no one of special standing attended. 
Among Band Jusham was Durayd ibn£-£inunali, an aged and experienced 
man who was known for his valuable advice and his experience of war. 

!. TthJsc words Lire m Sim til-ixrji\ vcfhc £1 

(g& 



Thaqlf had two chiefs: Qarib ibnul^Aswad Ibn MariTd ibn Mu'nmb led the 
AWtt and DhuI-KhimSr Suhny* ihnol^arith ibn Malik and ^M» 
*hmar led B»u M*m Overall. tfe B&te were in the hands of Malik ibn 
! mt an-Nadri He decided w march to the Prophet (pbuh ) with the* wives 
and children. Wh«i he popped at Awtte. the men gathered to him. among 
ihm m Duravd ibn^immah sitting in *omc ihmg like a howdah m which 
M wa, carried! A, sou as he alighted he asM what valley ifacy were ill 
and when he knew Hi* h ™ Aw^s he .aid thai it was suitable lor the 
cavalry -Not a rooky mount, nor a dusty plain: but why these winds of 
camels," UK*, children, and shfiepr They told him that Malik had taken 
Lhcm W iih the army. He at once summoned him and sai± "O 'Malik, ynu 
have berime the leader of your people and this is a day whieh will be 
ensued by events He then questioned him uboui the sounds be was 
hearin- and Malik explained his pouii in bring ing them to May behind the 
warned so thai the* would fight without thinking of repeat, Willi a sound 
of denial, be said. "You shepherd, by Allah do you think that anyihmg will 
ctuuioc ihe state of a defeated man? In ease things go well nothing will help 
hut a man with a sword and a spear; in case it goes agamst you. you will be 
debased in your family and properly." Then he asked about Kah and Kil&b; 
when he knew of their absence, he said, "Boldness and might are absent; if 
it wore a dav of sublimity, Ka" h and Kilab would not have kept away. I wist} 
that you had acted the same as they did. Whom of your elans, are w.tnessmg 
BP They told him they were 'Amr ibn *Amir and 'Awf ibn Amir and he 
said, "Those two weak branches of 'Amir who can neither benefit nor harm. 
You have erred, Malik, when you advanced Ihe mass, the mass of the 

Hawazin, to encounter the cavalry. Let them ascend to a high and 
inaccessible pan of their land and meel the apostates I i.e. Muslims) riding 
yOOJ hor^s, In ease the fight is in yoar advantage, those behind can proceed 
m join you. and in case it is against you t you wiU have rescued your 
ratnihcs and property." Malik said "By Allah. 1 will not do what yon have 
said It seems thai you have become too old as welt as your thinking. O 
people of Hawfem. vou will either follow me. or 1 will kill myself with this 
sword." He could not stand Durayd's having any position in the matter. As 
ihe Hawa/in said that thev would obey Malik. Duravd said, "This it a day 
which 1 will not witness nor miss". Malik said lo his warriors, "On seeing 
them, break your scabbards and assail them as one man." 

<S> — 



When the Prophet (pbuh) heard about their ploiring. he dispatched 
* Abdullah ibn Abi Eadrad al-AslamT to slay among ihem umiJ he could 
h*arn about their plans, and return to him with the news Abdullah did as 
the Prophet I pbuh) had ordered him and returned and told him about their 
decision to fight him, 

As the Prophet (pbuh) began to prepare lor the war against the Ha wizin, 
he was told that Sarwnn ibn Umayyab, then a polytheism had some annore 
and weapons. He ipbuh) summoned him and said, "Q Abil Vnwyyah, lend m 
yaur wedjwns jo we mav encounter &itr enemy mraounflW £afw3h asked, "Do 
you want ihem by force, Muhammad'*" He said, "Nt?< they ore a wpfrantrti 
lotm until we give them toff* to you." He accepted and lent him a hundred coat* 
of mail with their equipment, Ii was said that the Prophet (pbuh) asked for 
transport to convey them and he provided him with it. 

Then the Prophet (pbuh) left wjth rwo thousand from the people of 
Makkah and ten thousand of his Companions who accompanied him in the 
Conquest of Makkalh thus totaling twelve thousand men. The Prophet 
l pbuh) appointed Auab ibn Asfd ibn Abel-is ibn Umayyaft ibn 'Abd 
Shams in charge of the affairs of Makkah. Then he went ahead 10 confront 
the Hawazin. 

Al-Hnrim ibn Malik said. "We accompanied the Prophet (pbuh) to 
Hunayn as fresh Muslims. "ITie disbelievers of the Quraysh artd other Arab 
tribes had a great green tree called Dham Anwat (the one with suspender) 
to which i hey used to go every year T suspend their arms ori it, slaughter 
beasts beside it, and stay there for a day. While we were marching with the 
Prophet (pbuh) wc found a great lolc true so we called out to the Prophet 
(pbuii) from the sides of the road, O Messenger of Allah, Mate a tree for us 
to he like their Dh&U Anwat" He said. Atiutm Akbar* By Him Who holds my 
sotrf m His hands, you have said {tike) that which the people of Mtteit said to 
him. 4 Make far its tin tiah (a god) tts they twvt nlilmh (gods). ' He said, Verity, yi?u 
are a people who know not y iU It h custom*! Surely, you will comply with the cus* 
turns t>f those who preceded you.' ' 



1 . i.f. you ilo iw\ know itur Majc*i>- and Ctmi iwf» cf AJkh and *hni it pbhpmMy tijvm JN**»- tx-'lu 
woT^hip mine ton AIIeA Alanc, itic One and Che Ont> ChhJ of ah lltftf «t*U. Al-A'ifil 1 3* 



j^bir ibn 'AbdiUHb 5^* "Approaching the valley eg Eunayn we 
descended through a spacious aitd sloping *flfcy of Tihamah. The enemy 
had preceded us to the valley, lwked in its gjens. sidetracks andsiraits. and 
prepared themselves well We were moving downward gradually m the 
momin* iwi light, when suddenly their battalion* <^ked ** « one man. 
The MuMm* staned to ^ in <^er. The ^^ <P hoIl) P» 
riehiwwd a nd said, 'W*te» W* «« <**** 0,™^ 0*w *«t> » «*. / am 
|fc W««*ff" of MM I *m M«tow»n«i ibn WxIUMr The camels bumped 
one into the other and the people went off but a tad of the Muhajuun. the 
Ansjr. ana the Prophet's family stayed with him (pbuh)," 

Ibn Ishaq said that when the men ran away and the rink among the 
people of Makkah who were with the Prophet <pbuh) saw that they had been 
defeated, some of them spoke in a way thai showed their animosity. Abu 
Sufyao ibn B.aih said, "Their defeat will not cease before ihcy get to me 
sea"" He earned his <cMm in bis sheath. Jabalab ibuUl-Hanhal cried out, 
"Certainly sorcery k annulled today.' Shaybah ibn ^Uihmfin said. 1 said 
Today I will mm Dtl Muhammad.'" Today J will kill Muhammad.' \ 
turned towards the Messenger of Allah lo kill him bat something happened 
thai I could not stand doing it and I knew that he was preserved from me. 

ibn mm m *>w °^ oi lh * ***&* ° r Makkah w1d hittl thm wheQ lte 

Prophet (pbuhl departed Makk.h heading Tor Jiunayn and saw the great 
numbers of Allah's soldiers he sai« % ■# «* ^ ^^ «*« *» # 

AU' Abbas ibn ' Abdcl-Muflaiib said, "['was with the Prophet (pbuh-) 
setiim* the rein of his white mule which I had put between its jaws. 1 was a 
large man with a sonorous voice. The Prophet (pbuh) said to his army, as it 
was in chaos, TW*£ a* ym diMn S i. p$$** but none of them sm& «P 
have heard. He asked me to cry out loudly, 'O Antfr. O Cmnpamw* offc- 
feiwrrt'. Thev replied, Here we are at your service'. One of them would try 
to revere his camel, but he could not do it, so he would take bis armor, cast 
it on US neck, take his sword and shield, dismount it, selling it free while he 
followed the voice until he reached the Prophet (pbuh). Eventually a 
hundred warriors gathered around him. proceeded, and (ought, 

1 . Hii Fntfier *a* slain on llw Di y <if ITJiud 

2. The* wmd» «crt uttered hy unc from Bonfl Rail. Sec IhuulAthU, rfWAnA Vul. 3, p. 1 ?6. 



The call wis first directed to lbs Ansar and then to the Khazraj. They 
were firm in the battlefield, while the Prophet ipbuh) stood in his stirrups 
watching the fight as they were challenging and said. 'Now the bailie has 
grown fierce/ " 

Jibir ibn n AbdiliaK related, l "Ali ibn Abi Xoiib and an An^ari attacked the 
mart who war* t; jurying the banner < if the I law a/in on his camel. 'Ail came 
on him from the hack and ham si rung hLs camel so it tell upon its rear end; 
the Anjart jumped upon him and struck him a blow which made his foot fly 
with hull" of his shank and he dropped from his saddle The warriors did 
dieir best in the fight. By Allah, when those who had withdrawn came back, 
they found prisoners lettered with me Prophet iphuh V 

Tilt.' Prophet ipbuhj directed to Abu Sufyan ibnul-Hariih ibn 
' Abdel-Mutiaijb, who was among those who stood firm with him (pbuh) 
that day. and he had become a good Muslim after embracing Islam, Abu 
Sufyan was holding to the posterior of the saddle of the Prophet's mule. He 
asked who it was. He said, "It is mc. the son of your mother. O Messenger 
of Allah." 

'Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr related lhai the Prophet {pbuh) found Umm 
SuJayni the daughter of Mil bib* with her husband Abu Tiiijjah, She was 
banding a girdle as she was pregnant with her son 'Abdullah ibn luIJiah. She 
was riding her husband's camel and in order to control it she brought its 
head close to her, putting her hand in the nose ring or hair along with the 
no.se bridle. After the Prophet fpbuh) had recognized her, she said, "O 
Messenger of Allah, kill tht>se who fled from you as you kill ihose who 
combat you, for ihey deserve thai!" The Prophet (pbuh) said "h it not that 
AUah xirffti'cs (iji<*J for them, O Umm Sulayml'" She had a dagger with her SO 
when Abu XaJhah asked her why *he carried it + she said "I look the dagger 
in case a poly die ist comes close to me I can rip him up with it. H He said. 
"Do you hear. O Messenger of Allah, what Ar-Rumaysa" (who had a 
problem in her eyes) is saying!" 

Abfi Qatatjah said, "On the day of Hunayn I saw a Muslim and a 
potytheisl fighting. Another pnlyEhcisi came lo help his companion against 
the Muslim, so 1 mauc for him and cm off his hand but he griped me with 
the other hand; and by Allah if it was not for his bleeding, he would have 



<^o)'^ 



killed me. m he fell down and 1 killed Iiibl 1 was 100 indulged in the balUe 

m pay any mure heed to him. One of the people 0* Makfcuh passed by and 

looted him. When the war was over, the Prophet (pbuh) said, 'Ui utu*W 

Mrd u person ^ his booty,' I said, O Messenger of Allah tpbuhl I have 

slain a pciwil who was worth looting but I was extremely occupied u, the 

battle at the Bififi so I did noi see who had spoiled him/ One of the people of 

Makkah admitted that I had spoken the truth and uid ibdt the booty was 

with him and asked the Prophet (pbuh.l to pay ik to my satisfaction on his 

behalf from my spoil. Abu Baki said, 'No, by Allah, he shall not give him 

from it to his satisfaction. Do you want to make one of Allah's lions who 

fought Tor His religion share you In his booty? Give him back the spoils of 

the one lie had killed!' The Prophet <pbuh1 said that Abu Bate's had said the 

truth, and ordered thai man to give me my booty back. I took the booty, suld 

it, and purchased with the money a small palm-grove. Jl was the first 

property I ever owned." 

!bn fofcaq said Ihul when the I lawuzin were defeated, many of the men of 
Thaqif among Banu Malik were killed, and seventy of them were killed 
under their standard, among whom were "Uthmito ibn ^Abdillah ibn Rabfali 
ibnel-Harith ibn Uahlb. Their srandard was first with a man known as 
Dhut-KhimAf ". When he was slain, 'Uthmfin ibn -Abdillah cook it until he 
was also killed. 

As the polytheism were beaten they wem to At-Ta'if, accompanied by 
Malik ibn *Awf; white some encamped in Awias. and only BanO Gliiyamh 
from Thaqfr made tor Nakhlah. The Muslim cavalry pursued those who had 
headed for Nakhlah. but they did not ehaae those who had gone to the hillocks. 

The Prophet {pbuli) dispatched Abu "Amir al-Ash'uri to follow the 
traces of those in Anas and he caught some of ihem running away. In the 
engagement Abu 'Amir was speared with an arrow and died so his eousm. 
Abu Musa al-Ash*ari. took the standard, and kept on fighting until Allah 
granted him victory. 

During their flight, Malik imT Awf with some of his horsemen stopped 
at a hillock on the way to wait for their weak to pass and those in the hack to 
join them. The Prophet ipbuh) was passing by when he found the men 

1. Dhut-Khiiniir*a* r AwNhmif-a2iK^ 



gathered around a woman whom KtiaJid ibnul-Walid had killed. He ai once 
sent a message lo Khalid saying "The Messenger of Attuh forftids wit from kitt- 
ing Q bahy. woman, or a hired slave}, " 

The Prophet tpbuh) .said thai day. If yon am cmch Bijad - a man nF Banu 
Siid ibll Bakr - da ms let him rtm aiY&yfr&m ytnt," for hu h»d made some evil 
aa When ihe Muslims seized him they took him away with his family and 
Ash-ShiiyraiT the daughter of Al'tiarith who was a foster-staler of the 
Prophet ipbuh). They were lough with heron their way. When she told them 
Uiat she wus a foster-sister of the Prophet [pbuh). they did not believe her. 
They took her to the Prophet. 

When she toid the Prophet (pbuh) that she was bU foster-sister, he asked 
her to prove her claim, She said tliai he bit her in tlue back when she was 
carrying him on tier hip. The Prophet (phuh) remembered thai, so he 
stretched oui his mantle Tor her to sit On. He made her choose between 
living with him in endearment and honor or nrtuming to her people with 
present*, and site preferred (he latter- Band Sa'd claimed (bat he also gave 
her a bondman of his called MokhCl. an J a bondwoman whom slrc gave to 
the former in marriage and their progeny continued. 

Ibn Hishani said. "Allah revealed concerning the Day of Jiunayn. 

4 Tfuly Allah has $hen you victory on many haute fields, and on the 
Day ofthmayn (battle) when ymt tejtmed at yvtir great number hut it availed yvtt 
naught mul the mirth* vasi as ft is. Was straitened fur you, then ymt turned hacA m 
flight Tlien Allah did send dttwn His Satfnah (calmness, tranquillity and re- 
assurance, err«J <wi the Messenger (Muhammwlh and on the believer*, mid sent 
down forces t angels) which ymt saw tint, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the 
recompense of disbelievers. ^ 

(At-Tawbah: 25-26 > 

Ibn Isfeuq said, "The captives and spoils of }4u™«Y« ^ere collected to the 
Prophet (phuh), Mas'ud ibn 'Amr al-Ghiftiri was in charge of (he spoils" 
aXfaks, The Prophet (pbuh) ordered that oil th*.* captives and spoils he kepi in 
Al-JParanah," 



The Invasion of AMa'if, 8 AH 

When the defeated subjects of Thaqif arrived at AMffif. they dosed ihe 
gate, of the city and prepared themselves for war. "lin*ah ibn Mas'Od and 
Gayl&n ibn Salamah did not witness the Battle of Hunayn nor the siege of 
Al-ITif, for they were training in Jiran on how to use the tesludo. the 
catapult, and other equipment. 

After Ending with Hunayn, the Prophet (pbuh) made for At-IaU He 
marched and passed by Nakhint at-Yamaniyyah, Quin. Al-Mulayk and by 
Buhrat ar-Rugha' of Ltyyah. where he builL a mosque offered prayer therein. 
Then he proceeded on the Ad-fiayqah road to Nakhb until he stopped under 
a lore tree called As.~Sadirah close to the property of a man of Thaqif. The 
Prophet ipbuh) sent hirn a message asking him whether to surrender or he 
would destroy his garden. He refused to surrender so the Prophet (pbuh> 
gave orders to demolish it. 

The Prophet ipbuh) continued until he stopped near AMaif where he 
encamped. Yet the Muslims* camps were too close to the wall of AMA'if so 
some of the Companions were killed by arrows which reached ihcm from 
the wall, and the Muslims eoufd not enter the wall because the enemy had 
fortified themselves behind U. When those Muslims died, the Prophet 
fpbuh) moved the camp to where his Mosque at Ai-Ia'if h today. He (phuh) 
besieged Aj-Ia if for more than twenty nights. 

Two of the Prophet's wives accompanied him, one of them was Umm 
Salamah the daughter of Abu Umayyah. He pitched for them two tents 
beLween which he offered prayers. He remained there until Thaqif 
surrendered, so *Amr ibn Umayyah ibn Wahb constructed a mosque over 
the site where he Cpbuh) used to perform prayer. It was said that there 'was a 
piiiar in the mosque that made a sound every lime the sun rose over it. 
During the siege, the fight was bttter and Ihe two parties exchanged arrows, 
uritU At-Taif Wall was attacked by a band of the Companions who 
penetrated under a tesludo encroaching to the wall to hum it. Thaqif threw 
on them molten hot iron so they stepped out from under it and were shot by 
arrows which kdled some of them, The Prophet fpbuh) commanded that the 
vineyards of Thaqif be cut down. 



I was told thai the PropheL (pbuh) said to Abu ftakr during ibe siege of 
Ai-Ta'if, that he hud seen [in a vision) thai he was given a bowl of butter 
and acock: pecked ai it and split it> contents. Abu Bakr conuncnicd that lie 
did not «hmk that the Prophet (pbuh) w^uld achieve what lie desired from 
them that day. He ipbuhl said thai he did not think that either. Then 
Khtiwaylab the daughter of ^k\m of Sulaym and the wife of 'Ulhrmln ibn 
Maz'un, went to the Prophel fpbuh) tint! asked him to give her ihe jewelry 
of Badiyah the daughter of Ghaylan. or that of Al-Fan ah the ckugh^r of 
TlquyJ, in ease Allah granted him victory < rVc r Aj-Tsi-f- for both were from 
i he mosi bejcwclcd women of ThaqSf. Some told me thai the Prophet's 
answer was. Tb'huj ifThttqffis not.fwnmiteit to me. O KftuwayUih?' 'She went out 
and repeated the Prophets words to Ulnar, who went to Ihe Propltet (pbufa) uj 
make sure ih# he had said so. Knowing that lie had, he asked if Ibe y should 
depart. The Prophet (pbuh) gave him permission to give orders to break 
camp, and he did so. 

When the troops moved off Sa'td ibn "Ubuyd cried out, "Tire clan is 
staying/' "Uyaynah ibn Histi said. "Yes, wiih glory and honor 1 ". One of ihe 
Muslims said to him, "May Allah's Curse be upon you, O 'Uyaynali! Do 
you glorify the polylhcists for holding out against the Messenger of Allah 
although you have joined him to Tight with him?" "I did not come with you 
to be against Thaqif." he answered. out I wanted Muhajnmad to control 
Ai-Xa if so that \ might gel a Thaqif girl who might give birth to a son of 
mine, for the people of Thaqif are intelligent and clever.'" 

During the Prophets stay, some slaves who were under siege in A[-Ia if 
weni to him and embraced Islam md lie emancipated them. When the 
people of AJ-Ia'tf accepted Islam, some of them like Al-ilarith ibn Kaladah 
asked for these slaves, but the Prophet (pbuh) said thai they were Allah's 
freed men. Twelve of ihe Prophet's Companions were killed as martyrs ai 
Al-Ia'if: seven from tlie Quraysh. four from the An^ar. and one from Banu 
Layth. The Prophet ( pbuhl departed AuTa H if after the battle and die siege. 

The Property and Captives of the Hawazin 
and the Division of the Spoils 



Moving off from Ai-Ja'if. the Prophet (pbuhl with his army went 
through Dip a until he hahed at AJ-Jirahah, where a large number of the 



Ilawa/m captives were kept One of his Companions, an their departure 
from Thitijif a^ked the Prophet Cpbuh) to supplicate agamsl Them but he said, 
"Q AtUdu xttiih Tiutqifand brin$ them fie. to Islam or to him). " 

A depuration from the Hawazin went lo him at Al-Jrranah where he 
retained six thousand women and chil dren, and a countless number of sheep 
and eamek They said they were an established clan lull afHiUiuri had 
befallen them, m was well known, and implored liim to pity ibem for 
Allah's sake. One of ihe Hawazin from the clan or Burnt Sad ibn Bakr 
named Zuhayr and Juhbed Abu surad smd, "O Messenger of Allah, in ihc 
(wns are your paternal and maternal aunt* and your foster mothers* 111 Had it 
been that wc SUdtfcd Al-Hfltilh ihn Abi Shamir or An-Nu man 
ibnuI-Mtindhir f two high personalities* and they were in your position now, 
we would hope For their pity and generosity, hut still you arc The beM ot 
entrusted men.*' 

The Prophet (pbuh) &avc them the choice between iheir families mid 
properly. When they chose their families, the Prophet ipbah) said, "What is 
for m* and for Bantt ' Abdul -Mui&tih i.\ yours When t finish the Zf^ prayer with 
the people, get up and say. 'We uik the ikttwnum of the Mi'wmiter of Allah with 
the Muslims, and that ofttte Muslims *M the Messatger of Allah f»r our vhtidrrn 
and wives'. I wilt then jjnr yau * what you ask furl and appeal on ynur behalf " 

The Prophet tpbuh) having finished the 2uhr prayer, they did as he 
instructed them and he Ssiiid. "What is for mr and far Banu Abdttl-MuUalih is 
vaurs>" The MutiAjirita said "And what is ours is For the Prophet 4 ; and the 
Ansar said the same. However, Al-Aqra' ihn H3his said. "What is mine and 
that of Banu Tamlm are no( ri.e, are ours nol for die Prophet}." Uyaynah 
ibn ilis.ii said the same about what was his and that of Band FazaYah. When 
'Abbas ibn Mirdfls said Ihe same about what was his and that of Banu 
Suluym, the Utter said. 'What is ours is for the Prophet 11 Thereupon. 
^AbbOs said <o Banu Sulaym "You have belittled me. 4 ' Then Lhe Prophe< 
I pbuhl sajd, " He who sucks, to his nghr to these prisoners wilt ttavr six aunels for 
every perwnfmm the first booty I #*'- T7»*tfl let die men have tiieir wves and chil- 
dren hack." 

"Dil- Prcjphci I pbuhl inquired of the UawQzin deputation about Malik ibn 
Awf. When they told him that he was in Ai-I^if with Thaqif, the Prophet 



I Tin; nunc w rosier rj*nhrr oNIm Pa>plwt Ipbab) WW *mm Rumi.&a d ibn Hakr fiom tfic Hawfahl. 



(pbuh) [old them to inform Malik That in cq.se be came to him us a Muslim, 
he would give him back his family and properly plus a hundred camel*. 
MAUk accepted the proposal and left AMa'tf. Vet he was apprehensive that 
Thau, if would detain lum on knowing what the Prophet {pbuhf hud said, so 
he ordered thiil his camel .should be prepared for him as well as bis horse be 
brought to him in A£-la'if. Ai night he departed vn his horse, and gaJ loped 
until he reacted the location where his camel was tied + and men he rode off 
and joined the Prophet (pbuh) in ANT ran ah or Makkah. The Prophet 
tpbuh) relumed h\a family and property to him and provided him wiih a 
hundred camels. He embraced Islam and became a good Muslim. 

The Prophet {pbuhj appointed him as a commander over those who had 
embraced Lslam from his people, namely, the tribes of Thumalah, Satamah, 
and Fatm He kepi on fighting and raiding Thaqif with thern until they became 
in sure circumstance, Abu Mijjjan aih-Thaqtfi condemned Malik for this. 

The people followed the Prophet (pbuh) saying, "O Messenger of Allah, 
distribute our booty of camels and herds among us", until they drove him 
back against a tree. His maniie was snatched from him. so he said, "O pea* 
pit* Return to mr my month, M' Allah if your sheep uere as many as the trees of 
Tihamah I would divide iht>m among ytm. You have never found me a miser* cow- 
ard, or a tor". He picked a hajr from his camel's hump and held it high 
between his two fingers, saying, "O peopie. / have nothing hat a fifth of your 
spvil% tytn to this hair, and the fifth will $o back to you. Su return te\'en\ threads 
and needles* for herravai (with regard to spoils) will be a sham? and a pre and af- 
ter disgrace to those who practice it on the Day of Resurrection." One of the 
Ansar appeared with a ball of camel hair, saymg, rt O Messenger of Allah, I 
have la ken this ball to make a cushion for an injured camel of mine." He 
replied, "An far my share f trim it* it is yours!" "It it has come to thai, 1 do noi 
need it," he said and ihrcw it away. 

The Prophet (pbuh) provided booty to the new converts to Islam, who 
were celebrities and chiefs, to win ihcir hc:im and win their people ihrough 
tbem. The following got one hundred camels each: Abu Sufyfm ibn ilarb; 
his son Mu'Swiyah: H*k\m ibn Htzam; AI-HSfidi ibnul-tmrith ihn Kaladah; 
Suhayl ibn Amr; Jjawaytib ibn 'Abdel^Uxza; Al- A 1 3' ibn Jarryah 
auVThaqafi; ^Uyaynah ibn Hj&rr. Al-Ayra" ibn HSbis at^Tamlml; Malik ibn 
"Awf an-Na£rii and^afw&i ibn Umuyyah- 



J13t» 



Each of following men of the Quraysh were given less than one hundred 
camels: Makh/amah ibn NawfaJ az-Zuhrf; " Umayr ibn Wahb al-Jumahi: and 
Hisham ibn Ann the brother of Banu Amir ibn Ltfavy. I do not memorize 
whai he tpbuhl gave them exactly but 1 Lnew [hut he gave them lev. Jhan 
one hundred cured* The Prophet ipbuh) gave fifty earned to Sa id ibn 
Yarbu* ibn AnkaLhah and to As-Salimi. He gave Abbas ibn Mirda* few 
camels, so he became disappointed and blamed the Prophel (pbuh). 

The Prophet (pbuh) said. •Take him way from me and rut off hi* tongue." 
so he was given (camels) until he was pleased: that was what the Prophet 
(pbuhV meant hy cutting his longut off."* 

Abu Sa id al-Khudri said, "As tin: Prophet (pbuhl divided this booty 
among the Quruysh and "he Arab tribes, and running went to the Ans^r, so 
they tout the matter to heart and talked badly about it. until one of them 
aid, 'By Allah, the Prophet ipbubj h^ satisfied his own people". Sa*d tbn 
' Jbadah went to the Prophet f pbuh) and (old him about the feelings of the 
AngSr. He asked him. 'What isyaurshmre m riti* matter* O StitI? He said, 1 
am one of them 1 . Thea assemlUe yvttr people in tirix hutch: he (pbuh) said. 
When Sad did so, he permitted some of the Muhajirun to attend, and 
prevented others, On their gathering, he went and told the Prophet (pbuh). 

The Prophet l pbuh) went to them praised and thanked Allah, and then 
he faced them saying. *Q people of tht Atttfr, t havehnn told hid Htfftil about 
you and that you art to&tf with met Did not I enme to you when you **rt pnyity 
and Allah guided you: in *ani and Allah cnriclted vow; enemies and Allah brought 
ymtr hearts mother?' Ttey answered, Tes, indeed, Allah and His Messenger 
are most gracious and benevolent.' 'Why do >■«* not then tmwfr me, O people 
of the AunarT he continued. They said, 'Whal answer do you want from us, O 
Messenger of Allah V To Allah and His Messenger belong grace and 
benevolence!' Then he said, 'By Allah, if van wished >viu eauid have spoken 



I Ibn HuhAm said, "Sanit aclwtwi loid mc ihat U* Ptuptel i (*uti> add $ ' Ahhls thn Miftia*, 'Are 
you tfte tmt *'tw MUl. "AfV Jflwrf 'Wf*4 '^ J °f 'VhajJ art thurrJ tti At AW mJ 'VyafOah'? 
Abfl Bakr toiil, "By uyaynaH Md Al-Aqrn" Tta Project ^1*1**1^ icifKied. They art rt* wm*J 
fcb& Bakr Bawl 'I ta(if> *« T^i «e ** Al'Mi wy». « Artd Wt haw *if *(■«*■ *r«tf t MvhaMnaJi 
{wiry, wr is it«ie*tffirhim} fYfoln; ft^i" 



truthfully awl been believed (xnyi/if;), 'You QBB99 to us belied and we believed you; 
abandoned and we helped you: a fugitive and we took you in; in wmt and we com- 
farted you (<M tme vf ttxh* Are yott upset. pevple of the Anspr. far same little 
go&d of this world by whhh I ttttrmted the people's hearts sa that they may became 
Muslims while I entrusted van in your httim? Are yon noj satisfied that people 
should go an ay with ewes and camels while you tufa? hack with vou the Messenger 
oj Aiitdi to yvttr hprfltikf fty Him in whose Hand is Muhammad's soul, had it not 
been for the Emi^ruiian I would have been ane of the An^ar, If people ga in one di- 
rzriion and the An&ir £t? in another, f mill surely take the way of the Ansdr. May 
Allidt have merey on the An&ir* their children, and their gramhhddren." The 
people we pi until their tears rolled down their beards as they said, "We are 
satisfied with the Messenger or Allah as our lol and share, " Then the 
Prophet (pbuh> left and they dr$peri£d. 

The Prophet (pbuh) Performs *Umrah From 

AI-jr ranah 

The Prophet (pbuh) IcJt Ai-Jfranah to perform ^Ummh, He ordered thai 
the remaining booty be kept in Majannah near Marr az-Zahran. Having 
finished the Wmrah he went baek to Mailman. He appointed Actio ibn 
Asid to be in charge of Mukkah. Along with Allah, lie assigned Mu*;j|Ih ibn 
Jabal to teach Iht people their religion and help them (earn the Quran. The 
Prophet (pbuh ) himself was followed by the remainder of the booty * u 

The PropheJ's *Utnrah was in DhuJ-Qa'dah as he returned to Madinnh 
toward its end or in the beginning of Dhnf-liijjah, Ibn Isha^ said that Liu: 
people performed (he pilgrimage of t hut year as ihe Arabs used to perform 
it, "Allah led the Muslims in the pilgrimage of that year. 8 AH. Yet. the 
people of Aj-Ja'if remained iq iheir poJyihcjsm and stubbornness in their 
town From the time the Prophet (phuh) went off in Dhul-Qa'dah of the year 
S, until Ramadan of the following year. 



I Ibn Htshiim mrd, "I «.:« tsiJd thai lfo>a itm Avium «uJ, The Pttfphcr rpftiibi chanted AttiMfcn 
AtfiJ *iiK l he jffuh* of MuLIuh jih) gait him a dirfum daily. 'Anus vldrr^cJ ihc people vis- 
ing. O people, mo> Atljitt nuke hunjiry wivtoixivi it nut ^litricil »iEth( >ujth Ik has t duhiim? The 
Mmn^CTiif Allah pntvidcd ira with julitham A<lflj\ ami Ihfi i\ luHtriftf foi mc " 



The Story of Ka b ibn Zuhayr after the Departure 

from At~Ta r tf 

I he Prophei (pbuhi was in Madinah after fin^hing with Ai-I&'if* when 
Bujayr ibn Zuhuyr ibn Abl Sulma sent a letter to his hn«her Ka'h warning 
him lhat ihe Prophel ^pbuhi had killed some men in Makkah who had 
saiiciyj?tl and insulted hiuv while the Qurayshi poets who were still alive like 
Ibnu*- Zib'ara and Hubayiah ibn A hi Warm had escaped in all directions. 
"If yi m are still keen about your life. I Ken hurry to the Prophet (pbuhj, for he 
does not kilt those who go to him repentant, [f you will not do lhat, rescue 
yourself to any piuce on earth in which you feci safe." Ka b had said. 

Give Bujayr a message from mc: 

Do you accept whaJ I said? Confound you! 

Tell us plainly if you do not accept what 1 say 

For what reason other than that has led you 

To a religion I carrnoi find his fathers ever held 

And you cannot find that your broiher followed? 

If you do not accept what 1 say, I shall not grieve 

Nor say if you stumble: Allah help you! 

Al-Ma T mun (the safe) has given you full cup to drink 

And added a second draught of the same. 

tie sent these poetic verses to Bujayr who felt thai he should recite them 
to the Prophet (pbuh), On hearing the words "Al-Ma'mfln (the safe) has 
given you a full cup" he said, "That i\ nght aUlumgh he t* wWy a liar. { em 
Ait-Ma'imin." Commenting on [he words "to a religion I cannot find hrs 
fathers ever held." ihe Prophet <pbuh) said, n Snrr. neithrt hi a fatiwrnor mother 
hthUtr 

Jbn Ishaq said that when Ka'h received ihe message he was deeply 
frighlcned and worried about his life. His foes around him spread rumors 
thai he would nefmilciy be slam. Being in an inescapable situation, Kab 
wrote a poem praising ihe Prophet {pbuh) and referring to his fear and ihe 

-<^i> 



disturbing rumors of hi? enemies. Afterwards, he headed for Madman and 
stayed with a man of Juhaynah whom he knew, as it was mentioned lomc. 
In Use morning. Ik look him to the Prophet ipbuhi at the time of the morning 
prayer and offered prayer with him. The man pointed on 1 1 lie Prophet tpbuh) 
to him und told him to go ami ask for safety. He got up, walked la the 
Prophet tpburO, sat before him, and put his hand in his, while the Prophet 
(pbuhi did not know him. Ka"b said, 'Q Messenger of Allah, if Ka'h ibn 
Zuhayr comes to ask you for safety as a repenting Muslim, will you accept 
him?* The Prophet (pbuh) said yes so he dee tared mat he was Ka'b ihn 
Zuhayr, 

Ihn hhaq said that ' A sjm ihn ' Umar ihn Qatadah told him thai one of the 
Ans^f jumped on him asking ihe Propria ipbuhi to permit him to cm olf his 
head catling him the enemy ol Allah. The Prophet (pbuh) drew him away 
saying thai Kab hurl eome repeniani. an, I detached from his past. Ka'b was 
annoyed at the clan of this Ansjiri for what the latter had done. A-s for the 
MuhajirQn, they only spoke well of him. He recited a poem of his starting 
with "So ad i* gone, and today my heart is love-sick", when he came to the 
Prophet fpbuhj, in which he praised htm ipbuh) as well as the Miihajimn. 

"Asim ihn Umar ibn Qatauah said, 'When Ka "b said tin a pun of this 
poemj, *Whea the short black men take to ftighu' he was denoting us, wc the 
Ansar. because of the way that man of us had treated him. He praised the 
Muhajirun only among the Prophet's Companions. This infuriated the Ansflt 
against hhn- Later when he had embraced Islam, lie praised the Ansar. 
mentioning their trials with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh} und their status 
a mono the Yemeni tribes," 

According to Ibn Htsham. it is said that after Ka'b had recited to him the 
poem starting wlih "So* id is gone, and unlay niy heart is love-si ek", ihe 
Prophet (phuhl said to him. "t wixh yott spoke weU t?fth? Aniar, for they ifowrwt 
ii* w Thus Ka'b said these verses (of the second poem). Ihn Hisham also said 
that AIT ibn Zayd ibn- Jud'&i said that Kab recited the poem (starting with 
"Su l kl is gone" ) to the Prophet (pbuh) in the Mosqtte. 



The Invasion of Tabuk, 9 AH 

The Prophel (pbuh) spent the months from Dhiri-tJijjah to Rajab in 
Madinak and then ordered the people to prepare to invade (he By/imiiries. 
The events of Tahtik are ba*ed on narralions from Az-Zuhri, Yazld ibn 
Rumaru 'Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, "Asim ibn Lfmar ibn Qatadah, and other 
sehokus. Each narrated whut he was in fanned aboui this invasion, and the 
narrations of some of lhem contained information that was not contained by 
(hose of the others. 

The Prophet (pbuh) ordered his Companions to prepare to fight the 
Byzantines at a time of hardship. The weather was extremely hoi and there 
was a drought. Fruit had ripened and the men wished to sit under Ihe shade 
of their fruit and hated the (bought of traveling at that time. Almost the 
Prophet (pbuh) referred indirectly to the place of any invasion and declared 
ihai he would head for a place, which was other than thai wluch he had 
actually intended. Tahufc was an exception, as he said clearly that he would 
go to the Byzantines, That was because of the long distance, the hot season, 
and the potency of the enemy, and so that the men could prepare themselves 
welt; thus he gave orders for preparations. 

One day while making his arrangements, the Prophet <pbuh) said to 
Al-Jadd ihn Qa*y* of BanO Salamah. "O JttM da vyni tike tofighiBanu M^sfar 
(Byzwiiiwi this year'*" He answered, h O Messenger of Allah, exempt me 
from fighting and do not put me into trial, for everyone knows thai I am 
strongly addicted to women and I fear that I can not control myself if I see 
the women of BanG AI-As.for,~ The Prophet {phiihj turned away from him 
and gave him permission to stay behind. Regarding .Al-Jddd ibn Quys, the 
following verse was revealed. 

4 And ttmotifi them is he who sayx "Grant mc leave Ua he tempted 
from Jihad) ntutptif me noi into iria I " Smrt y, they have fallen into trial. 
And verity, He His mrmundm^ the disbelievers.^ 

(At-Tawbah: 49) 

The meaning of this was not that he feared the temptation of the women 
of Band Aj-Asjar, for he had faJlen into a greater trial hy lagging behind the 



Prophet iphutii and choosing to satisfy himself rather than the Prophet 
(phuh). Verily^ hcJt is beftind him. 

Some of the hypocrites said to one another. "Do not march forth in the 
heal." detesting war. doubling me Truth, and spreading rumors about the 
ProphtL fpbubj. A Huh .sent down concerning them, 

p ...iw«/ thvv .utiti, 'Slatrh ritH forth in the htaV. Sa\\ Tht Fire of He ft h 
more tnirntc in hear', if only theiy couttf Hndersraruf-'Sn let them laugh n 
tittle tm J itltey wili) cry much Jew "a recompense of wfuit they xtseti to earn 
fby vwnrnijtint; sin,%). lj> 

(AMuwbah; 82 S3) 

Ion Ishaq said thai Ihe Prophet Jpbuh) proceeded actively with his 
preparations and commanded the men in ha^eii vwhile urging the rich to help 
in providing expenses and mounts in ilic way of Allah, "fbe wealthy men 
provided mounts and so stored a re ward with AUah, I'lhinun ihn "Allan 
spent the largest sum/ 1. 

Seven Muslims from the Ansar and Banu "Amr ibn Awf. who were 
referred 10 us the Weepers, went to the Pmphet tpbub> and asked him 10 
supply them with mounts for they were impoverished, The Weepers were: 
SMim ihn Utmyr; Ultaah ihn Zayd, the brother of Bunii H&rithuh: Abfl 
Layla • AbduMU&nan ibn Ka K the brother of Bunti Muzin ibn ArvNajjar; 
Amr ihn H&unam ibnul-Jamuh, the brother of Bnnu Salinm; Abdullah 
ibnul-Mu&haffal al-Muzum. and some said he was ' Abdullah ibn ibn Amr 
al'Muzani; Hammi ihn * Abdillah, the brother of Bano Wikpf; and k lrbad ibn 
Sariyuh al-Fu/iirt, The Prophet (pbuh) -^*id, "1 do not find whereon to 
transport you/' They lumed away, their eyes overflowing with tews, grieved 
that they did not rind anything to expend lor ihe expedition. 

Someone told mc (the author) that [bn Yarnln ibn 'Umayr ibn Kab 
an-Nadri saw Abu Layla and Abdultfh ibnul-Mughuffal while they were 
weeping. When he asked them for the reason. they [old him (hai they hud 
gone io the Prophet (phuhj to oblain a ride, but he had none to provide Ihem 
wilh and they could uiford nothing At onee he provided them with a 
watering camel whieh they saddled and he further supplied them with some 
dates >o they were able to leave with the Prophet tpbuh)- 



I Ihtl ITiiihiim suitl ihni "Lihrnan equipped irw I'liuling-iinny wilh ii ibm/h^id Anon, ro the Prophet 
Ipfruhl fcuiii, "O Attitb. tt*- plena J with WhtnAih far t epi pftasrd v^tbhntk" 



Some bedouin* cume with ready excuses ihfli they might be permitted to 
huiv at home, bm Allah did not accept their excuses I heard that they were 
from Biinu Ghifar. Then the Prophet (pbuh) became ready to travel, so he 
decided to march out, 

A bund of Muslims, including Ku'b ibn Malik ibn Ahi Ka'h: Maraiah 
ibn RubV : Hiial ibn Umsyyulu and Ahu Khuytfiamah, hesitated in making 
up i heir minds untii they lagged behind. Nevertheless, they did so without 
any doubt or misgivings, and they were truthful and no one accused them of 
jinylhtng concerning their being Mwdiois. 

The Prophet tpbuhJ encamped by Thaniyyatul-WadaV 11 * Abdullah ibn 
Ubayy camped out separately betow the Prophet's encampment toward 
Dhub'fibJ 3 * [I was said t hat i I was noi dm smaller or (he two camps. While 
Lhe Prophet tphuln proceeded- "Abdullah ibn Ubayy withdrew and remained 
behind with the hypocrites and those who doubted. 

The Pmphel fpbuhj ordered 'All ibn Abi laiib to May behind with his 
family to look after them. The hypocrites spread out rumors that the Prophet 
(pbuhj had left him behind because of being :i burden on ihe Prophet (phuhj 
who wanned to be rid of him. When he heard these words *Ali seized his 
weapons and overtook the Prophet (pbuh) while stopping at Akhirf.^ 
When be repeated to him the hypocrite*" sayings, the Prophet tpbuh) 
answered. "They He. 1 tes you %!ayfar who! I had icfr hehirttl so return utui repr*- 
frflf me in myfutmty uiui yours. WauUyou not (m» please^ O Att w htM With tw 
the position rhai Hatiirt held with Mfixii expat that there u no Pmpht'T rifivr m*7 
Thus, 'AJi returned to Madinah and lhe Prophet tpbuti} continued in his 
travel. 

On a hot daw Abfl Khayihamah returned to his family, days after the 
Prophet (pbuh) hud departed. His two wives were in dieir huts irt his garden 
liaeh had made her hul cool by sprinkling water and they had prepared food 
for him. Standing at die door of the hut, he looked at his wives and what 
they had prepared for him, and said. M The Prophet (pbuh) is out in the >un, 
wind, and heat, while Abfl Khaythamah is in a cool shade, food had been 



T A mtc i n hurt irf Miitlniih , tit unl ty pwptfd I htmjflh by l ha* vha I n win) In Mafckah , 

J. A ttmuHiuiii tn M^Hfiniih 

I. A * itc tiller mites iiwn Mndtftdll io Urcdlfetiiun liI Syria. 



prepared for him. resting in his property with a beautiful woman. This ts not 
fair. By Allah, I will not enter cither of your huts, but I will pin the Prophet 
(pbuh). so prepare some provision for me. 1 " They did so. He went to his 
watering camel- saddled it, and directed to the direction of the Prophet 
(pbuh) until he caught up with him and the army in Tabflk. Earlier on his 
way. Abu Khaythamah met TTmuyr ibrt Wahb al-Jumah! who was also 
searching for the Prophe* {pbuh), so they accompanied each other until they 
joined the troops, Approaching Tafoufc. AbO Khaylhamah said to ~Umayr. "I 
have done a sin, so it is better thai voit Slav behind me until I meet the 
Prophet i pbuh U" and he did so. When he went closer to ;hc Prophet [pbuhi 
as he alighted in TabOk, lite army observed a rider coming towards them. 
The Propliet (pbuh I said, "Be Abu Khmthttnmh* '. and the Muslims said that it 
was he He dismounted and greeted the Prophet (pbuh), who said. *You werr 
t/*w ia d^smtcUtm, Abu Khaythamah!" After telling him what had happened, 
the Prophet fphuh) said good words to him and invoked Allah on hi\ behalf 

The Prophet (pbuhj halted at AI-Hyf JU h where his men drew water the 
well therein The Prophet (pbuh) said li> them, n Do not drink any of in- water 
nor use it for ablations, forage to the cameh whntevrr dough you have itsed its wa* 
ter foritwkiitg if„ and do noi em any of if; ami tet no one of you go out tonight with- 
out a companion," The men obeyed him h but two of Bami Sa idah went out 
alone. One went out to relieve himself and collapsed in his place, while the 
other was searching for his camel and a wind carried him away and cast him 
on the two mountains of Jayyi'. When the Prophet (pbuh) was told of this, 
he said. "Did trim forbid you not to go outakme?" Then he prayed for the man 
who collapsed and he recovered. As for t lie other who fell between the two 
mountains of Tayyi'. he was later brought back to the Prophet (pbuh) in 
Madman by the people of X^yyi' 

In the morning when the men complained to the Prophet (pbuh) of 
having no water, he supplicated Allah for help, and He sent a cloud that 
poured so much rain that they were satis Red and carried I he waicr they 
needed, White traveling on their way, the camel of the Prophet t pbuhi was 
lost and his Companions went out to search lor it The Prophet tphuh) had 



t A l[»wn in itie diictUon at Mmfnudi which c untamed some wtflfs belonging lo Bmiiu Salon 



with him one of his Companions 'Umarah ibn Ma/m. who was present 
during Lht- Pledge of AI-'Aqabah and and Battle of Badr. and Ire was also 
the paiemal uncle of Banu Amr ibn gazm. lie was sharing his rid* with 
Zayd ihnuJ-Lysayt ot Banu Qaynuqa". who was a hypocrite. Suing in 
Umarah's camp. Zayd said, when Umarah was with tie Prophet (pbuhl. 
"Does Muhammad claim that he is a Prophet and recedes news from 
heaven, when he does not know where his camel is?" At that moment liie 
Prophet tphuh? said when % Umarah was with him, "A man Stm Muluimmad 
tells you that he is « Pi^pfea at**! &&&&. t!iat }l * **& >' ini * ieus f mm ^i-tu when 
he dots fiot kttov where his camel 6 * By Allah, I know only what Allah has made 
me (uiow and Allah has xuiJad me ra its place. H is in this wdjey it* such -{ind- melt 
n mmtntain pass. A free has hold it hack with itt brittle; so go md bring it to ftjfe 
They went and brought it. 

When he returned to his camp, 'Lima rait said, "By Allah, the Prophet 
(phuh) has just told us a wonderful thing about what was said by son^one 
which Allah had mlonncd him; 1 Then he repeated the story. One ot those 
who was m * Umarah' s camp and not wim the Prophet (pbuh) exclaimed, 
"By Allah, it is Zayd who had said this before you came in," 'Umarah 
rushed to Zayd pricking him in the neck and saying, "Come on, servants of 
Allah! I had in my camp a deceiver whom I knew nothing of. Get out, you 
enemy of Allah, and do not accompany me." Some people said that Zayd 
later repented, while others claimed that he was accused of evil until he 



Then the Prophet (pbuh) continued on his ttavci. whereas other men 
began to linger behind. When the Prophet ipbuh) was told that so-and-so 
had lingered he said, "'Lrtn-e htm alone; if there is aetrtd in him, Allah thr At- 
mighty will nutkt him fern you. and if not, Allah tuts ntfitwt yau tifhim" 

Abu Dharr had dropped behind because of las camel, so he look the load 
on Hjs back and walked to catch up with the Prophet (pbuh), The Prophet 
tpbuh) aiighled al one of the stopping-places when a Muslim drew his 
attention to a man walking on the road alone. The Prophet (pbuh* said, "He 
Aha Dharr*' 1 Looking carefully, the people, said that it was he. The Prophet 
(pbuh) said, "May Altnh haw mercy on Ahvt Dhttrr, He walks atone, will die 
alone, and wilt he raised abme" 



According to 'Abdullah ibn MasTid, when Uthman exiled Abii Dharr 
(whert the former was a Caliph) to Ar-Rabidhah where he died, no one was 
with him but his wife and his slave. He bequeathed rhem to wash him (after 
death), put him in his shroud, lay him ac the middle of the road, and say to 
the first uaruvun. 'This is Abti Dharr. the Prophet's (pbuh) companion, so 
help us bury him". On his deahY they did so. 'Abdullah ihn Mas Gd came up 
with a hand or Iraqi men on a ? £/wra/;. when Ihey suddenly round Ehe bier in 
ihcir way. The camels were about u> step on U, Tile slave went to them 
saying. 'This is Aba Dharr, the Prophet's Companion, Help us bmy him/' 
"AhduHah ibn Mas'iid wept and said. "The Prnphci (pbuh) was right (as he 
said ihutl you walk alone, die alone, and will be raised alone" Then he and 
those who were with him dismounted and buried Abu Dharr, Afterwards 
'Abdullah narrated to them his story and what the Prophet tpbuhj said about 
him during the march to Tabuk. 

When the Prophet tphuM reached TahQk, Yuhanntt ibn RaT^an the head 
of AyJah came to him and a reconciliation was made and he paid him the 
tribute The people of lama' and Adhrtih also djd the «ime. The Prophet 
iphtrhj wrote a idler of guarantee. He (pbuh) wrote 10 Vuhanna ibn Ru'bah, 

"In the name of Allah the All-Merciful the Ever-Merciful* This is a 
guarantee from AUoh and Muhammad the Prophet, the Messenger of At - 
hk to Yulianna dm R\t%th and the people ofAylah, for their .<rhip$ and 
caravans on (and and sea. They and all thase people with them of Syria, 
Yemen, and the xeutnen, all haw. the protection of Allah and the pro- 
tectum of Muhammad die Prophet. Whatever break* thh pledge, his 
property shall not save him. and it tthe property > is good for wd\oe\er 
ttikes it from fH-apte, It is not allowed thttt thtfy he prevented ftam a *v« - 
lering place rhey need nor fn»rt u road they want Uo paxs through) by 
lintdorseu." 

KfaaAid ibnui-Walid is Dispatched 
to Ukaydir at Dumah 

The Prophet (pbuh) dispatched Kbillid ibnul-Wahd to Ukaydir nt Dumah. 
Ukaydir ibn * Abdel-Matik of Kindah was the king of Dumah and he was a 
Christian, The Prophet (pbuh) told KMMd that he would find him hunting 
cows, Hiusi Khalid sel out until he was within sight of his fortress. It was a 
moonlit summer night when Ukaydir was with his wife on the roof. The 



cows were nibbing their horns against (he castle gate. His wife urged him to 
go after the cows. Me ordered thai his horse be sidled then he went off 
with a band of his family, among them was his brother Hassan. During their 
ride, the cavalrv of the Prophet {pbuh | attacked them, captured die ting, and 
killed his brother. Ukaydir was dressed in a brocade gown covered wtth 
gold. Khilid took ihc gown away from him and sent it to the Prophet (pbuh) 
before bringing hjrn in person. 

Anas ibn Malik ?.aid. "f .saw the gown of Ukaydir when it was delivered 
to the Prophet ipbuhj. The Muslims kept on touching it with their hands and 
wondering, but the Prophet (pbuh) said, "Do ww wonder at tMs? B\ Htm in 
Whme Humi h m\ tttM r)u> twpkiw; o/Sa V ihn Muudh in Pnwdise are better thtm 
Uuxr Ibn hk&\ said that Khalid brought Ukaydir to the Prophet tpbuh) who 
spared Kts life and reconciled him on condition thai he pays Lhc tribute. 
Then he set rum free and he returned to his town. 

The Prophet (pbuh) spent more than ten nights in Tnb&k. Then he 
returned to Madman. On the way hiick. there was water flowing from a rock 
in the valley of Al-Mushuqqaq that could be used by only two or three 
nders. The Prophet (pbuh) gave Grips that whoever preceded there should 
nut take water from it Until "the others arrived A number of hypocrites went 
there fir^i and used the water. When (he Prophet (pbuh) arrived there he 
found no water, He asked about who had done so and he was told about 
their names. He said, ■ Did / am prohibit them from drmtittx *M (wufrrj/iww it 
until I arrived?" He cursed them and invoked Allah against them. Then lie 
demounted and put his hand under the rock, and water began to flow into 
his hand a* Allah wiHel Then he SpfaWfo" the rock with the wate) and 
nibbed ii with his hand and supplicated Allah with the word* He willed. 
Then water was ejected, as those who heard it said, making a sound like 
thunder. The people drank and met their needs with it, and the Prophet 
I pbuh) said. "J/vo« survive, or those ofyuu who will wnivc. ytUt will hvarubnnt 
this valky when it uitf have miute the iwhfle) area More widumund itfcmteS 

Ibn Jsfaau, said that ibn Shihab az-Zuhri reported from Ibn Ukaymah 
al-Layth? from the nephew of Abu Rubra aKjhir&rl that he heard Abu 
Ruhm Kulthum mnut-Husayn, who was one of the Companions who swore 
allegiance to the Prophet ipbuh) under the Tree, say, "On the journey of 



TiibQfc with the Prophet (pbuh) F one nighi while we were at AJ-AfchoW'' 
near the Prophet (pbub.) we fell into deep sleep. 1 Marled 10 wake up when 
my camel went closer lo the Prophet cameL I feared that if it went too 
dose to his foot he would be injured in the aimip. J kept on dmwing my 
camel away (torn him until sleep swayed me. Then during the night my 
camel humped against his until his foot was in lhc stirrup and 1 was roused 
by his voice saying, 7 urn pained*. 1 asked him to ask Allah to forgive me 
and he ordered me to go on. The Prophet (pbuh) began lo ask me about 
those who had lagged behind from Banu Gtaifar and 1 told him, lie 
questioned me about lhc tall men with link hair on their beaids and 
eyebrows and I toJd him thai they hud lingered. Then he asked inc about the 
shun black men whom at first 1 did not remember until he reminded me I hat 
they owned camels in Shabakat Shadakh. Thereupon I recalled that they 
were a elan of the Aslam who were our allies. When I lold him this he said. 
"Wttu prevented tatty ) one of this* when he witlutrew from pwvidinx one of his 
cameh m a mourn w a zeaktus matt in the way af Allah? The must seffihfag Thing 
ro me is that the Muhaftrun from The Quraysk the Ansdr, Ghjfdr, ami Adam sntx 
behind," 

The Deputation of Thaqlf Embraces Islam 
in Ramadan of the year 9 AH 

!bn Isiiaq said that it was Ramadan when Ihe Fmplici (pbuh) returned 
from TabGk. In that month the deputation of Thaqlf came to him. As ihe 
Prophet (pbuh) turned away frc-m them. "Urwah ihn Mas'ud ath-Thaqafi 
followed him until he overtook him before his arrival in Matitnah. and 
embraced Islam, He requeued from the Prophet (pbuh) that he might return 
to his people with Islam, but, as his people said, he (pbuh) said to him t "They 
niit kill yau\ for the Prophet (pbuh) knew how stubborn they were 
However. Urwah said they cherished him more than their firstborn. Being 
loved and obeyed, he went our ant! called his people io Islam, hoping thai 
they would not oppose him because of his position am wig them. He 
ascended to a high room showing h mi self to them after inviting them to 

1, A jiic t^rw«n Tiibuji jnd the VjllryorAl-Qurfl. 



— (S>- 



islam which he had declared B his religion, Al once, they shot arrows at 
him from all directions until he was killed 

Band Malik claimed that one of their men killed him, who was known as 
Aws ibn * Awf, the brother of Bant) Silim ibn Malik, while Al-Ajiim alleged 
that Warm ibn Jabir of their men from Banu " Attab ibn Malik tilled him. 
While breathing his last, 'Urwah was asked. "What do you think of your 
death'?" He said, "It is an honor which Allah ha* bestowed on me and a 
martvrdom which Allah has led me to. I am like the martyrs who were slain 
with the Prophet (phuh) before he iefi you, so bury me with them/ Thus he 
was boned with them. It was said that the Prophet (phuh) said that ^Urwah 
was amnng his people like the man of Y3s*n r " among his people 

Some months after the killing of 'Urwah, Tbaqif made deliberations 
among themselves and concluded thai they could not fight the Arabs ait 
around them, who had £iwn fealty to the Muslims and embraced Islam. So 
after consultation they decided to dispute!* a man lo the Prophet (pbuh). 
Tliev proposed mis idea to * Abd YM ibn ' Amr, one of k Urwah's peers, but 
he refused, fearing that 'Urwah's story would be repeated. He made a 
condition mat be would not go unless accompanied fay some men. Hence, 
they agreed to send two men froni Al-Ahlaf and three from Band Millik. 
These six were: l Abd YalU; Al-!iakam ibn *Amr ibn Wahb ibn MiTaitib: 
Shurdbbil ibn GhaytiJn ibn Salamah ibn Mu^tlifc and from Bami Malik. 
Utiiman ibn Abel-" Ai ibn Bishr ibn v Abd Duhman, the brother of BanG 
Yasfisr. and Aws ibn Awf, the brother of Banft Saiiin, and Numayr ibn 
Kharashah ibn RabVah, the brother of Banil Al-Hlrith. ^Abd Y^lil led the 
group, as lie accompanied them only to avoid whal had been done lo 
■ Urwah and so that each man on his return lo Al-13'if could secure the 
attention of his clan. 

Approaching Madlnab, they stopped at Qanfc where they met 
Al-Mughirab ibn Shu'bah whose turn it was to graze me camels of the 
Prophet's Companions, for the Companions took this task in turns. On 
seeing them, he left the camels with the Thaqtfis, and ran at full speed to teit 
the Prophet (pbuh) about their arrival Abu Bakr met him before he could 
enter to the Prophel {pbuh). He informed him about the caravan of Thaqit 

I. Ytolfi hac tefen iu the Qutanic Surah, Vftsin, For ntOrt iofprmUHin ftbaul ihn print wul iJw 
Vt7*ct 2&2& in thit S&rah. 



who hail come to nay homage and embrace Islam on the conditions of the 
Prophet (pburD provided thai they could, get a letter guaranteeing their 
peoplc : land and property. Aba Bakr swore thai AHMu^hirah shouid let 
him tell the Prophet ipbuh) the rtews and he accepted. Thus* Abfi 13 aki told 
the Prophet (pbuh) while AI'MughTrah wcnl back to the people of TrmtpT 
and brought ike cumch back. Although Al-Mughirah taught them how to 
gitui the Prophet ( phdiK they greeted him wuh the pre-lslamic <nliitaiion. Il 
ww* said that when they reached the Prophet (pbuh), a tent was pitched for 
them near his Mosque. KMlid ibn Sa id ihiuil~'A<j acted as mediator 
Between them and the Prophet fpbuh) until they got Lhejr letter of ^uarautee. 
It was actually he who wrote it. They ale no food which was hrought to 
them from the Prophet (pbuh.) unless Kh&Jid ate ^ornc. They remained in 
this condition until Ihcy had embraced Islam and received their letter. 

Among rhe things they asked the Prophet (pbuhj Was thai Uiey should be 
permitted to keep their idol, Al-Lfli, and that it should not be demolished for 
three years. The Prophet tpbuh) renJNcd, and they continued imploring liim 
for two or even one year but he soil refused. Finally they aiked for il month 
alter their return: but he rejected to set any time. They tried to show that the 
aim of their request was to be secured from their fanatics, women, and 
children by leaving the idol, .so as not to cause fear by demolishing it, until 
they had embraced Islam, The Prophet tphuhj insisted on his refusal and 
sent Abu Stifyan ibn JJarb and Al-MtijEhirah ibn Shu'bah to destroy it. They 
further requested (he Prophet ipbuh! io exempt them from prayers, and to 
exempt ihem from hreaking their idols with their own hands. The Prophet 
(pbuh) accepted to exempt them from destroying their idols with their own 
hands, but as for prayers- he said, "Thrr? i.y nojt&t*dntsx in a religion tfutt has 
n&pmytrs* 

Once they had become Muslims, and had tile letter of guarantee, the 
Prophet (pbuh) appointed L'lhrmin ibn Abel-" As over them, in spite of his 
young age. This was because Abu Bakr had told the Pitiphel tpbuhl that 
Uthrnun was the keenest among ticm to Icam ihe teachings of lsiam and the 
Qu/an. 

Having accomplished their task, ihc Thaqtf deputation returned to their 
land in the company of Abil Sufyfin ibn Ihivb and AJ-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah 
whom the Prophet (pbuh) sent with them 10 destroy the idol, When they 



were near AM** AWrtugWrah asked Abu Sufyan to s«ivance linn, hul 
Abu Sttftfe refused, lolling him lo go 10 Ins people while he VWttted with his 
property' m Dhul-Hudum. Al-.Wughirah wem w the idol and parted to strike 
it with a pickaxe, while hi, people of Bunu MiTmilb stood defending bun 
from any *tu«L fearing thai he would meet the fee orLlrwuh. The TtoqiR 
women came oul wilh ihcir to uncovered bewailing the idol. 

-Ala* for you. alasl" suld AM Sufyan. as Al-Mughkah was destroying 
the idol will! the ase. After AI-MugMrah demolished ii. he collected the 
jewelry, gold, beads, and things on % und sent for Abu Sufyan. 

AbQ Mulavli ibn LTwah and Qarib ibnuNAswad went to the Prophet 
("buhl after the killing of 'Urwiih and before the Trmpf deputation, aiming 
to wuhdraw from TbaqTf and lo forsake litem completely. As they embraced 
Islam lhe Prophet (pbuh J told ihem to fake as pairnns whoever Ihey wished. 
They answered that they chose Allah and His Messenger- The Prophet (pbuh) 

mid, sipriw! ""''^ Ah{ * s ^ sAa ibn a<T - r aJld rhcy * cccpleiJ 

Consequently, after the people of AMa'if had embraced Islam and the 
Prophet \ pbuh i had sent Abu Sufyan and Al-Mughiwn lo destroy the idyl, 
Abu Muiaytj ibrTUrwah asked the Prophet (pboh) to fulHI his faihcr's debt 
from me property of the idol. When (he Prophet (pbuhl agreed. Qanb 
ibnul-Aswad demanded the same thing concerning his father's debl. Urwah 
and At-Aswed were full brother, WW^nfi died m a jwfv/ArisT, the Prophet 
<nmih) pi Qflrin replied. "O Messenger of Alfeh. but you will be binding 
to a Must im of a near kin - mcatiinj; himself ■ and Lhe dent is only obligatory 
on me and it is required of me/ The Prophet I pbuh t ordered AbO Sufyan lo 
fulfil the debts of ' LJrwah nnd AN Aswad from the possessions ot the idol, 

The icxr of the loner of guarantee Ol the Prophet (pbuh) which was 
written for them was as follows: 

"to the mmte o/AUttk the Mvst-Merrifui and the EvtrNlerciful From 
Muhammad the Prophet. t*4 Afrvim^r of Allah, » the M*WW The 
trees of Wajf " tire nor fit he damped. Aaytme found drin$ wy tkiitK of 
thii witt fri whtpptf Mul *& tMm witi he what *wq* and |f h ttmtir 
gnues iltix. he wtfl he taken nnd Pmphvt Muhttmnuul mil be informed 
atHWl tt> This » the command of Fmpbet Muhttmmad the MMtiP of 
Allah iphuh).* 



1_ A si^ InAj'TJU 



Khalid ibn Sa^id wrote "unto the instruction of the Messenger 
Muhammad ibn AbdilfaiT. so no one should transgress it do injustice to 
himself, in what Muhammad the Messenger or Allah has ordered 

The Ninth Year, the Year of Deputations 

According 10 Ibn Ish% after (he Prophet (pbuii) had taken control of 
Makfcah, and had relumed from TabOk, and after Thaqlf had embraced Islam 
and sworn allegiance, Arab deputations flowed lo him from all directions.' 11 
The Arab tribes were watching the relation between Islam and the Quraysh, 
for they did not deny lhat the Quraysjtfs were chiefs and guides of men, the 
people of the Inviolable Mosque, the pure progeny of Prophet Isma'H," the 
son of Ibrahim, and the leaders of Arabs. In the first place, it was the 
Quraysh who had waged war against the Prophet {pbuhj and opposed him. 
After the Conquest of MakJuh. the Quraysh surrendered to Islam and the 
Prophet (pbuh) t so dje Arabs realized that they could noi fig hi the Prophet 
(pbub) or show animosity toward* him. Likewise, they entered into die 
Religion of Allah 4 in cwh^ ^, as Allah the Almighty said, going to him 
from all directions. AlUh the Almighty said to His Prophet, 

I When enmes the Hdp ofAUah (fa you, O Muhimiwii asainsi your «i- 
ettties) oml the conquest (of Makkfihi, And you see that the people enter 
Attain reti B im tfsfami in crowd*. So gforify the Praises of your Lonl. 
and ask far His Forgiveness, Verily. He is the One Who accepts the re~ 
penttutce and forgives, h 

(An-Nasj: 1-3) 
I.e. Thank Allah for His having made your religion triumphant, and ask His 
forgiveness, for He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives. 

The Arrival of the Deputation of Banu Tamim 

Arab deputations came to meet the Prophet (pbuh). 'Ujarid ibn Hsjih ibn 
Zurarah ihrt 'Udu s at-Tamimi came with others notables of Banu Tamim 

I lb*) Hisirttn wkl Abil ' Ubaydah inM him Uieu tfuir (<k* p| M hi itte nmrh year, which w*s calloJ 
me year of dcpuuiLioiu. 

— <S) — 



including AI-Aqra ibn Habis. A*-Zibriqfin ibn Budr of Banu S^i Amr 
ibnul-Ahiam t and AJ-iiabbab ibn Yazid. in the deputation of Ban* Tamim 
were Nil' ay m ibn Yazid, Qays ihnul Hikriih. and Qays ibn mm T ihc 
brother Of Banu Sa"d. and there was with them Uyaynah ibn Mis* »»n 
Hudhayfah ibn Uudral-Fazari. 

Al-Aqra* ibn H&bts and Uyaynah ibn Htsn had witnessed with the 
Propyl (pbuhi. the Conquest of Makkah and tlie Baltics of Hunayn and 
Afriaif. Entering ihc mosaic, the- deputation called nut to the Prophei 
(pbuh>. who was behind in bis apartments, "Come mil lo us. Muhammad?' 
Their loud voice* bothered ihe Prophet (pbuh). However, he went out lo see 
Lhem and they said, M Muhammad, we have come to show you our glory, 
in give permission to our poet and our orator Lo speak." The Prophet (pbuh > 
gave fwnnLsrioi to their orator, SO ^Uiarid ibn Uajib advanced and said, 

"AD praise be to Allah Who has bestowed grace and bounty on us and 
Who is worthy to be praised. U tf He who made us kings, endowed us with 
greal wealth wherewith wc give chanty, made us Ihe strongest, greatest in 
number, and the best equipped of the people of the East, so who among 
mankind is our equal? Arc wc no; the heads and superiors of mankind'. He 
who would vie in glory with us should count out like whai we have 
enumerated. If we wUhed we could say more, hul we are too hashful lo say 
much of what He has bestowed on us and arc known for that. I say this that 
you may bring forward the like and anything "be iter/ Then he sat down. 
The Prophet f pbuh) said lo Thabii ibn Qay* ibncsh-Shamnias. the brother of 
Banu AJ-Kfirith ibnul-Khazraj, "Get up fand deliver a speech' &t$**m W. °f 
tkismou'\ ThubiT got up and said, 

■"All praise be lo Allah Who created heaven ajid earth and established 
His rule therein, and Who know* everything in them. Nothing has ever 
existed but out of His bounty. By His power He made us rulers, selecting 
the beM of His creation as a Messenger, who is the most honorahlc in 
lineage, mosi truthful in speech, and the best in reputation. So lie sent down 
10 him His Book and entrusted him with it to mankind so he was Allah's 
choice from the worlds. Then He called people lo believe him. and so did 
the MuhajirOn of his people and kinsmen; the most honorable in reputation, 
the highest in dignity, and the best in deeds. Wc were Ihc first to answer and 
respond to Allah when the Messenger of Allah called them. We have always 



been helpers m (he cause of Allah and ministers of H,s Messier We fight 
people imui fhey believe In Allah: so he who believes in Allah and His 
Messenger {pbtih) has protected bfcn&df and his property from us. and he 
who disbelieves we fight him m the way of Allah forever, and killing hurj 
will be an easy thing for us. 1 say the-* words and ask Allah's forgiveness 
lor me and for the believers both men and women, Peace he upon you/' 

Then Az-Zibriqan ihn Badr stood and said some poetic verse* in which 
he showed the glades of his people, At ihis time r Hassan nbn Thann) was 
not present, so the Prophet ( P buh j sent for him to attend and answer the poet 
of BanQ Tamlm. Hassan went 10 ilio Prophet jpbjh} saying some verses 
identifying the Anwar's help to the Prophet \pb\ih). 

When Hassan arrived to the Prophet (pbuh) arid the TamTmi poet had 
said his verses, he made verses with the some prosody of the verses which 
lie had said. As Az-Zibnqan had finished, the Prophet jpbuhj asked H^son 
to get up and answer him. Thus, H**3n arose and replied to him with a 
remarkable poem, highlighting the traits of Islam as well as , hc firsl Muslims. 

Finally, the deputation embraced Islam an J the Prophet [pbuh) gave 
them valuable presents. *Amr ihnul-Ahtam who was their voungesi had 
been left behind by his people with iheir eamek. Qays ihn % AsJm who hate 
'Amr, said, O Messenger of Allah, one or our men who is staying with the 
camels, is a mere juvenile." and he spoke ill ol him. Yet the Prophet tpbuh) 
gave him the same ,share as he had given the others. On hearing what Qays 
had said. 'Ami saiirized him. 

ion Miaq said that the following Quranic verse was km down about them. 

4 Verify! Tlitye who tail you fhm bchhut the dwellings, twin of them 
haw nt? sense, *■ 

LAMLiijui£t:4j 

The Story of Amir ibnuilufayl and Arbad ibn 
Qays from the Deputation of Banu * Amir 

Among Ute deputation of BanG 'Arrur were thejr ihree leaders and 
devils, namely. 'Amir ibnuMufayl. Arbud ihn Qays ibn Ja/" ibn KMIid ibn 
Ja'far, and Jabbur ibn Salma ibn Mam ibn Jalar. 

— (2) 



' Amir, ihc enemy of Alluh, came to Hws Prophet (pbuhl with treachery in 
hi* mind. His people advised him to embrace klam like the others, but hi- 
spid, '"I have vowed that 1 will not cease until the Arabs follow my beds. 
Am I to follow The heels of this fellow of the QurayshT Then he said to 
Arbad '"When we go to him I will divert his attention away from you, So 
ihai vou can smite him with your sword," When they wived and met the 
Prophet (pbuh) Amir &$ "O Muhammad, Lake me as a friend/ 1 He 
replied. Wot fcv ^//«li f J wiff rift* HNtfywid&w w *""'» S^mms." * le restated the 
request and kept on speakiug 10 him exporting ihai Arbad would do as ihey 
had agreed bul the latter stayed stilL He again repealed his request and the 
Prophet (pbuh) said. "Afa, fev Altatu I mil not until yon p&8&* in Allah* alone 
with no panned. When the Prophet (pbuh) refused insistently, he said, 1, By 
AUak I will spread the land against you with cavalry and men.' After their 
departure, the Prophet tpbuht supplicated to Allah Ihc Almighty saying, O 
Alhih protect me J htm Amir itmutlttfitytr 

On their return. "Amir said to Arbad, "Woe to you. Arbad. why did you 
net do as 1 had commanded you? By Allah, there was no man on earth 
whom I feared more loan you. but by Allah. I snail never fear yoti after 
today" He answered. "Do not say that. Every time I came to do what you 
had ordered me, you gut in between us so that I could see only you. Was J To 
strike you with the sword?" 

As they were going home, Allah sent a plague in ' Amir's neck, and he 
died in the house of a woman of BanG SalQl. He used to say, ' O Banfl * Amir* 
a boil like the boil of a young eamel in the house of a woman of BanA SalQir 

After burying him, his companions relumed in winter to the land of 
Bane 'Amir. The people questioned Arbad about what hud happened. 
'Nothing, by Allah:" he said, "he called us to worship someone and I wish 
he were here now so that I could shoot him with arrows and kill him." After 
a day or two had passed, he was out whh Ins camel following him, when 
Allah sent on him and Jus camel a thunderbolt which killed them, Arbad 
wns the brother of Lahld ibn Rabrah from the maternal side. Labid said un 
elegiac poem for Arbad. 



The Arrival of Al-Jarfid 
with the Deputation of * Abdul-Qays 

AMarild ibn % Amr ibn Uanailu the bmlher of " Abdul^Qays."* came to 
the Prophet tpbuh). AJ-Jlasan narrated that when AMarild went to the 
Prophef tpbuh) I* talked to him and the Prophet (pbub) explained Islam to 
Jum and called him to embrace it using encouraging words. He replied. 'Q 
Muhammad, I adhere to a religion, so if J abandon it for yours, will you 
guarantee my (new) religion >?" The Prophei (pbuh) said, "Vr* / grantee 
ttwi Allah has guided yrm ton herter one (i.e. religion J than it". Hence he and his 
companions embraced Islam. When he asked me Prophet fpbuhj for some 
transport, he told him that lie had none available. AJ-Jarud remarked that 
there were lost beasts roaming between Madmali and his town and asked 
whether I hey could Lake some of them to cany I hem to thefr land. The 
Prophet iphuht w^med him, 'Wo, keep away fwm them, for that an fi.e, they 
caUMs) litt' flame of ihe Hc&fire." 

AJ-Jinld returned home and became a good Muslim and firm in nis 
religion until his death. He Jived until the [ime ofthc Apostasy Wars. When 
some of his people who had embraced Islam apostatized with AJ-Gharur 
ibnul-Mundhir ibn an-Nu man ibn ol-Mundhtr, al JSrud delivered a speech, 
catling the people to Islam. He said T H people, I witness thai there is no 
god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant nnd messenger and 1 
accuse of disbelief anyone who refuses to bear the same testimony. 1 * 

The Arrival of Banu Hanifah Accompanied by 
Musayllmah the Liar 

The deputation or Ranfi Bantfah came to the Prophet tpbuh) and among 
them was MusayJirnah ibn Hobtb al-HanM!, the Liar, They stayed in the 
house of the daughter of Al-Barith , - , 1 an Ansart woman of Banu An-Najjar. 
Aeeordmg to some scholars of Madman, Banu JianTfah brought him to the 

I . (fen Iti^dm mid Al-Jonjd was a Chfiwwn 

2 Ab>i Dhwrr «Jd. "J| it «iJ itlal Hut wirmmi vas Kay^h, the iteughicr of AT Harilh. 



Prophet tpbuh) while concealing him in clothing. The Prophet (pbuh) was 
sitting amonji his Companions and there was a palm-branch bearing some 
leaves. While he was covered with garments, he spoke to the Prophet (pbuhj 
and asked him (for a gift). The Prophet (pbuh) answered, "if you were t& ask 
me for ihij palm hmmk t im*W not give if to ynti" 

Ibn IsJhaq said lhat an old man from BanC Hamfah from the people of 
Ai-Yamamah told him thai things weni differently, He claimed thai ihc 
deputation went 10 the Prophel (pbuh) while Mu^yiirnah was left behind 
with the camels and the luggage. When they embraced Islam they 
mentioned his place to the Prophet {pbuh J saying that he was left behind to 
guard their possessions. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered that he should be 
provided with the same as the others, saying, "His sutnding ix not worst than 
IMWT i.e. in guarding the belonging of his companions, That is umaL the 
Prophet ipbuhi meant. He said that they left the Prophel (pbuh J and gave 
lum what he had sent for him. Once they arrived at Al-Yamamab. 
Musaylimah apostatized, alleged that he was a prophet and acred as a liar. 
He said, "I am his partner in the matter (Lc, prophcthood and the Mission), - 
and turning to the deputation who were with him, he said, "Did he not say to 
you when you mentioned me to him "His standing is not worse than yours' 1 ? 
What can thai mean but that he knows that I share wiih him in the matter'.'" 
Then he began to utter rhymed prose trying to imitate ihc style of the 
Qur'an. (Here is the meaning of what he said,) "Allah has been bountiful to 
the pregnant woman; He has produced from her a living being thai can 
move; from her very midst. He made lawful for them ftfopir (any 
intoxicant) and iin& (adultery and fornication), and exempted them from 
prayers:" Nevertheless, he testified trial Ihe Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was 
a Prophet. Banu Hantfah agreed with him on that. Bui Allah knows what the 
truth was. 

The Affair of " Adiyy ibn Eatim 

1 was told that Adiyy ibn Hatim said, "No Arab detested the Prophet 
(pbuh) when he first knew about him more than me. I was a Christian leader 
of noble birth, and \ used to take a quarter of my people's spoils. I was 
religious and my people treated me as a king. On hearing of the Prophet 



(pbuh) I hated him and said to an Arab servant of mine who was taking care 
of my camels Choose some of my well -trained, we 1 1 fed camels, to be near 
10 me T and once you hear of Muhammad's army conquering this land just 
give me a note." One morning he came ro me and said, 'Whatever you 
intended to do when Khalid's cavalry approach you. do it now. for I have 
seen tings and I asked aboui them ami I was told ihal it was Muhammad's 
army." 1 ordered him to get me my camels and I made tin family ride I hem 
and set lorth to join the Christians in Syria. I went as far as AUawshiyyatf" 
-. or Al-Hiwbiyyah. as Ibn Hrsham said - where I left one of item's 
daughters." ip When 1 arrived m Syria 1 settled there. 

Some of the cavalry of the Prophet fpbuh) followed me and toojj 
captives from layyi' among whom was fiatim's daughter, who was brought 
io the Prophet (phuh). The Prophet ipbuh) knew about my fleeing to Syria- 
When he passed b> Hat tin's daughter, who w:k imprisoned with the captives 
in an enclosure by the gate of the Mosque, she went to him. for she was a 
courteous woman. She said, "O Messenger nf Aliah. my father is dead and 
the one who should replace him has fled, m be bountiful to me, may Allah 
be bountiful to you." lie asked her ahout the man who should look after her 
and when she lokf him that it was 'Adiyy inn jF|atiin he sakt "H\r one who 
tun nsraptd fnim Allah utid His hhsswjicr? Then he went out. The next day 
they exchanged the same words but on the day that followed, she lost hope. 
A man behind him waved to her to talk to him. She repeated the same 
words, asking him to be bountiful to her and he answered, "I have done so, 
so do not be hasty in leaving until you find a person of your people whom 
you trust (o take you home, and let me know,' She asked about the name of 
the man who had motioned to her to talk and was told that it was "AIT ibn 
Abi TiLlib, She remained there until a caravan arrived from Batyy or 
QuiJa'ah. All thai she wished for was io join her brother in Syria. She went 
to the Prophet (pbtihi to inform him that she had found a reliable man of 
reputation among her people. The Prophet (pbuh) provided her wiiii 
clothing and a mount and gave her expenses. Then she left with them until 
she reached Syria." 



1 1 .A TFil>unliiiii man Ntytf. 

1 Ai-Sahiijll uiuuicai tt iii flUMc AixqHiihhk Uwi Ivr name w* Salfowh 



•Amyv further narrated. "Silting among my people t saw a howdah 
coming WfM* ws so I exclaimed, Hatim's daughter?' and so ii was. She 
came to me and started to blame me saying, 'You are ufidutiful. unjust, yuu 
took away your family and eluldren and forsook your fathers daughter " 
said. 'Do not say but good. O little ska* for by Allah t have no $&m ■ 
did do what you say/ Then she dismounted and resided with me. She was a 
discerning woman so I asked about her opinion of Ibis man. She said. 'I 
think that you should join him immediately, for if the man is a Prophet then 
he will be bountiful to those who will come to him first, and ii' he is a king 
you wilt not be humiliated in ihe ghty of Yemen, especially with your high 
jsodrion. 1 I was convinced by her vbw. Hence I set out to the Prophet 
fpbubi and I found him in his mosque in Madmah, After I had greeted him 
and introduced myself, he gut up to take me to his house. On our way, an 
old feeble woman stopped him and they had a long talk about her needs. I 
said to myself. "By Allah, this is not a king/ Reaching his house, he took a 
leather cushion stuffed with palm leaves and threw it to me saying, 'Sit on 
this ' I said, 'No but you sit on it/ 'No, you dot' he insisted. So i sat on it. 
while he sat on the ground. I **id to myself. By Allah this can never be the 
behavior of a king.' Then lie said. "Well "Adiyy ihn Uatim. arc you not a 
RiikOsT'T When t said yes. he said, IT fc it not that you take a quarter of 
your peopled spoils?" I acknowledged thai, SO be said, "Yet it is not allowed 
to you in your religion/ "Sure by Allah.- f said. I recognised thai he wns a 
Prophet sent by AlTah with a Message knowing what is not generally 
known. Then he said 'Perhaps what restrains you from embracing this 
religion is the indigence in which they are. but, by Aliah, money will soon 
How so lavishly among them that there will not be (enough) people to take 
it. Perhaps what restrains you from embracing it is that you see their enemy 
is great in number while they are few! However, by Allah, you will soon 
hear that a woman will have traveled on her camel from AJ~Q3disiyah to 
visit this House without fear. Perhaps what retrains you from embracing it 
is that you see that the others have the dominion and power, but by Allah 
you will soon hear thai the white palaces of Babylon will have been opened 
to them.' Then I accepted Islam." 

^Adiyy said, "Two of the Prophet's three prophecies have laken plate 
and the third will surely happen. I saw the white palaces of Babylon laid 

55 



open and \ saw women unafraid to come along from AJ-Qfidisiyyah on 
camels to make the pilgrimage to this House. And by Allah, the third will 
happen when the money will Dow until there will not be enough people to 
take it " 

The Arrival of Farwah Ibn Musayk al-Muradi 

Ibn teh&t\ said that Farwah ibn Musayk al-Muradi went to the Prophet 
(pbuhX leaving the kings of Kmdah. Just before the advent or Islam, a battle 
called Ar-Radm had laltcn place beiwccn Murad and Hamdan in which 
Murtfd lost many of its men. The leader of Hamdan in the hattle was 
Al-Ajda* ibn Malik/*' When Forw;ih came to Hie Prophet (pbuh), he asked 
htm, m O Farwi\h, an ytm tli&rreMed ut wttaS had imppwvd to the ptopU- of Ar- 
Radm? u He replied that such a defeat would up^et any man. The Prophet 
(pbuh) said that this, in Mam, would bring his people good- Then the 
Prophet (pbuh) appointed him over Murad, Zobayd. and Madhhij and sent 
with him Khalid ibn Sa'd ihn al ^ A5 to collect alms. Khalid remained wiih 
him until the death of the Prophet (pbuh}. 

The Arrival of Amr lbn Mad Yakrib 
with a Group of BanG Zubayd 

With some men of Band Zubayd, 'Amr ibn Ma^d Yakrtb went to the 
foophci tpbuh) and embraced Islam. Previously, he had said to Qays ibn 
Maksliuij al-Muradl when they heard of the Prophet fpbuhj, "O Qays, you 
are the head of your people. Ji has reached us that a man of the Qara'ysh 
called Muhammad from (he Hijflz claims 10 be a prophet, so take us Uj htm 
in order !o find out the truth. If he is a prophet as he claims, you can know 
and then we will follow him. [n case he is not, Ihen we will know." Qays 
declined his proposal and vilified his advke. Thereupon ~Amr headed for 
the Prophet (pbuh) and embraced (slam. When Qays heard this, he got angry 
and menaced Amr for going against him, rejecting his opinion. "Amr 
answered that he fintf called him to a matter thai is plainly righu i.e. Islam. 



r Ihn itmhaiR sjud ii wjh MAIik. jfrn Hnrfm iMIamdiii *tm kd them 



-Amr lived with his people of Ban* Zubayd when Farwah ibn Musayk 
governed them. When the Prophet (pbuh>died *Amr apostatized. 

The Arrival of Al-Ash ath ton Qays with the 
Deputation of Kindah 

D» isb&q said ..hat according la Az-Zuhrt ibn Shihab, Al-Ash" oLh ibn 
Qavs went to the Prophet with eighty people from Kindah. He entered to 
him (pbuh) m the mosque. They had combed their hair, blackened their eyes 
with kohl, and were dressed in Striped Yemeni garments edged with siik. 
The Prophet (pbuh) asked them whether they had embraced Islam and when 
they said thai ihey had be asked. "So why is then nilk about ytmmttksr They 
tore u off and hurled it away. 

Then Al-Ash ath ibn Qasys said, rt O Messenger of Allah, we are the 
children of (he eater of bitter herbs and so are you." The Prophet ipbuh) 
united and said that this related to APAbbas ibn 'Abdel-Mutinlih and 
Rabfari Ibnul-liflriih. Thev were merchant and whenever they moved 
around among the Arabs and people asked them about ibeir identity, they 
used to say thai ihcy were children of the eater of bitter herbs, being proud 
of mat since Kindah were kings. Then he said to them, "Nay, we are the 
children of An-Narjr ibn Kinanah: we do not follow our maternal lineage 
denying our fathers." Al-Ash'aih ibn Qays said, "Have you finished, O 
people of Kindah? By ATlah, if I hear a man say it again, I will giv^ him 
eighty strokes. H 

The Arrival of £urad ibn Abdillah al-Azdi 

In a deputation ft*™ Al-Azd, Surad ibn "Ahdiliah al-Azdt went to the 
Prophet (pbuh). embraced Isiam and became a good Muslim. The Prophet 
(pbuh) appointed him over the Muslims of his people and commanded him 
to fight the neighboring polythciste from the Yemeni tribes. To execute the 
Prophet's command. £urad marched out and halted ar Jurash. which was 
men a closed city composed of mainly Yemeni tribes wlwm KauYam hud 
joined seeking refuge in their land when they heard of the approach of the 



Muslims The Muslims besieged them for almost a month, without being 
able to enter. Thus Surad relieved us far as a mountain known .as Shafcj. 
Yet, the citizens of J urash thought that he had escaped from Ihem in defeat, 
so they went out in pursuit When they caught up with him, be kepi on 
killing the in in large numbers* 

In another development, the people of Jurash had di^Midud two of ilieir 
men (o the Prophet (pbuh) in Madinah to find out what was taking place. 
Bcmg with the Prophet (pbuh) after Ihe &*hr prayer, he n&ked them about 
the location of Shakr. The two men lold him that in their country 'here was a 
mountain tailed Kashx - and so was it called by the people of Jura^h but he 
assured that it was Shakr. and nol Kashr. "Then what is happening abettl it 
now?" they asked. "Sacrifice camels of Allah arc hcing slaughtered hv % 
now," be said- 

The two men sai wiih AbG Eukr or ^Ulhm&i who said, "Woe to youf 
The Prophet (pbuh) has just announced to you the defeat of your people, so 
gel up and ask him to pray to Allah lo save ihem." They did so, and he 
(pbuh J invoked Allah 10 save them. Afterwards, they went honvc and found 
that their people were beaten on the day that Surad attacked ihem which was 
on d-w; very day and at the very hour at which the Prophet < pbuh ) said those 
words. 

A deputation from Jurash went to the Prophet (pbuh) and embraced 
islam. He made for them a special sanctuary around their town with definite 
marks for their hordes, riding camels, and plowing cows. He ordained that it 
was not lawful for other people to use it. 

The Arrival of the Messenger of the Kings of 
Eimyar with a Letter 

After the invasion of TabGk, a messenger came with a Jotter from Ihe 
king* of Hi my a r announcing their conversion to islam. These kings were: 
Al-Eiantb ibn ^Ahd Kulal. Nu'aym inn * Abd Kulal, and An*Nu"mun of Dhu 
Ru'ayn, Ma' a fir, and Mamdan. 

Zuf ah Dhu Yaxan dispatched Malik bn Murrah ar-RahawI to tefl him 
they had accepted Islam and forsaken polytheism and polythcist*. The 
Prophet (pbuh) wrote 10 ihem: 



7n the name of Allah the Mosi-MercifuL the Ever-Merciful, {This is a 
tetter) frttm Mtdtainmati the M&M$# of Allah, the Prophet, to M- 
tldrith dm 'AM Kulah Nuuym ibn Wt Kulal. An-Mi'mari of Dim 
Ru'uytu Ma'afin and Hanultut. 

1 praise Allah hut Whom there is tw god. Your messenger cams to us as 
w# *rnr eawing hack from the Roman land. Meeting us in M*&W # 
conveyed war letter informing us tfwur $&$*** <* hfam WlJ F? 
killing the pohtheists, Surety Allah ha, gutted y»u wtih Ms guidance '& 
Umg as wu nark righteousness, abey Allah and M 4ftMM?i &&** 

prayer*, pay Zakair. and && *« fy& &$* W. M $ " aM attd lht 
share of the Propter fphuhltis well as what he selects (front the spoils}, 
tit obligator aha on the believers are (to be gnvn *nti as faUtnvs): 
from tand. a tithe of what is watered by wtlls ami tain, arid half of a 
tithe of what is watered by huekttK a young slxe-cmnel (hint lahun ) is to 
he. given out for everv forty camels; a \mmg nude tame! film lahiinljor 
every thirty camels; a sheep for of wry five &tntets. WW i^f fa* every 
ten camels; a cow far every f&rty cans; a young Mi which completed 
one or two years of age (tabV jadhu* ). ara jewig cow. which completed 
m* yean of age f/teJhf 'uJiJ. and a sheep for every forty sheep at pas- 
ture. This is what Allah ims obligated on the believers cancemtng alms. 
He who give* mare (than this out of} goodness, it tx goad for him. and he 
who performs this, testifier his uanversim to) Islam, and supports the 
Mievers agaitut the potytheists. is one of the believers: he h & he Riven 
their tights and tutted to fulfill their duties and he Ixts a guarantee of 
protection fnw\ Allah and His Messenger. 

if a Jew or a Christian embraces Islam, then he is one of the believers: 
he is to be given their fights and ashed to fulfill their duties. He who 
clings to his religion, Judaism or Christianity, not converting, shall na\ 
be obliged to leave it. but he must payjizvah: for every adult, male or fe- 
male, free at slave, onefidl dinar caitttUjted on the valuation afMaqfir* 1 * 
nrits equivalent in clothes. He who pavs that to the Messenger of AJkh 
tpbidtl shall hove o guarantee of prntectUfn from Allah and His Messenger, 
ami he who does not pay it shall h* an enemy ofAifah and His Messenger. 



I. Yemeni Ltotlio 



The Messenger of Ailak Mutuonntad the Prophet, has sent to 'far ah 
Dh& Ya&rn: When my messengers amve to yaa I commend them m your 
good offices. Theses ure MuMs ibn Jahat 'Ahdtdtah ibn Zayd. Mffik 
ibn Ubddah, "Uqbah ibn Namir, arid Malik ibnMurmk and their cam- 
pamtms. Collect the due zeludi and jizyoh fmrn your territories tutd dfr 
tiMwrihrm to my messenger* whose leader is MuMh M tohal and lei 
htm not reium miens he is satisfied. Muhammad testifies that them is no 
god hut Attnh and tluit he is Nis servant and Messenger. 

Malik ihn /Hurrah ar-Rahaw't has recounted to me that you were tram 
among the first o/Himyar to end>race Islam a/td have slam the panthe- 
ists, so he eheerfiti f order yott to treat Ifimyar welt, and not to betray 
or forsake one another, for the Messenger of Allah is the patron of hoik 
your poor and ridi. Vie aims are nor lawful to Muhttmmad or his household: 
they are zakdh thai is to he given to the poor Muslims and the wayfarers. 

Malik has mnveyed the news and kepi secret what is confidential, and f 
order you to treat him well. I have dispatched to you some of the best a$ my 
people, both in religion ami in kwwiedge, and I order you to treat them well 
for they must be respected Peace and Aliufi s menr, and listings be upon xka*. " 

The Advice of the Prophet (pbuh) to Mu'adh when 

Sending him To Yemen 

Urn Ish&j said ihai * Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr told him ill at he was to) J that 
when Ihe l^rophcr (pbuht sent Mu^tlh (to Ytimeit) he gave him advice and 
inslruclions saying, "Deal (with people) with ease, and not with difficulty; be of 
garni heart (with people] and do not dishearten (thent), You are going to a people 
from among ihe People of the Book who would ask yon "What is the key of heaven?' 
so say. 'It is to testify that there is no got! but Allah, alone with no partner'" 

Banfl AI-Harith ibn Ka'b Embrace Islam by the 
Hands of Khalid ibnul-Walid 

The Messenger of Allah (pbuftfr sent Khalid ibnul-WaHd in the memth of 
Rahful-Akhlr or Jumiidil aJ-Dla, 10 AH 1o Band Ai-Harith ibn Kab m 



NajraJi. Tic ordered him to call them to Islam three days prior lo any 
righting. In the case thai they became Muslims, he should accept it torn 
them* while if they refused, he should fight them. 

Khalid marched out to them, diffusing convoys in every direction to call 
the people to Islam, saying, "O people, embrace Islam and you will be safe." 
So people accepted Islam. According to the orders of the Prophet (pbuh) in 
ease they embraced Islam and did not fight. Khalid stayed with (hem to 
teach them Islamic teachings, the Book of Allah, and the Sutmah of His 
Prophei (pbuh). 

Then Khalid wrote to the Prophei (pbuh}: 

'"In the name of Allah, the Most- Mete iful, the Ever-Merciful. (This is a 
Idler) to Muhammad the Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh}. from 
Khalid ibnul-Walid. Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah, and Allah's 
mercy and blessings. Praise be to Allah hut Whom there is no god. O 
Messenger of Allah (pbuh), you seni me to BanQ Af-Harith ibn Kab. 
commanding me on reaching them not to fight them for three days, to call 
them to Islam, and to remain with them if they embrace it, and to accept it 
from them and leach ihcm the teachings oflslam. the Boot of Allah, and the 
Sunnah of His Prophet; and in case they do not submit, I should fight them. 
I went to ihem, invited them lo Islam for three days as ordained by the 
Messenger of Allah (pbuh), and I sett convoys among them saying. O Baml 
Al-ii&rim. embrace [slam and you will be safe'. They accepted it wkhoul 
fighting and 1 remained among them commanding and forbidding them 
according to Allah's Commandments and Prohibitions, and educating them 
the Islamic (cachings and the Sunnah of ihe Prophet (pbuh). And, peace be 
upon you, O Messenger of Allah, and Allah's mercy and blessing." 

The Prophei tpbuh) wrote to him: 

"fa the name of Allah, the Mtm-Merciful. the Ever-Merr.ifuL ifhii is a 
tetter) frnm Muhammad the Prophet ami the hiewrnger &f Allah, to 
Khalid tknul-Watid. Peace of Attah be uptm you. Praise be fti Allah bus 
Whom there is no $4>d / received your tetter f earn your messenger in- 
fvrminjt me jhal Burnt At-Harith Urn Ka*b linve embraced Islam without 
fighting, responded to (the Warnings vf) hUim that you called them for, 
testified that there is no god but Allah and tltat Muhammad is Hh see- 



vtmt and messenger, ami ihat Allah lias guided them with I fix guidanre 
f J« the Right Patftt, So promise them (the gmtf consequence of their 
work* and warn them (ogoimt the evil of dt.wbedienre aiui the hkcK and 
come with a deputation from them. And. peace wul Allah's mercy and 
Messing he u/wrt wa. " 

Thus KM I id arrived 10 ihe Prophet Iphuh) with the deputation of Bartu 
At-Hihith, among whom were: Qays ibnul-fjuiuvn Qhul-Ghussah. YazM 
ibn Abdcl-Msulun. Yav.id ibnul-Muhajjal, 'AbduHtlh ibn QurSd az-ZiySd*, 
Shaded ibn l AbdillQh ai-Qanum, and * Amr ibn Abdillah aji-Qlbahi. 

On seeing them coming, the Prophet (pbuh) asked. "Who we these people 
whp look like the men of hidiuT Someone answered that they were Banu 
Ai-Harith ibn Ka'b. After greeting the Prophei (pbuh), ihey said. "Wc bear 
witness Ihat you are the Messenger of Allah and dial mere is no god but 
Allah/' He also said. "And I bear wintexr that titer* in no god but Allah and ihat / 
am the Messenger oj Allah" Then he (pbuh) added. "Are you the people who 
advance if they are driven away?" None of them answered. He repeated the 
question three limes and none answered When he said it for the fourth lime 
Yazfd ibn Abdel-Madan said that they were those people and repeated his 
answer four Limes. The Prophet {pbuh) said, "IfKhatuI Imi nm written la me 
that yon had embraced htam without fighting I would have thrown your heads be- 
neath your feet." Yaztd replied, "Bui. by AJiah, we do not praise you nor 
KMlid, TAfff whom ah ytm pmhe'r he asked. Ife said. "We praise AJlah 
Who has guided us with you, O Messenger of Allah." "You are right" he 
(pbuh I said. Then be asked, "Row did \-ttu ever defeat thine who fought ytut in 
the predjilamic period?" "We never defeated anyone." was their answer, w Mjv. 
bin wv used to vanquish those who fought you,*' he said. They replied, "O 
Messenger or AJlah. we used to vanquish those who fought us because we 
were to come together and never disunited, anil nor wete wc ihe first to do 
injustice/ 1 He said, " You am right.' 

The Prophet (pbuh) appointed Qays ibnuJ-fclusayn over them. The 
deputation went home at the end of Shawwal ur at tiie beginning of 
DhuI~Qn*dah, Only four months had passed after their return, when ihe 
Prophei (pbuh) died After their departure, the Prophet {pbuh} sent to them 
'Amr ibn ilazni to instruct I hem in religion, the Sunnah, and the teachings 

(§> 



of [slain as well as lo collect Zakah from them. He wrote a Jeiter for him in 
which he gave instructions and commands t& follows: 

"In ihe name o/ Mafc *to iW<i*r Merciful the fr^r -Merciful This is a 
statement f mm /Md/t *wid P* Messenger. O you who fXtUf^td fulfil vour 
V&tttfiiKts. IThts if) a covenant from Muhammad the Prophet, die Mes- 
senger of Aihk to ^Amt ihn tftian rtfoWfl & WH dujKttthfd to Yemen. 
He orders him to lw conscious of Allah in oil affairs, for surety Allah is 
with those who are Lonscimts of Him and win* are goad-doers. He or- 
ders him to behave with Truth us Allah has commanded him, to promise 
people k«m/ tidings, to commtuui them to follow the right, to teach and 
omnia people m the Qur'nn* and to prohibit them from touching the 
Quran tiniest pure. He should lei people imiw their rights and duties 
and he lenient to them to the right and severe in injustice, for Allah tunes 
injustice and has prohibited it. saying, "The Cttnt of Allah is on the 
mimitn tpotytheim and wrang-d^rs, ere.}*" He should give people 
the good tidings of Paradise and the way to enter it, and wrn them of 
hell and the woy to it. He should get familiarized with people so ifuit 
they may understand religion. He should tench them the rttes, vahouary 
acts, tttid oMigsiiotis of pilgrimage, and ivhat Allah has conmumded 
f concerning it), both the greater pilgrimage and the lesser pilgrimage 
which h ^Umrah. He should prohibit people from performing prayers in 
erne small piece ofdathms unless its edges ore folded met the shoulders, 
from squatting m one dress which expose! their private parts to open 
air, and from bmiding the iunr of their heads at the bocks of the necks. 

In the case that a dispute occurs between men, he should forbid them U* 
resart to tnhes and families, ttmf let them appeal to Allah atone with no 
associate. Those who do not appeal to Allah hut rather to trtttes and 
families should be xfntck with the .fuwrf unlit their appeal is to Allah, 
alone whit nous&oriutr 

He should commaiul men to perform ablutions well by washing their 
faces, their hnjtdn to the elhoH'S. and thetrfret ro the ankles, and hy ruth 
bmg (by passing wet hands over) their heads, as AHuh hits ordered. He 
should eomatartd them id observe prayers or their designated times with 

1 Surttt u)-A n^f, vase. 44= 



full hawing, prmtmtinn y and veneration, and that (the Fajr) prayer is 10 
he performed at daybreak, (the Zuhr prayer) at noon when the sun de- 
clines, the Asr prayer in the afternoon when the sun is descending, the 
Maghrib prayer with the approach of the night without delaying it until 
the stars appear in the sky, and the lsM T prayer (is to be offered} at the 
beginning of the night. He should order people to run to (perfomt) the 
Jumu'ak prayer when the call is proclaimed for iu and fa take a bath be- 
fore going to (perform) it. He should abo take the fifth of Allah out of 
the booty. 

The alms whab are obligatory on the beliewn are tio be given out as 
follows): from land, a tithe of what ii watered by wells and mitt, and 
half of a tithe of what is watered by buckets: two stteep are to be given 
ant for every ten came hi four sheep for every twenty camels; a cow for 
every forty eows; o young bull, which completed one or two yean of age 
(tabV jadfia*). or a ywwK vow, which completed two years of age (jad- 
hn'tih), for c\ery thirty cows; and a sheep for every forty sheep at pas- 
ture. Ttiis is what Allah has obligated on the believers concerning ubtts, 
He who gives more (than this out of) gorxincss. \t is gtmdfor him. 

A Jew or a Christian who embraces Islam sincerely of his awn free will 
and obey tthe instructions of) the religiim of Islam, ts one of the believ- 
ers: he is to be given thtu'r nghts and asked to fulfill their duties. He who 
clings to his religion, Judaism or Christianity, not comvrting, shall not 
be obliged to leave it. \But) every adtdt, male or female, free or slave, 
should pay one fid! dinar r?r its equivalent in clothes. He who pays that 
shall hove a guarantee of protection from Allah and His Messenger, and 
he who does not pay it stktll be an enemy of Allah, His Messenger, and 
alt the believers. May the prayers of Allah he upon Muhammad, and, 
peace be upon him and Allah 's mercy and blessings- " 

The Two Liars: Musaylimah al-Hanafi 
and Al-Aswad al-*Ansl 

According to Ibn Isliaq, during the era of the Prophcl (pbuJU two 
arch-lairs appeared, namely, Mmiayliimib ftm Habfb in Yiimamah among 



BanO U«iifah. and Al-Aswu) ibn Ka^b «l-*Arisi in Sm a'. Abu Said 
al-Khudr? reported that be. (ward the Messenger of Allah (phuhj while 
delivering a speech from his pulpit, saying, "O pwpte. t saw the night of Ai- 
Qmir and then I woj made 10 forget it. t .wu <m my arms two brutieteu of gold 
which f Iwwd so t M*w thtm end they Jtew m<uv, / interpret them m refer to 
these two errh-Uars. the true from Yemen mid tlic mefr&m At- Yamamah. " 

It is narrated ihui Abu Htuayrah said he heard (he Messenger of Allah 
(pbuh'J saying, "Tttc (&&¥ n'itl tutr tame before thirty impostors emerge: e&eh wilt 
thum pmphelhodd" 

Sending Zaica/i-collectors 

The Prophet ipbuh) spread oul his representatives to the lands of Islam 
collect Zakah. He dfepalelied Ai-Muhajir ibn Ahf Umayyah to San"a\ 
- ,iere AKAfisf rose against him while being mere. Ziyad ibn Labid. the 
brother of Banu Bayadah al-Ans.arI, was sent to Uao>ain&wL ^Adiyy ihn 
Hatim was put in charge of the alms of layyi" and Bunu Asad- Malik ibn 
Nuwayrah was to tolled alms from Bunu Hanzulah. The collection of alms 
from Banu Sad was divided between two men frum them + nameTy. Zibriqan 
ibn Badr in one area and Qays ibn 'Asim on another. A I- 1 Ala' ibn 
aJ-iJadramT was sent to Bahrain, while t Alf ibn AM lalib was sent to the 
people of Najran. to collect both frtfaVi MvAjtzyah. 

The Letter of Musaylimah 
and the Prophet's Answer 

Musaylimah ibn HabTb wrote to the Prophet (pbuh): 

"(This is a letter) from MusuyLirnah, the Messenger of Allah, to 
Muhammad, tin? Messenger of Allah. Peace he upon you. 1 have been made 
lo associate with you in the matter lie. prophcthood and the Mission)- To us 
belongs half the land and to the Quraysh the other half, but the Quraysh are 
aggressors. " Two messengers carried this letter to him (pbuh). 



Ibn I^ity ^aid ihut an oFd man from Ashju/ lold him from SaJaiuali ibn 
Nifaym ibn Mas'ud aUAshja~i from bis father NVuym, than he lurier heard 
the Messenger of Alton (pbuh) saying to them i the two messengers) when 
he read the Letter. "You (nu hJiuj <fo you fton* <yj*fjw jr?" They replied that they 
Ihought the «.ame as Musaylimah. He (pbuh) said, r fl v ,t/foA. »*& rr«*/ that 
mtuurengtrs or? not to he shim, t would lun-e tut off the heads of you both!" Then 
he wrote to MiUiaylimah: 

"In the name ttf Allah, the Most-Met vtfut the Ber-MertifuL fflm b a 
tetter} from Muhammad* the Messenger of Allah, to Musaylimah the liar. 
Peace be upon him who follows the etridanre. Verity, the earth is Ah 
tab's He gives it as a hettmge to wham He will of His staves, a/id the 
(blessed) end it for those who are comcum* t of Allah /, " 

Thjy took place at the end of the tenth year AR 

The Farewell Pilgrimage 

At the beginning of Dhuf-Qa dah the Prophet (pbuh) began to prepare 
for the pilgrimage and ordered the people to also prepare for it. \t was the 
twenty-fifth of Dhul-Qa dah when the Prophet (pbuh) worn out to perform 
pilgrimaged ' He performed pilgrimage, reaching the people its riiuals and 
inMrucijonv He delivered a speech in which he clarified many important 
marterv After praising and exalting Allah, he said. 

"ft people! Listen to my words, for f do not hum' whether t will ever 
meet w« in this place after this year, Q people! Surety, your blood and 
property art inviolable until you meet your Lord, as the inviolability <?/ 
this day and this month. You wi"H surely meet xour Lord Who wilt axk 
you about yaw dredx t fto*v proclaimed to you (the Message). He who 
has a tnaU let turn restore ii to him who has entrusted him with it. Alt 
kinds of ribd are nullified, and only you have a right to your capital*, 
without being unjust or others twmg unjust to y<nt. Allah has decreed 
that there is no riha. and surety the entire ribii ofAWAhltas ibn \4bdel- 
Muualih U abolished. Evety right pertaining to bloodshed in the period 
of ignorant* tpre-telam) is nmdished ami the first such nght I abolish is 



I. Ibji HwhVm mJiI lhal be Iptxilij put Atni Dujtauh as-Si nfl in chw^c of MufTtiftli. and tome and 



..(gl) 



that of I'm Hah\ah sn Smul-iianih ihn 'Abdel-Mututlik ■ He wax sera to 
In? surklcd in Banff Ijayth when Hudhavl killed him. - It is the fiftf ri%hl I 
Start with as pertaining to the period of ignartutoe* 

O people* Satan has despaired af ever heittg worshipped in your land, 
hut he U pleased as long as lie can be atieyed m anything other than 
worship. fii&0$ thkgs which wu think of to be af little account 
among vour deeds. So beware of him (lea he corrupt your belief in t your 
religion. O people! The ptntponing {of a Sol red Month) ts istdeed an ad- 
dition to disbelief thereby the disbelievers are led astray* for the}' make 
it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the num- 
ber of months forbidden by Allah, and make such prbiilden ones lawful 
and forbid what Allah has made lawful Time has reached its full cycle, 
as it did on the day when Allah ereateil the heavens and the earth. Veri- 
ly, tht number of mondts with Allah is twelve months (in a year)! afthem 
ftnw are Sacred, af which three are succei.th'e and Hajab of Mutter 1 -* 
which is f>etween Jumiidd andSha'btht. 

O (Maple* You have righto over your wives and they haw rights <nw 
you. You hue the ri^ht that they da not take as a friend any ane that you 
do not approve, and that (hey do not commit evident obscenity* Ifihey do 
sa t Allah permits you to admonish them, desert them tn separate roams, 
or to heat than but without severity. Ij they cease (to da tol. thn have 
the right to prwhion and clothing with kirulnesx. You tire enjoined to 
treat wtmieh kindly, for they ore captives in your hands and helpless. 
You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and their private jwrts 
are lawful to you by the word of Allah. 

O people! Be heedjid uf my words, for / have proclaimed to you (the 
Message I I liavc indeed left wtdi yon thai if you ttntd fast la. y/m will 
never he misled, art evident Ordinance, the Rwk of Allah and the Sim- 
ntdt of fHs Prophet. O people!. Listen to my words and mulct stand u. 
You surely know that a Mi/ dun is a brother to a Muslim, and that Mus- 
lims are brothers. Hence, it is prohibited tliat a man lakes from his 



I 1 1 iv tvtnv >*ui Atliim. ft* in " L'yift jiI-AiW by fbh Sivy id att-Nfo 

2. The Pmftfrcl -i [Ahih) aikleU Ra>b in Mudw tie&'uuic ihey were the mly A nib* *hn tikmlloJ it 



brother anything Jmr what he has given approvingly, so do not be un- 
just to wtinrches. Q Allah, haw I conveyed f the Message)?* 

It was said ihiii the people said, "0 Allah, yes." Then the Prophet (pbuhl 
said, "O Allah, bear witness." 

UsAmah ibn Zayd Is Sent to Palestine 

After ramming from the pilgrimage, the Prophet (pbuh) spent the rest of 
Dhul-Mijjah, Mu&irrtim* and Safar in JVIadlnah. He sent an expedition to 
Syria under the leadership of Usamah ibn Zayd ibn Hwiihah, inawUL He 
instructed him lu take hi* cavalry into the territory of Al-BaJqa' and 
Ad-Darum in Palestine. The Muslims were prepared and all the fust 
Muhaji run joined Usimuh- 

The Prophet (pbuh) Sends Envoys to the Kings 

Ibn His ham sjud that Che Prophet (pbuh) senr some of his Companions as 
envoys with letters to the kings calling them to Islam, Ibn Hisham also said 
that Ahu Bakr aMIudhali said, "T heard thai the Prophet (pbuhi went out 
one day after the "Umrah which he had been refrained from performing on 
the Day of Al-lfudaybiyah. and said V people. Allah has surely sent ate as a 
mfrry) to the whale tof munkihdl so do not differ nmnng yourselves about me as 
aid the disciples of '&w ibn Marynm utwut turn. ' The Companions asked* "How 
was the disciples' difference, Q Messenger of Allah?" He (pbuh) answered. 
'He invited them to that which I have invited you to- Those who were sent on a near 
misstnn were pleased, while thme who were seat an a far mission were displeased 
and showed hesitation- 'ha complained to Allah so every one oj those who had 
shown hesitation wake up the next tnoniiitf> speaking the language of the people to 
wham they were sent*'" 

The Prophet (pbuh.) sent the following envoys with letters to die 
following kings, calling them to Islam: 

- Dibyoh ibn KhaJifah af-Kalbt to Caesar, the Roman Emperor; 

- * Abdullah ibn Hudhaiah to Cbottms, the king of Persia: 



~ 'Amr ibn Umayyah ad- Damn to Negus, the king of Abyssinia; 

- H5jib ibn AbT Baku" ah to Muqawqis, the king of Alexandria; 

- 'Amr. ibnuKAs as-Sahmf to Jayfar and 'tyadh, the sons of Al JulandS 

At-Azdf, the two kings of l.lmJ&n: 

- Sa]it ibn ' Amr. one of the sons of "ktnir ibn Lu'ayy. to Thumamah ibn 

UthfU and Hawdhah ibn ^Atf, from Banu Hamfah, the two kings of 
AhYamamah; 

- Al-'Alfi" ibnuL-HadramT to Al-Mundhir ibn Sawa aKAbdT, the king of 
Bahrain; 

- Shuj&' ibn Wahb al-Asad? to AJ-Harith Ibn Abt Shamir al-Ghass&ni the 

king of the Syrian borders. 

Ibn Hisham said that it was he who gave the lineage of $a\% 
Thumamah. Hawdhah, and Al-Mundhir. 

According to Ibn Ishacj, Ymd ibn Abt ftabib al-Mi\r] said thai he found 
a document mentioning I hose why were sent by the Prophet tpbuh) to the 
Arab and non-Arab countries and kings, as well as what he said to his 
Companions on sending them. I showed it to Muhammad ibn Shihib 
a^-Zuhrt who recognized it, It contained a version that the Prophet (pbuh) 
addressed his companion* saying. 'Allah has surety sent me as a mercy to the 
whitle in/ ' mankind t, SO represent me fin Da^wah) in order to get Allah's mercy and 
do not differ among yourselves about me as did the disciples a/ 7jk2 ihn Maryam 
about Mail" The CompanionK a*ked, "How was the disciples' difference, O 
Messenger of Allah?" He (pbuh) answered. He invited (hem to that which t 
have invited you to. Tlwse who were assigned! (for a mission} to a near distance 
were content and accepted, while those who were assigned to a jar distance dis- 
liked it and refused Isa tewiplained about them to AIIoIl so they woke up the nen 
momma spef&mx the language of the people to whom they were s&tt. H 

Ibn Ishaq said that the disciples and those who followed then whom *ka 
ibn Mary am stm [ I trough the land were as follows; 

- Buirus the disciple and with him 9QUs who was a follower, and not a 

disciple, to Rumiyyah; 

- Indrais and Manti to the land of the cannibals; 



* Tunm [o the Jund of Babel of the Orient: 

- RJbuMo Cartage: 

- Yujjanna^ to Ephesus, the town of the young men of the Cave; 
s Ya qtibas toJcnwuJcm: 

- Ibn Thalma' to Arabia, namely tr the land of jjija/ and Simun to the land 

of the Berbers; 

- Ynhudha. who was not a disciple, replaced YGdis, 

The Last Expedition 

According to Ibn Ish,% the Prophe* (pbub> seni Usamtth ihn Zayd ibn 
fifirilhuh to Syria, commanding him to take his cavalry into the border of 
Al-BaJqa and Ad-Panim in Palestine. The Muslims were prepared and all 
the first MuhajiriU) joined U&flnuih, 



The Beginning of the Prophet's Last Illness 

Ibn Isftaq suit! that under such circumstances, the Prophet (pbuh) began 
to feci ilk and it was that illness with which Allah took him 10 what He tod 
decreed for him of hunor and mercy. It was in late £afar or in early 
RabVui-Awwnl His illness parted when he was went om to Bnqi s 
ai-Gharqad* 1 \ in the middle of the mghi f where he asked Allah's forgiveness 
for the Muslim dead, then he werti home. His ailment began in the morning. 

AbO Muwayhibah. n mania of the Prophet (phiih}. said, "In the middle 
Of the night the Prophet tphuhi summoned mc and said, 'OAhii Mtiwayhibak 
I I\ave received tw order to ask forgiveness for the dead in Al-Buqt\ so rome with 
me." Thus, 1 went with him until he stood amidst ihem saying, 'Peart he uptm 
wiu. O residents of the graves. Ctmirnt are ,wu n# yaur condition than people 
here, as fitah^ 1 are earning tike rhe waves of the dusky night, the test following the 
first, and the last is worse than the first. ' Then he looked at me and .said. O Ah ft 
Muwnyhihoh, t was given the Ley's of the treasures of the world ami perpetuation m 
it. then Paradise, and t was made to rhmxe between that and meeting my tjxrd 
and Paradise: I suggested. Take the keys of the treasures of the world and 
perpetuation in it. then Paradise', but lie said, No, hy Ailak O Abu Mm- 
wayhilhilh i have ehusen the meeting of my Lord and Paradise'. He asked 
forgiveness for the dead in Al-BaqT and left, Then he started to suffer from 
the illness through which Allah eventually took him. 

'A'ishah (may AJJah be pleased with her) said. "Returning from the 
graveyard, the Prophet Ipbuh) found me suffering from a severe headache 
and I was saying, h O my head!' He said, It is me, by AUah, O A'ithah, twho 
says J O my bead!' Then he said. "What would grieve you if you die before me so 
that I may shroud van. offer prayer ft?r you, and bury you? 1 1 said. "It seems to me 
thai having done that you would return to my house to spend a bridal nig hi 
with one of your wives/ The Prophet Ipbuh} smiled. His pain worsened as 
he was passing by his wives, until he was beset in the house of Maymunah. 

1 Tl i z j:ra* cyan* of Modi nil). 

2 Ftlmi i* till! plural alfitntth. l-iKifc il up m ihe jt)u»mty. 



He .summoned his wives and asked rhem 10 lei him be nursed in my house, 
ami they accepted " 

The Wives of the Prophet, 
the Mothers of the Believers 

fori Hisha\m said thai, as he was told by more ihan one scholar, the wives 
of the Prophet (phuh) were nine: A'ishah, the daughter of Abu Bakr; 
Hafsah. the daughter of 'Umar ihnuUKhamib: Llmm Habibafi. llie daughter 
of Abu Sufyan ihn Harb: Unina Sdamah, the daughter of AhQ Umayyah 
ibnul^MugMrah; Sawdah.. the daughter of Zam'ah ibn Qays; Zaynah. die 
daughter of Jahsh ihn Ri ab: Maymunah. the daughter of AJ-Harjth ibn 
Hazji; Jawayiiyah. the daughter of Al-i&riih ibn AH Qirar; and Safiyyah. 
the daughter of Huyayy ibn Akhiab. 

The lota) number of tho*e to whom fie (pbuh) married was thirteen 
women. 

Khadijah, the daughter of Kbuway lid »m his first wife whom her father, 
Khuwaylid ibn Asud, or, as narrated by others, her broiler v Amr married to 
him. The Prophet (pbuh) £uve her twenty shc*camels as dowry. She was the 
mother of all the PropheL's children exec pi Ibrahim. Before the Prophei 
(pbuhj, she was married to Aou Hal ah ibn Malik, one of the sons of Usayytd 
ibn ' Amr ibn Tamim. an ally of Banu 'Abdud-DSr She gav t - hirth from him 
to two children, namely. Hind (rnaJe) and Zaynab. Prior to Abu Halah, she 
was married to lJUiyyiq ibn Abid ihn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Makhzpm 
with whom she had " Abdullah and Jariyah. 

'A'ishah. the daughter of Abj Bafcr was given to the Prophet (phuh) in 
mama^e at the age of seven in Makkah, and later he consummated the 
marriage with her in MiidmaJi when she was at the age of nine or ten. She 
was ihe only virgin that he I pbuh> married. ft ^as her father, Abu Bakr. who 
married her to him. The Ptophci ipbuh) gave her four hundred dirhams a* 
dowry. 

Saw dab. the daughter of Zam'ah ibn Qays ibn 'Abd Shams ibn "Abd 
Wudd ibn Nasr ihn Malik ibn His) ibn 'Amir ihn .Lu'ayy, was given to the 



Prophet (pbuh) m mamagc by £ul?t ibn ' Amr, or as it was said, by Abu 
Hatib ibn " Amr ibn ' Abd Strang The Prophet (pbuh* gave her tour hundred 
cbrhams as dowry/ 11 Previously. she was married 10 As-Sakrito ibn l Amr ibn 
*Abd Shams. 

Zayitat). the daughter of Jafcsh ibn tti'ab al-Asatti wftS joined in marriage 
with ihc Pmphel tpbuh) by her brother AbQ Ahmad, The Prophet (pbuh) 
gave her four hunched dirhams as dowry. Before him slie was married to 
Zayd ibn iluiiihah, a ^ of the Prophet (pbuh). and it was about her thai 
Allah revealed the ver>e thai say*, 

t$p when /Myft taxd wiawtplhhed his desire from her ft* divorced 

her}. We gaw her to you in marriage, f 

(Al-AJlFib: 37) 

Umni Satarnah. the daughier of Abfl Umayyah ibn aJ-Mufbirah 
al-Makh/umf was named Hind. Her son SaJamah ibn Abi Salamah married 
her to the Prophet (pbuhl- The dowry' thal be <P huh > E* ve lo hw waA a ^ d 
stuffed with palm-Jeaves a bowl, a 4iJih. and a hand miJL Before that she 
was a widow or Abdullah who was known as Aba Salamuh ibn *Abd 
nl-AsaU. She had with him SaJamah, "Umar. Zaynab, ami Ruqaiyiyyah. 

ilafsuh, the daughter of Ulnar ibnul-Khauab was united to the Prophet 
(pbuh) in wedlock by her father. The Prophet iphuhj gave her four hundred 
dirhams as a dowry . Previously, she had been married io Khunays as-Salmit 
iUmm Habibah. Ihe daughter of AbQ Sufyan ibn U^rb was niuned 
RumUh- Khalid tbn Sa id ibn aKAs married her to hkn, when they both 
wen: m Abyssinia. Her down 1 was four hundred dinars which were given to 
her by Nej*us on behalf of the Prophet rpbuh). h wai he who had proposed 
to her for The Prophet ipmib). Before that she was married to Ijijbaydullah 
ibn Jaiifcli aUAsadi. 

Juwavriyah. daughter of Al-Harith ibm Abi £irar al-Khuzal was among 
the captives of Biimt Al-Musialiq or Khu/iMh when she was given to 
Thabil ibn Quys ibn asb-Shaiunws al-Ansari. He wrote a contraci of 
icdcmpiiorno her which she brought to the Prophet <pbuh) asking his help 

I Ibn ll.^m said ihai m l»li^, siid Sslll aaJ A«J $01 *«c ahumi dunng Dwl penod. *> ilwy 
wnc in Atpyawnra.- 

©> 



10 accomplish it. He tphuh) said w her, "Whui atari something ta*r thm 
thmT She Mid. "What is it. Messenger of AIM?" He replied, 7 wiit/ufjit 
\ottr debt and many ymt.' She said yes and they were married. 

According to Ibn Hishum, it is said that when the Prophet (pUih) 
returned from the invasion on BanG at-Musjidiq with Juwayriyub. and while 
he was In the midst of (he army, he entrusted Juwayriyafc to one of ihe 
Ansjlr and ordered hint to look idler her. After the Prophet's returning to 
Mttdlnah, her father. AI-HAnm, came with Ins daughters ransom. While 
Al-HariLh wa* in Af Aq?q, he hud greatly admired two of the camcJs which 
he had hrought for the ransom, so Ise concealed them in one of AI^Aqiq 
glen*. Tlien Ivc arrived to the Prophet saying, "Here is my daughter^ 
ransom/ TTie Prophet <pbuh) asked. ' Hitr where «**- tha two rrmvis which you 
fkiVO etmcrakd m At-'Aqtq in such-utni-such a gte,t?~ Al-Harith said, "I hear 
witness that there is no gc>d hut Allah and that you rnv the Messenger of 
Allah, for by Allah none rauld have known or that except Allah the 
Almighty." Thus, he embraced islam as weir as two of his sons wnu 
accompanied him and some of Jits people. After bringing the two camels 
and giving them to the Praphc-iipbuhl, hi* daughter Juwayrivah was eiven 
back to him. She became a good Muslim and the Prophet ipbuh) proposed 
for her hand from het father, who agreed, Tk-r dowry was four hundred 
dirnams. She was previously married to u cousin of hers called * Abdullah, El 
was said that the Prophet (pbuhi bought her from Thabii ibn Qays. released 
her. and married her, giving her four hundred dirhams as dowry. 

Sailyyitli. the daughter of Uuyayy ibn Athph was chosen by the Prophet 
tpbubi from among the captives of Khayhar then he married her. Re made a 
feast of sawlq (a kind of mush made or wlicai or barley i and dates only, 
without meal or fat. Previously she was murned to Kinanah ibnur-Rabf ibn 
Abef-Huqayq, 

Maymunah H the daughter ot Al-Hanlh ibn Hazn ibn Bahtr ibn HiKam 
ibn Ruwaybah ibn "Abdullah ibn Hilal ibn 'Amir ibn £sf sa'ah. wa.s married 
to the Prophet fpbuh I by AK Abbas ibn Abdd-Mii]taUh. On behalf of (he 
Prophet {pbuhl, A I -Abbas gave her four hundred oVhams a<; dowry. Before 
ihat she was married to Abu Ruhin ibn 'Abdul-' UzzS tbn Abi Qays ibn 
Abd Wudd ibn Nasr ibn Malik ibn Uhl ibn Amir ibn Lifayy. It was said 
that it was the woman who offered herself to the Prophet (pbuhl. Thus is 



because when she knew about the Prophet's proposal to her while she was 
riding her camel she said. "The caincl and what is on it belongs to Allah 
and His Messenger." Then Allah the Almighty sent down; 

*..jiih/ u &eft»% woman If she i0& herself m the Prophet* and the 

Fryiphrt wishes in marry /u'r. f 

(AUAiutfib: 50) 

Some said thai rhe woman who offered herself to him was Zaynab. the 

daughter or Jahsh; others sard it was Umm Sharfk Ghu/iyyah. the daughter 

of Mbrr ibn Wahb. one of the som of Murcqidh ihn Ainr ihn Mali ibn 

Amir ibn Luayy. Others said it was a woman from Baofl Saitiah ibn 

Lu'ayy, but the Prophet (phuh) redeemed her matter. 

Zaynab. the daughter of Kramiymah ihnul-Hariih ibn ~ Abdullah ibn 
*Amr ibn And Maniif ibn Hilal ibn Amir ibn 5a sn ah was married by to 
the Prophet fpbuhl b> QabTsah ibn ~Amr ahHilM, She was dubbed "The 
mother of the poor" because of her kindness and pity towards the indigent. 
The Prophet (phuh) gave her four hundred dirhams as dowry. Previously, 
site was married to Ubaydah ibnul-HijriiK ihn alAluiialib ibn "Ahd Manaf, 
and before 'Ubaydah she was married to her cousin. Jahm ibn 'Antr ibn 
alJAarilh, 

Thus the Prophet (phuh) consummated manage with eleven women, 
two of whom died before him, nameSy, Khadijaru the daughter of 
Khuwuytid and Zaynab, the daughter of Zamah, while he died before the 
nine me mi tined at the beginning of this pait- 

There were two wives with whom die Prophet (phuh) did not 
consummate the marriage, namely, Asmfi'. the daughter An-Nuroan 
al-Kindi and Amrah, the daughter of Yazid al-Kilnhi. when he tpbuhl 
married Asni3\ he found her suffering from leprosy, so he gave her 
indemnity and sent tier back to her people. A* for "Amrah. she was a new 
convert to Islam. Coming to the Prophet (phuh) she said, "I sect Allah's 
refuge against you." so he said. "AWnh er VncottqutmhJr und Sufficient to £»r 
rff\t$e*. Then he returned her to her people. It was said ihat the one who said 
this was a Kindf woman, a cousin of Asmu'. she daughter of An N^man. 
Some said that the Prophet (phuhi summoned her and she said. "We are a 
people to whom others come and we come to none I" So he sent her bu<:k to 
her people. 

J»l> - 



IBs Quruysh? wives were six: Khadjjah. ^A'ishub, Hafoh, Umm 
Habibah. L'mm Salamah H and Sawdah, 

His fton-Qurnyshi Arab wives were seven: Zaynab, the daughter of 
Jsihsh. Maymunah* Zaynab, Mic daughter of Khuzaymnh, Juwayriyah, 
AsnfuV* and'Amrah, 

The Prophet (pbuh) married only one non-Arab woman who was 
Sufiyyah, the daughter iiuyayy ibn Akhfab from Banu An-Natiir. May Allah 
he pleaMtd with ihem all? 

More Details about the Prophet's Illness 

According to Ihn Ish% Ysfqub ibn Utbah told him from Muhammad 
ibn Muslim az-2uhrT from ' UbayduUah ibif AbdWah ibn HUbah. that " A'ishah 
(may Allah be pleased with her) *aid. The Prophet (phuhj went out diking 
between two men of his family, one of whom was AUFz&l ihn "Abb3s\ 
handing his head in a cloth, and dragging his feel until he entered my 
house." TIbayduilah said that he told this Jjadith tn AbduJiSh ibn Abba* 
who informed bun ihal the other man was *AJi ibn AbT laiib, f A'ishah 
(may AJlah he pleased with her) continued] Then ihe illness overcame the 
Prophe* (pbuh J as he suffered from much pam He said, Vwtrsewu skitts t>f 
wot** from vnriam mils over mc m thm i am $u tmt w me a thr ptopie and ith 
\tma them. - We seated him in s mb talonying to Haf$ah. daughter. of ' Uinar. 
then we poured walcr over him until he said. "Ttwi is enough, m^/j." * 

A*-Zuhri said that AyyDb ihn Bashir told him that me Prophet (pbuh) 
went oiJi handing bis head and sat on the pulpit. The firs* thing he said wa< 
praying much for me men of the Battle of Uhud and asking Allah's 
for^ivene^ for them. Then be said, "Aihth has %i\m tme u/ m* &mm the 
thoia' Iwtwvn mix uwM tuui what ts with Him, ttrtd he has chaiiw wiuir ir 1W//1 
Allah* Abu Bakr realized that the Prophet (pbuh) meant himself with these 
wonk so lie wepi and said, "&u? we ransom you with our selves an J odr 
children. He tpbuhi said, "TttH* it way. Ahti fiukr?" Then he addressed the 
listeners saying, "Ciax? rhwe doon wirich are upm tv the tumour except Aba 
Bttkr*s hiwst ,<u r ptr I kttmv m* twe whi* h ttettvr iit cotnpumnnship to me than him, * 
I . fhn Mnfiain istd. tin jJimhsr VcrMiill <hr f'tttptlcl .qiuih " . tsetptAi^ii BhSsT'i 4i^t,J^ 



mmm m #* ^ -Abdur-R:ituniin ton 'Abdillnb told hun lhai roe 
of die fti* #na ibnd-Mu'atti iold him ihui (he Prophet U>buhi said in 
fife speech on that day, M // / «#i ft* #fc*« « <te/™rf/™« ®if*tt fife &* 

atari Irt JP$ «$ Mink pa&ro «* ing-rfwr jrifflj! Him/ 1 

■AJm> Muhammad ibn JaTar Ibn az-Zubayr told Aa-Zuhrf thai Urwah 
ihnu^Zubayr and other SC^ wk» him thai the PfopllCl ipwill) found thai 
the people had slackened in pining the mission of UsiUuuil ibn Zayd while 
he (pbuh'j was suffering so he went out with his head bound up until he sat 
on the pulpit. The people had denounced the leadership of Usamah. saying, 
"He tthe Prophet) has assigned a junior in command of the Muhajirun and 
the Angar." So after praising and exalting Allah US is Hi. due, the Propyl 
ipbuh) said, V &vphK fulfill ir4*S you htiw p* fftf^ /'" Afc^WtfJ 
t/wuuA V wpcrftfrat for t row Aid tfrw$A ™« d«««*e* *& AudmrAi/r n.s M* 

m to the mmm f/^/^ *$*** |,iwL '' f & &.<**"*$" {******«?.&* a > 

ins father was " 

Then he <pbuh) descended while people imbed to their preparations. The 
Prophet (pfctttrTs pain grew worse, a* -Usfimah ami his army set forth until 
ihev reached Al-Jurf. ten or twelve arms [b farsukhi from Mwlinoh. where 
they piiehed their camps. When the Prophet ( F buK) became *mg$l f* 
UsSmeh Jiitl the iroop& waited there to see what Allah would torce for the 
Prophet tpbuh). 

Az~Zuhr? said thai * Abdullah ibn Kah ibn Mfilik told him that the 

Prophet (phuh) said on ihat day when he asked Allah's forgiveness tor the 

people Of UIiihJ. "9 MtMjirun, frtut 'he Msfo w". fi'r fwplt im:nriu* w/rr/r 

the Amtir nmaui w the* ens without fc«WW. fte_V wwr my privacy and shelter 

to which t 'rtxmfol & <fo gMKi to fftw* Mb 0* tfjbtttft *»*« wdfcitf** tfw* ?/ 

,^ t#> ciwWHf MfflflU*. " Then he lighted and entered his house wnen his 

pain increased until he fainted. Some of fcfc wive* came tocher to him. 

ain^e them were l!mm Salamuh and Maymunah. md some wive* of the 

Muslim!., among them was Asm* 1 . U& daughter of *Umay*. They all came 

when his uncle ' Abbls was with him. They agreed to give him medicine 

At- k Abbas said, "Let trie do il for him." He did it. When the Prophet tpbuh) 

woke up he asked who had treated him ihus. When they told him that n was 

his uncle he said, "This w tt mftlicint whirh tow Mown hwtbwugtofim that 



— — L2*3 



fcwrf - and he pointed lo the direction of Abyssinia - w ,w H - ftuw . Vrttf ihnc 
mZ" Hj s uncle said, "0 Messenger of Allah, we feared that you would gel 
pfcurwy." He answered, That h a ■&*** which Atfah would not ma k* m mffer 
from. Ut ctm' one m she hnuie take this medicine wept «j tmde. " Mavmumih 
was made to take it although she was lasting because of the Prophet's order 
This was a punishment for whai they had done to him. 

Usaniah ibn Zayd reported, "When the illness of the Prophet (pbuhl 
became severe, I and the men relumed to Madinah. Then f went lo the 
Prophet f pbuhl who was silcnu unable to speak. He started raising his, hands 
t» the sky and then bringing it down upon him, so I knew thai he was 
supplicating Allah for him." 

' A'i.shuh (may Allah be pleased with her) said, Tor many lime* ] heard 
the Prophet (pbuhj saying Surely Alhih overtakes the W nfoProphei utth- 
oat tnakmz htm vhttose.* At the point of death, the last words f heard men 
saying wns, Wm, nit her the Higher Companion rf Paradise'. I said (to myself). 
Then, by Allah, he has not chosen ils!' And I knew (the meaning oH that 
which he repeated to us, namely, that a Prophei docs not die without being 
made to choose." 

Abfi Bakr Leads the People in Prayers 

Az-Zuhri said thai Humzoh ibn ^Abdillah ibn 'Uqwr told him that 
A'lshah {may Allah be pleased with her) said, "When the Prophet was 
seriously ill, he said, 'Order AhG Bakr to lead the people in prayers', I said. 
O Prophet Of Allah, Abu Bakr is a delicate mun with a weak voice, and he 
(always Weeps when he recites the Quran!" 'Gnfcr idm to lead the people in 
prayers,* he repealed and I repeated my words as well, f wanted Abu Bakr to 
be spared this tasL because f knew mat the people would never tike a man 
to replace the Prophet tphuh;. and it would have a bad omen for every 
misfortune that might happen." 

1 Abdullah ibn 2am" ah ibn al-Aswad ibn al*Muiialib ibn Asad said, "As 
the Prophet {pbtih) became serionsly ill, I was visiting him with some 
Muslim* when BiJal called him to prayer. He said, 'Order someone m tend the 
pevpte in the prayer: Thiitf, I went out and found *Umar with the people. 



while Abu Bakr was not there. I told Umar [fit gel up and lead them in ihe 
waver, and he did. When he said Atfflm AfeW, the Prophet ipbuh> heard m* 
ytm, for lie had fl sooarous voice, and asked. 'Wfew is m IMf AfWi un* 

jfcp Mirfav nrjfaw ifcrf. /VtoA flwrf ft* MW™ rr J«" *^ So Ab * Biikr was 
summoned and he cumc after Timor had finished thai prayer and Jed ihe 

people in prayer." 

^Abdullah ibn Zum'ah said, "Umar said to me, 'Confound you. what 
have you done to me. son of Zam alt? By Allah, when yon asked me to do 
so, 1 thought thai ihc Prophet (pbuhl had commanded so. and had it not been 
so! 1 would not have led people in the prayer.' 1 replied. By Allah, he did 
not order me to do so, but when J did roll find Abu Bakr (1 asked you to do 
so because] 1 thought thai you were the most rightful among the attendees in 
lead people in the prayer/" 

Ibn Ishaq said trait Aat-Zuhri fold him that Amis ihn Malik said. "When ii 
was Monday on which Allah look His Messenger {pbiilti. he went out to (he 
people while performing the morning prayer. The curtain wits raised, the 
door was opened, and the Prophci (phtih* came out ami stood aL \A 1 ishah*s- 
door. The Muslims were aimosl enraptured in lhetr prayer* for being 
delighted with hi* presence, and he beckoned to them to continue their 
prayers. The Prophel (phuh) cheerfully smiled when he ibimd them aligned 
properly in prayer, and ] never saw him in such a condition ft he was in on 
ihai day. Then he returned, whereas the people tamed away thinking that the 
Prophet (pbuhi had recovered From his diners, AbG Bafcr went out to his 
wife in As-Sunh- 1 ^ 

Ibn Tshaq also said that Muhammad ihn Ibrahim ihn al-iiarith told him 
that Al-Qasim ihn Muhammad said. When the Prophet (pbuhl heard HJmar 
say mg Altfthu Akbar in the prayer, he asked. 'pfefte is Abu Untr! Allah mul the 
Muslims Kjivr that!' Had it not been that v Umar said a statement on his 
death, the Muslims would not have doubted thai the Prophet ipbuh> had 
assigned Abu Bakr to succeed him. Ulnar said when he was dying. If 1 
appoint a accessor, one who is better than me did so (weaning Abu Bakr); 
and if 1 leave them (withoui doing sol nne who is better than me did so 
(meaning the Prophet <pbuh»* Therefore. Ihe people knew that the Prophet 

-■ 

i ,\ |ilm.t lr n-hhch ANi Ei.ikr h-U mww (KHMSflfTO wid **.i?ie he \odpstl *Hh hi* *">■ 



(pbtihi had not designated a successor and 4 Umnf was not suspected of 
being against AbQ Baler."' 

Also, accordmg to Tbn Isfeiq, AbQ Bakr ihn " Abdillah ibn Abi Mulaykah 

(old turn ta when the Monday (on which the Prophet died) earned the 

Prophet (phuhl went out lo perform the monung prayer with his bead 

bonded while Abu Bakr was leading the people fn the prayer. When the 

Prophet (pbuhr appeared the people's jatiexititin was disrupted. Realising 

that the people would not behave tike that unless (he Prophet (pbuh) had 

come. Abu Bakr withdrew from his place to give way ui ihe Prophet i pbuh) 

to lead them in (he prayer but he (phuhi brought htm back ta his place, 

saying 'Uad the peopt, in pr f w." The Prophet (pbuh) sal on the right side 

of AbS Bakr performing ihe prayer m a sitting position. Having ended the 

prayer, he addressed (he people with such a loud voice thai could be heard 

Outside Ihe mosque, "Q f * tip M The Fire i* Ma&d andj*km ilt are coming &b 

me WW oj the thnky night! By Allah, yen can by ffOtt&ig u> my (forge. I have 

surely made lawful nntv nluit the Qur'an tins made Uiwfut and have prohibited tmly 

wftai the Qitr'nn has. prohibited." 

The narrator continued, "When he finished his speech, Abu Bakr said to 
him. "O Pmpbel of Allah. I see that you are becoming better out of ihe eraec 
and bounty of Allah as we wish for. Today is the day of the daughter of 
Kharjali."- 1 Can I go to ha?" Tire Prophet (pbuht gave him permission 10 go 
and Abu Bakr went to As-Sunh where she was." 

Abdullah ihn 'Abbas said that on ihe same day ~Alf ion AbT Talib went 
out to trie people alter being with the Prophet <pbuhK so thev a«.ked him 
how the PrnphcE rpbuh) was doing- "Thanks m Allah He has recovered" he 
replied. AI-'Ahbus- rook him by the hand saying. h O l Alf, I swear by Allah 
IhaE T can tell it is death in the Prophet's face, as I used to see it m (he faces 
of the sons of Ahdul-Murialih. So Jet as go to the Prophet (pbub) In case 
that authority is to be within us. we wiTI know it. and in case it is to be with 
others we will ask him to enjoin the people to treat us well." l Ali said, "Bv 
Allah, 1 will not do so. If ir is refrained from Us. none after him will give it 
co us/ The Prophet iphuhi died when the noon heal, of that day increased 

(. Frta/j iv the plural oifmmlf Li** u up in [ftc jjlusijfy. 

2 He nreaiM his *»c JtebilmlL the daujfbiCT df Khiirijuh ihn ZmJ ui Khft/rgji 

— <5<£> 



-A'ishali fmay Allah be pleased with her) swd. "The Prophet (pbuhj 
relumed from the mystic that Jay and laid (placing his head) in my lap, A 
man of Ahu Bakfs household visited me with a green iiuuh-stick (vmvHj in 
his hand. The Prophet (pbuh) looked at it in such a way thai 1 knew he 
wanted it. so when 1 a^cd him if he would like me to give it 10 him he 
agreed. Thus I look it to chew It for him to snpen ii and g*vc it to turn, He 
brushed his teeth with it mare vigorously tW 1 hud ever seen him brushing 
before. Then he put it down and I found him getting heavier in my lap. 
When I looked into his face, his eyes had become fixed ib he was 
mui-murtng. ~foiy T ttttfar the Highrr Companion of Pumdtw' ' I said. You have 
been given the choice and you have chosen, by Him Who sent yoti with the 
Truthl" 

Then the Prophet iphuh) died. Inn Is^q said that Yahyii ibn K Abadd too 
'Ahdilluh ihn az-Zuhiyr told him that his father totd him that he heard 
A'ishah tmay Allah be pleased with her> saying, "The Prophet (,phuh) died 
on my chest during my turn, I was not unjust to anyone in regard to him. Ii 
was because of my foolishness and young age that when the Prophet (pbuh) 
died, I laid hi* head on a pillow and got op heating my breast with the other 
women and slapping my face." 

Abu Hurayrah said that on the death of the prophet tpbuhh 'Umar 
addressed the people .saying. "Some hypocrites claim that the Ptvphet 
(pbuhj is dead, but by Allah he is not dead; he has gone to his. Lord as 
(Prophet) Musi* ihn "liman went. He rthe latter) stayed away from his 
people lor forty nights and returned to them after it was said that he had 
died By Allah! the Prophet tpbuh* will surely come back as did Mils a and 
will cut off Che hands and feel or those who claimed that the Messenger of 
Allah Iphuh) is dead. H 

Wlwn the news reached Abu Bakr. he went to the gate of the mosque 
while "Ulnar was speaking to the people. He could think of nothing hut 
going to the Prophet ipbuh) who was tying covered by a mantle of Yemeni 
doth in 'A'ishah's house. He uncovered his face and kissed him saying, "I 
ransom you with my Father and mother. This is the death which Allah 
ordained; you have tasied it, and you will never taste death again." He then 
covered the Prophet's face with the mantle again and left. As 'Omar was still 
speaking, he told him. Gently, Omar. Listen." but Umar refused and kepi 



on talking. Wnen Abu Bakr saw that he would not hearken he advanced to 
the people who. hcafimz hrs words, went to him, feaving 'IJjnut After 
ifomfcing and prying Allah, he said. I1 people! Whoever worships 
Muhammad, (should know that) Muhammad is dead, while whoever 
worships Allah, (should rcnicmbci than Allah is tivcr living; never dies." 
Tlam he recited the verse, 

4 Muhammad is no more ifum A Messenger, mid indeed (many I kh.y- 
sengtrA Iwve pawed uwtty before him. ff he dies or fit kiflrd. wilt you 
Then rum batk on your hveti (a$ di&hrtitwrs) ? And he who turns hack 
(»i his hech, not the lemt hrmn mil fur du m Altuh. and Allah will wiy 
reward iff dime utm or? gnttefid. + 

(AJ ^mran: 144) 
The narrator sard that on bearing this verse, it seemed thai ihc people 
had never known mat it had ever been revealed before Abu Bakr reeiied it 
Oil that cUiy. Having beard il from bim T ihe peopk wem on repeating it. Abu 
Hnrayrah said that Umar said, "By Allah, having heard U (the verse) from 
Abu Bakr, I was dumbfounded so that toy leg* would not carry me, so I fcJI 
to the ground, and J realized that the Messenger of Allah {phuh) had indeed 
dead," 

The Affair of the Shed of Banu Sa * idah 

When the Prophet (phuh J died, the Ansari dan of Bond S&'idah 
assembled unwml Sad ibn Uoadah in ibe shed of Banu Sa idah. ^AJi ibn 
Ahi lalib. Az-7aibayr ibnul-'Awwam atidlalhah ibn Ubaytitliah settaded 
themselves in the house of Fatimab, whereas I he other Muhaj iron, joinetJ by 
Usayd ibn HiJilayr with the Banu ' Abdul- Ashhyl >idcd with Abu Baki. 
Somehody went to Abu Bakr and *Umar and said to ihem. "This elan of the 
Ansar are gathering with Sa^d itm -Uhadah m the shed of Band SFidah and 
they side with him. H you arc keen to have authority on the people's affairs, 
then go to stop them before things become serious,^ At (his time, the 
Prophet (pbuh) was stilt unburicd in his house, where his family had locked 
the door of the house, ^Umar stud, 1 said to Abu Bukr. "Let us go to our 
brothers of ihc An^ai io see what they are up to*." 



AbdolJuh ibn Ahhivsaid thai he was waiting fur 'Ahdur-Rahjrnin ibn 
Awf in hi* howc at Mtna while he was with 'Umar in the last pilgrimage 
which Umar performed He used to tenth him wading the Quran. On his 
return, he found Abdullah waiting. Abdur-Rahmflri said to him, "I wish 
you could have seen a mun who came to the Commander of the Believer* 
and said, O Commander of the Believers, wouid you do think or SO and so 
who said. By Allah, if Umar were dead, I would *wcar allegiance to so and 
so. By Allah, ihe fealty given to Abu Bakr was only a hasty slip which was 
ratified. 1 ' 'Umar wns enraged and said. 'If Allah Wilis, t shall deliver u 
speech ronight and warn the people againsi ihose who wuni to usurp power. 
1 *aid to him, 'Do not do 11, O Commander of the Believers, for the 
pilgrimage seaMin brings together the rabble* and the vulgar people; ihey 
will be the majority near to you, I fear lhal when you get up and say what 
you want, that Ibcy will misinterpret iu so wait until you arc in Madman, 
for it is the abode of the Sunnah and you can confer privately with the 
miellcctuaK and the notable* of the people. You can then suy whatever you 
want, lor the intellectuals will grasp what you will say and interpret iL 
correctly. " 'Umar answered, 'By Allah, if He wills, this will be the first thing 
I do when I arrive in Madinah.' ■* 

Ibn 'AbMs comiucd, that they came to Madfnah at the end of 
Dhiit-HijiarL It was Friday when he (lbn "Ahbiis) returned rapidly alter the 
sun had set. Finding Said ibn Zayd ibn l Amr ibn Nufayl silting by a pillar 
of the ptitpit, he sat beside him, knee to knee. hsiamJy, 'Umar appeared, 
and when he saw him approaching, he said to Sa id. "Tonight he is going to 
say something on this pulpit which he has never said since he wa.% given 
rule " Sa'Id asked with denial, "What do you think he is going to say that he 
has never so id before?" * Ulnar was silling on the pulpit, so when the 
mu'udhdhin finished, he praised Allah as He is due and said. 

Today 1 am going 10 left you something which is decreed to me to say 
and it might be my last speech He who undcrsuuulA and heeds it should 
ufce it with him wherever he goes, while he who fears that he will nol 
grasp it. it is not lawful for anyone To quoit? me of ihmg-v which I did not 
say, Allah sent Muhammad and sent down the Book to htm. Among 
things revealed wus the verse concerning stoning t.lhe rmtb&m people 
who commil zitui to death). We read it ami understood it. 'Hie Messeagcr 



al Allah (phuhj stoned < those who weie to be sioned) and we did that af- 
ter him. J fear t\m ihe timt? wifl come when someone will say that ston- 
ing is not mentioned in (be Book of Allah. SO thai people would be mis- 
led Ky neglmriing an obligation which Allah ha> sent down. Verily 
stoning in the Book of Allah is a true penalty for the i««te«n peopte. 
IBCll ;md womtn, who commit adultery, if ifae act evidenced, or ihc 
woman is pregnunf. or confusion is mode. Rid not the Prophci ipbuhi 
say. Dr> >wi /TrHYt- ntf immoderatch ttk '/wl iTvi Afamim iww pruhvd 
htmwdentteiy. hut xa%\ 'the servant oj Ailuh ttnd Hit nte$sw&? "I I have 
Jhsawl that, someone £i§& By Allah, if ' Urnar were dead, I would swear 
allegiance to so and so h . Let no man deceive himself l^y sayirtg that the 
lenity thai was gives to Abu Bakr was vnly a tasty slip which was rat- 
ified" Admitted*!} ii was so, bui Allah preserved in. evilneM, There is 
none among you to whom people would devote themselves as I hey did 
to Abu flnkr. He who give*; fealty 10 a mail wiihmit consultation with the 
Muslims, such fealty is not to be accepted for eijher of them, for some 
may be templed to kill them.'" What happened was ihai when Allah 
rook away HJs Prophe* (phuht, the An-iar opposed as hy av*nnbling with 
their notables in the stad of Banij Su tduh. Ali ihn i\bl Talib. Az- 
ftibayr ibnnl "Awwunx and oilier* lagged behind, whereas the 
Muhajirun congregated to (side with) Abu Bakr. 1 told Abu Bakr Uui we 
should go 10 our brother of the An wit, and while we were on our wiiv 
wu met two pious Ansan tnen who told us what the people had reached. 
When they knew where we were going, they adviicd us (hat ihere was 
no need for that and urged us to make our (iwn dyciijon- I swore by Al- 
lah that we would ro go 10 I hem. When we reached !he vhed of Band 
Sa'idah. a man was wrapped up, silting in the middle -Wc knew ihat lie 
wn* Sad ihn * Ubadah. who was ill. 

When we hod our waL*, their orator (cslified ihaf there is no god bin Al- 
lah and fhaJ Muhammad t* Ihc Messenger of Allah, praised Allah as Hi\ 
due. and then said, *We have been helpers in the cause of Allah and the 
banal ion of Islam You. O Muhajimm are a group among us, ml a 
group of your people have come lo *ellle there;/ And so they w*rc try- 
ing to upmot us 1mm our origin and usurp sjumoruy from us." When he 



I Hcv-jjuu: .it i!*fr JiMitadKtice mid hcrfuriiimn fnmi Ihc Muslim rtunimirniy 



finished, t warned 10 speak, for I had prepaid a speech in "** mmd 
which I Tifced. T wanted to say il before Abfl Bakr. ft* 1 wanted to htlp 
him be soft in doling with the situation, bui Abu Bafcr said, Gemiy, 
■ Umarr ami 1 did not like to make him an gT y. and thu* be *puke. He was 
a man more knowledgeahle mid venerated than rac. and by Allah, he said 
everything I fad ihoujehi of in hi* inimitable *ay of perhaps better Irian I 
could have; done, lb *aid, Tw Have all Ihe good atmbuies that you have 
mentioned about yrasSwIW; Vet die Arabs will acknowledge authority 
only in this clan of the Quraysh. They are the l*st of ih* Amfe m hn^ 
cage and revidenec, I suggest to you one of these two men: dioose ihe arte 
you please.' He loot; hold of toy Irnad and thai of Abu llbaydah ihnul- 
idTfilh. W he was lilting between us- It was the only thing which he said 
that displeased me. Tly Allah, I would rather have proceeded to be be- 
headed - ir mat were no sin - than to rule a pftQpte including Abu Bakr. 

rUmnr continued i One of the Amir said. 'I have a LOtivincm? opinion: 
Let us have one ruler from us and anoint* from among, you, Quraysh". 
Dispute waxed holier, voices were raised uiilll dissension was feared, so 
I said, 'Open you* hand. Aba Bakr. He did so and 1 swore alienee io 
him. The Muhijtrun followed mc and Ifien ihe Ariwir. We jumped to- 
wards Sad ibn 'Ubiidah and someone said lhal we had killed him 1 >aid. 
'Adah has killed him/ 

Az-Zahri said that "Urwiih ibnuz-Zubayr told him that one of the two 
An&ari men whom thev met on their way to Ihe shed were "Lwaym ibn 
sa'idah and Ma n ibn 'Adiyy ibn 'Adiyy, the brother of Banu AK Ajlta. As 
for -Uwaym, it w» lhat Ihe Prophet <phub) was asked about those of whom 
Allah Ihe Almighty said, 4 lit it are mtn mho lave to clean nnA to purify itowi* 
*gfiftf. And Athiit fowl iftwfB wfa make themschw <tmn tinti £#*.$ 
i A>1-TowbaJi: 108.) The Prophet iptiuhl said. "What a go^t mm amm* them 
Vwaym ibn Satdtth fr.'" Concerning Man, as people wept because of the 
Prophet death wishing lhal thev had died before him, as they feared to be 
captured by ftUiah after him. he Said, "But by Allah, I do not !ike to die 
before him. so thai 1 could testify to his Truth wt&n he is dead just as I did 
when he was alive/' Man was killed as a martyr on the day of 
Al-Yamaroah. during the fight againsr Musayhmah the arch-liar, in Abu 
Bakr'H caliphate. 



Az-Zuhri said that Anns ibn M&ik said thai on the day after Aba Bafcrs 
ejection in the shed, Abu Bakr ml on ihc pulpit, while" Umar got up to 
speak helbrc hnn Uler thanking ;inu piaj^rm Allah as His due he caid O 
peopk, yeMerdny 1 miW iJiin^ which I did not find in the Boot of Allan nor 
did the Prophet (pbuJi) omrust them to me. However, ) believed that ihc 
Pmphel ipbuJrV would manage our affairs and he ihe last of us to die. AUah 
hat left aiming you His hook by which He guided His Pmphei ipbiuu If 
you Hnnly adhere to it, Allah will e.uidc yuu as He curded him. Allah has 
pfaced your affairs in the hands of the best one among you, the Companion 
oi the Prophet (pbuh), ^the ffiM$ nf two. when they rMuhammad and Abu 
Bafcr/ wan fa (A# iw* j"J, so gel up and swear allegiance to him/' 

The people swore allegiance to Abu Bakr publicly after the allegiance 
thai look place in the shed the day before that Abu Bakr said after praising Allah. 

"O people' 1 have been given amhority over you but 1 «m not (he best of 
you. If 1 ds> weij, he?p roe. and if 1 do wrong, then correct m*j Trunh- 
Tulncsi is in Jioncsly ajid falsehood is in treachery, The wetik person 
among you is sirong iu my eye* until I report him his right if Allah 
wilK and Ihe sirong person among you is weak in my eyes until 1 taU* 
the right from him. No people withhold from jjhid in The way of Albh 
Ihie AUiih sinkes them wall humiliation. Whenever obscenity prevails 
among a people. Allah overwhelms them with affliction. Obey me as 
tone, as I obey Allah and His Mc^engcr. ami rn ease thai I disobey Allah 
and His Messenger you owe me no obedience. Rise to your prayer. May 
Allah have mercy tin you." 

ibn ' Abbas narrated that he was walking alone with *Umw when he was 
a caliph who directed to a business of his. He hud a whip in he> hand, with 
whlph he swished the vide of his tegs as he tutted to himself. Then he turned 
to Ibn Abbas say inc. "O Ibn 'Abbas, do you know what drove me to say 
the words [ said when the Messenger (pbuh} had died?"' He answered. "1 do 
not know, O Commander of the Believers." 'Omar said, "It was because 1 
used to rec he this verse. 

i Wins HV haw matte urn {true Muslims - mat believers of Islamic Mm* 
atheism, true followers of Pmpfun Muhumtmul and hix Sutrnak (legtit 
I. Qitfra At*Twhrti:-.4a 



way>\}] t a Wasat {just} {and the best) nation, rtuu vtm he witnesses owr 
murikhul tmd the Messenger (Mnhamnwd) be a witness awryvu, f 

LAI-Buqarah: 143) 

("Umax continued,) By Allah I (houghf that the Prophet (pbuhl would 
remain arming his nation umil lie cuukf witness over it as to the last thing 
people did That was what drove me to say what I said." 

The Prophet's Burial 

[bn Ishaq said thai after allegiance had been sworn to Abii Bakr. on 
Tuesday, people -varied preparing the Prophet (pbuh) for burial. " AliduLlah 
ibn Abi Bakr, !&$# inn Abdiliah. and others (old !bn ishaq (hat All ibn 
Abi Talib. AK Abbas ibn "Abdel-MuiiahK Al-Fadl ibnul-'Abbfe. Quiham 
ibnuKAbbjis. Usamah ibn Zayd and SJiuqrim, the mawitj of the Messenger 
of Allah I ninth), were those who washed him <pbuh>. They also told him 
thai Aw* ibn Khawl1 + one of Banu ' Awf ibnui-KJiazraj, said to ■ Aliibn Ah! 
Talib, 'I implore you by Allah, O " Ah, and by our portion in the Messenger 
of Allah (phuh J (to let me enter and see him J." Aws was one of ihe Prophet's 
Companions who witnessed the day o) Badr. 'All permitted him lo enicr. 
and he attended the washing ol the Prophet tpbuh) All rested him on his 
chest, while AKAhhas, Al-FaoU. and Qutham turned him over along with 
him. Usamah ihn Zayd and Shuqran poured water over him, a* * All washed 
him. having his *hirt on him likewise not touching the Prophets body with 
his hand. Meanwhile Al? said, "I ransom you wilh my lather and my 
mother, how good you are alive and dead! 4 ' 

Nolhing was seen of the Propter from that which is usually seen of 
ordinary corpses. 'A'ishah (may Allah be pleased wilh her) said. "When 
they intended lo wash the Prophet <pbuh). they differed- They did not know 
whether to strip him of his clothes as they usually did with their dead or to 
wash him wilh his clothes on. As Ihey disputed, Allah east a deep sleep 
upon them all so that every mans chin was sunk on Jits chest Then an 
unknown voice was heard from the direction of the Kabbah, raying, c Wash 
the Prophet iphuh.t with his clothe* on/ So Ihey woke up and went to the 
Prophet <pbuh) and washed him with his shin on, pouring water on the shirt, 
and rubbing him with the shirt between him and mem/' 



Ibn k\&q said thai when the Prophet fpbuhj had been washed lie was 
shrouded in three cloths, two of $#W U producing and a striped sheath 
wrapped the one over me other. 

Ibn *Abb&s said, "Aba 'Ubaydah ibrtuI-JmryJi used to dig tombs for the 
people of Makkah, while AbQ laJhah ZiiytS ibn Sahl used to make graves for 
the people of Madman Willi a nidie m (he side of t!ie grave. When they 
wauled lo bun* (he Prophet (phuh). AK Abbas dispatched jwo men. one lo 
Abu "Ubaydah and the other to Abu laujuh, AI-"Abbis supplicated, M Q 
Allah, choose for the Messenger of Allah/ - The one who was sen: to Aha 
Talhah found htm. so hi! dag u grave with a niche Tor (he Prophet iphuh). 
When all arrangements for burial had been finished on Tuesday, he (phuh) 
win Jajd upon his bed in his house. The Muslims had disagreed over die 
place of burial. Some favored burying him in his mosque, while others 
thoughl to hury hmi with his Companions. AbD Bakr said, "I heard the 
Messenger oi Allah ipbuh \ raying, W» prophet Aes bm is buried in tfo ptacs 
whvrv he hax died. So the bud on wlitch he died was drawn away and ihey 
made a gmve under ft. Then the people entered to the Prophet ipbuhl to 
offer (the funeral) prayer over him in groups: ths men were the first, 
followed by the women, and then the youngsters. No one led the prayer; 
over the Prophet (phuh). He was baned in the middle of Wednesday night." 

'A'Jshah (mny Allah be pleased with her) said thai they knew nothing 
ahout the burial of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) until they had heard the 
sound of pickaxes in the middle of Wednesday night. Those who went down 
into the grave were All ibn Abi IaJib, Al-frujl ibn Abbas, Qutham ibn 
Abbas, and Shuqran, the Prophet s mawtu. Aws ibn KhawH implored 'All 
by Allah and his portion in the Prophet (phuh) to allow him descend. 'AJi 
allowed him T so he descended with the others. When ihe Prophet fphuh) was 
placed in his grave covered with earth, bis *>«mto. Shuqran, look a piece of 
velvet, winch ihe Proplwi ipbuh] used to take as a garment and something to 
sil or steep on. and buried it in me grave saying. "By AJJah, none will ever 
wear it after you". Thus it was buried with the Prophet fpbuh). 

Ai-MughTnih ibn Shu* hah used to say that lie was the Ust one to be with 
the Prophet fpbuh). He said. "I deliberately threw my ring into the grave and 
said thai my ring has diopped. I did so in order that 1 might touch me 

J \ pl.ior in Ywiwjk and some uid n a I'lfifin. 



Prophet <phuh> and be the last one with him." Miqsam Abul-Quaim. a 
irttfwtd of 'Ahdulliih ihnul-Harilh ibn Nawfal related that the latter said, "I 
went to perform Ummh with "Ah* ihn AbT limb during the caliphate of 
'Umar. or Bihman, and he wem to his sister L'mm H0ni\ the daughter of 
A hit Xabb. When he fin i she d his "UmtvK water was poured out for him to 
wash hitii^cIT- When he finished, a band of tram's came in saying that ilicy 
had come to investigate a malter about which they would like him to give 
some information. He said, I suppose that Al-Mughlrah ibn Shu" bah has 
told you that he was the last one to be with the Prophet fphuh}?' When they 
said that it was so, he said, 'The last one to be with the Prophet I pbuh J wus 
Quiham ibn Al- Abbas." 

% UbayduNah ibn "Ahdillah ibn 'Ulbah reported that * Aishah (may Allah 
he pleased with her) said to him, "The Proplicl ipbuhj donned a black cloak 
when he was seriously ill. He would put it on and off his face, saying. *Mity 
Allah's rurir he on the peapte wfo* fake fht $mvvs of their Pwpheis at masques," 
warning his nation from such a practice. 

Also according to 'A'tduih tmay Allah be pleased with her), the hist 
wg*ds that the Prophet (pbuh I enjoined were. "TVta twoteligms are ia be teft 
(altogether \ in the Arabian Pemtixufo" Ibn Ishaq said that on (he Prophet's 
death, the Muslims were severely distressed. "A'ishah {may Allah be 
pleased with her) said, "When the Prophet (pbuh* died, {many of) dtc Arabs 
apostatized, Chris ti an iiy and Judaism raised their heads, hypocrisy emerged. 
and the Muslim* became like raincd-shecp on a wintry night for losing their 
Prophet tpbuhl. until Allah gathered tbem through Abu Bakr, 

Ibn Hisham said that, according in AbQ 'Ubayduh and other scholars, 
when the Prophet j pbuh J died, most of the people of Makkah were about to 
retreat from Mam to ihe extent that *Atiab ibn Asid ( " feared them, so be 
concealed himself. Suhayl ibn ^Amr came and delivered a speech. After 
praising AUah, he mentioned the death of the Prophet tphuh> and said. That 
will only add 10 the power of Islam, Whosoever retreats from isUm we will 
behead him: 4 Thereupon the people changed their minds over what they had 
intended to do and Atulb appeared again. This is the attitude which the 
Prophet (pbuh J meant when he said to "LJmar, "It may be that he will have 
an attitude which you will net dispraise". 

1 tic ww the yu \ei net of M jttnlt unL I [ the Ptpptiel* rftnuh. 

St 



the Abridgment of the* Simh of the 
Prophet (phuh). written by thn fTisham. 
was finished on Thursday nigfci, the 
teg inning of RamadfiTk 1 383 AH. 

Praise be to Allah wHJi WLwsc Bounty 
righteous works can be accomplished! 



~&Atitt*.&il6*n Af. -tt£w* 



1- Biographical Names 



Afcmar ibmjt -HarUh ibn M&lik 227 

Ahmar. or lifraymir {from Banu 
Ai-Mu&aliq) *« 9 

Atiahir and Ai-Tayyib (Prophcl 
Muhammad's saris) 2S 

Aban tbn Said ibmil-* A*2Q2 

Abu laiib tbn *Abdd-MuUaiib 15, 
24-26. 40, 43. 44, 56, 63, 
69.71,77,79 

Abu " Amir a i- Ash* an 23 J 

AbA'Amrminil-Wa'ilL J67 

Abu Imarah iHamziih ibn 
Abdc1~MuUalibj4S 

Abu "Ubaydah {Muatnmar 
ihrtul-Mvirhunna) 212. 2*>5 

Abfi *LTba>(lah ibrtul-Jarraii 41, 
112. 212, 29K 294 

Abu A Km ad = " Abd ibn Jafash 

Abu Ayyub al-Aniari= Khalid ibn 
Zayd 

AbO Bakr {Ibn AbT Qubafcih) 41, 
47. 54, 55, 60, 64. 73, 74; 93, 94, 

96-99, LOI. H2, 114, 126, 132, 
148, 159, !6t. 192, l*H%. 20 J, 
205. 208. 217, 2 1 H. 231. 234. 249, 
250, 262, 27S, 2*2, 2g3-293. 295 



AbuBakraM-ladhli272 

AbG Bakr ibiVAbdullah ibn AW 
Mulaykah 286 

AbCi Bamah aJ'Asianiji23 

Atxl Dharr al-GhifM 112, 164, 2t9, 
245.246 

Afeii Huravrah 149. 269.287, 2KB 

Abu Jithl, "Amr ibn Hisham 47. 48. 
50, 52, 53. 55,61,62,65. 68. 
70-72, 7g, 95, 9H. 119. 124. 
12Q H 131, 133,134 

Abfi JundaJ ibn Suhayl ibn 'Amr 
204 + 205 

Abu Kabshah fPropheL 

Muhammad's niawla) 126 

Ah6 Khityihamuh 243, 244 

Abu Lahfib, " Abdul-" Uzza ibn 
Abdcl-Muiiatib 15, 45, 63,64, 
69,82,125 

Abu Lubiibah ibn 'AbdeJ-Mundhir 
126. 177 

Abfl Musa ni-Ash* an 210. 231 

AbQ Mihjan ath-Tlukjafi 236 

Abft Mulayh. ibn ~Urwsh 251 

Abu Muwaybibah I Prophet 



MuJiammad's mawljl) 277 
Abft QuWaf, *Uthman (Abu 
Biikrsfamer)4l,55, 222 

Abu MTi (The Prophets ma wis i 
2J6 

Abu Righat 12 

Abu Ruhrn ibn "AbcteI-~Uz2a 280 

AbQ Ruwayhah 112 

Abu Sa d ibn Abllal^fi 145 

Abu Sabrali ibn Abi Ruhm 56 

Akti Salamah ibn "Abtld-Asad 56, 
69. 279 

AbQ Salamah ibn 'Abder-Rahniiin 
107 

Abu Sinai* al-Asadi 203 

Abu Sinfin ibn Mihsim ihn Uurthin 
184 

Abu Sulyun ibn Harb. Abu 
Hunzaiah 50, 7g, 123. 126, 
128, 129, 137, 138. 14*). 141. 
144, 146, 150, ]54. 157. 158. 
166. m, 173. 174, 202,216. 
217. 2 19-22 L 225. 229. 23o. 
230, 25a 25 J 

Abft Sufyan ibnuf-Jdaritb 219, 230 

Ahii IJniayyah ibnul-Mughirah29 

AbA Wahb ibn ~Amr fbn *A*idh 29 

Abmhah al- A shram 1 1 -14 

Abud-DardiV 112 

AbuJ-'Asibnur-Rabr 135-137 



AbuL-BiikhiarT ibn l-lisham 50, 7f). 
71.129.133 

AbuJ-Fadl (AKAhbas ibn 
'AbdekMutlalib) 220. 221 

Abul*Havtham ibn at-Tayyahan 
84, 87 

AbuJ-Qasim (a nickname of 
Prophci Muiianimati-) 37. 47, 
161.176 

Adharihn Ismii'ti 4 
Adhbal ibn Lsm311 4 

Ahmad (ano)hcr name of Prophei 
Mufpmmad) 21 

Al-Jjarith il>n harb ibn Umavyah 
88 

Al-ijarith ibn 'Amir ibn Nawfal 
129 

AJMiarim ibn Abd Kilal 262, 263 

Al-Hanth ibn l Ah<l Qaw ibn Laqii 
211 

AJ-tffirith ibn Atxtel-Munalib 15, 
16 

Al-Humh ibn Awf ibn Abi 
Hnrilhah aMVIurrT L6S, 170 

Al-Hari<h ibn AbJBirar 187,280 

Al^ar ilh ton Abi Shamir 235 

Al-Hamh ibn Fihr 15 

AI-Harith ihn Hi shim 

ibnel-Mughfrah 14 1 , 225 

Al-H£riihlbnKaladah234 



Al-Hariih ibn Khalid ibn Sakhr 



Al^Hfirilh ibn Malik 228 

Al-Harith ibn Rub*u (AbO 
QmSdalDl&fi. 230.231 

Al-Jprith Jbn Zam'ah 135 

At-Mini^ ibnus-jiiminah 14^ 159 

AI-Kttrilh ibnuT^tl^th ibn 
Kabdnh 236 

Al^Habbiib ibn Yaxtd 253 

AJ-Habbab ibnul-Mundhir 130 

Al-Hakam ibn ~Amr ibn Wahb 249 

A\~ti,akam ibn Abel-* A& 69 

AJUakamibn Knysfin 121-123 

Al-Husan al-Batfri 73, 183, 256 

Al-Haysuman ibn * AhduIL&li 1 35 

AtHu^yn ibn 'Ahdur'RuijM&n 
lbncl-tia(|rajTil= * Amr 149 

Al-Hutays ibn Zabb&n (Ibn 
WUliimatO 150,201 

AHluwaymli ibn Nuqaydh 223. 

Al-*A&f ibn Hisham 

ibnil-Mughirah 50 

Al- 1 Atf tbn Wa'il as-Sahmi 64. 68. 
125 

AKAbb&i ibn " Abdcl-Muiialib 15, 
40.78,86, 124. 133,212.219, 
221, 229, 261, 270, 280. 283. 
286, 293. 294 



A]-* Air ibn Jftrivali aili-Tb.au.an 
236 

AKAla'ibnul-lMrdmiatfi 

Al*Ajda" ibn Malik 260 

Al-Akknas ibn Shurayq 

Ath-Tbaqafi 66 

Al-Aqra" ibn JJubis lii-TantiruI 
235, 236, 253 

Al-Arqam ibn Abel-Arq;im 41 

A J- Ash" all 1 ibn Qays 261 

Al-Aswad ibn Abdcl-Asitd 
al-Maklmimi 132 

A U As wad ibn Ka'b aK AnsT 269 

Al-Aswad ibn Mafgud 12 

Al-Aswmi ibn Matud ihrt 
Mu"mub25l 

Al-A,swul ibn NawfaL ibn 
Khuway1id2H> 

At-A^wad ibn Ra/n 215 

Al-Aswttd ibnul-Mutialib ibn Asad 
50,67. 135 

Al-Baklribn l AbdYalil42 
AKBanTibn'Azib 143 
Al-Batfi* ibn Ma'rur B5-88 

Al-Buka*i fthe teacher of Ibn 
Hi shim J 3 

Al-Fanah, ihe daughter of 'Uqayf 
234 

Al-Ghank ibnuI-Mundhir jbn 



an-Nif man ibn al-Mumlhir 256 

AI-HGn ibn Khirayiuoh 15 

AI-lrishiVl.TI 

Al-Jariid ihn Amr ibn Hanajifr 256 

Ai-Jndd thn Qays 203, 241 

Al-Khayab T "Llmur tbn Kaial (ihc 
father of 'Urnar Lbmil-Khatrab) 
220 

Al Miqdad ibn *Amr 127, 185 

Al-MuuaJth ibn ilanrab 137 

Al-Mutinhb ihn ' Abd ManOJ' 15 

Al-Mu&dih ibn Ar.har42 

Al-Mtifim ibn "Adiyv 44. 70 t 71 

Al~Mu»m7ah ihn ' Abdullah ibn 
'Umar ibn MakhzOm 201. 249, 
251. 2K 295 

Al-Muhfljir ibn Abf Umayyah 
tonnl-Mu^hirah 269 

Al-Muiulhir ibn Amt 88, JO], 
ij% 159,160 

Al Miimlhii ihn MtihummaJ 

Al^Mundhif ibn Sawfi Al-'Abdi 
273 

Al-Muquwqis ohe king af 
Alexandria! 273 

Al-Muqawwim ibn 

"Abdel-MuiialibLS 

Al-Qlsim ibn Muhammad 285 

At-QSsim. Ibrahim (Prophet 



Muhammad* son) 38 

AKWaiid ibn Urbah ibn Rabi'iih 
124, 132 

Al-WaJid ibfiuI-MughiKih 2% 45, 
50, 66-6»J 

Ammah, the daughter of Ktoiliif 
ibn As'iul 42, 210 

Amah, the daughter of Jth&lid ibn 
Sa*ldihncKAi2fr» 

*Amir ibn Abi Wnqq&\ 21 1 
Anli 13 

Anas ibn M&lik 206. 209, 247, 292 
Anusiih |Thc Prophet's ninwlii) (36 
Anniar ibnNi&Lr 15 

An-Nfibighali a<!h-Dhnbyani 94 
An-Nadr ibn Kmanah 3, 15, 26 J 

An-Nadr ibnul-Haiitb 50. 53, 65. 
129,134. 135 

An-Nahdiyynh 5^ 

An-Nif mfln ibnuJ-Mundliir 235 

Arbad ibn Qays 254, 255 

ArfafchKhadb ibn Sam 3 

Anva, the daughter of 
Abdul-Mualib 15 

Aryat 1 1 

As ad ibn ZurSrah 84 

Asad ibn Fihr 15 

Asad ibn Khuzaymah J 5 



Asadah ibn Khuz&ymah 15 

A^h/ar ibn Nahi ibn Udud 4 

Asfa-Shaymfi'. the daughter of 
.AJ-yarjiJt ibn 'AbdeU'Uaui 
232 

A*ma\ the daughter of "Umays 
ai~Khathami42.210.283 

Asm A 1 , the daughter of Abu Bakr 
42, 96-98. 222 

Mma\ the daughter of An-Nu man 
ai-Kanadr2«T.2S2 

Asma". ilie daughter of Salainah 42 

AiS-Sfi'ib ibn "Litbman ibn Maz'un 
42 

As-Saltfan ibn ' Aim 279 

AH lib ibn Asia 1 (tin And-* Ay* 225. 
228, 2 38, 295 

Awhar 186 

AwsihtiH^ijar 100 

Aws ibn " Awf 249 

Aw* ibn Khawlt 293. 294 

AwsibnQayzTt70. fHl 

Aws ibn Thftbit ihncl-Mundhir 1 12 

Aj7UbibnAbd«:r-RMliman 179 

AyyQb ibn Bashvr 2*2 

Az-2ibnqan ibn Budr at-Tamimi 
253, 254. 269 

Az-Zubayr ibn Abdd-Wuitaiib 15 

Ai-Zubayr ibnul-^ AvvwOm 4 1 . 56, 



59, 128, 146. 148, 152. 155, 
20S. 218, 288. 290 

Adam { peace be upnn him I 16, 75, 
224 

Aminah, ilic daughter of Wahb 16. 
20. 24 

A?h1t3 

" Asim ibn * If mar ibn Qutadah 240. 
241 

'Asim ibti Thabit 135. 146. 156. 



^A'ishah (Prophet Muhammad's 
wife) 35. 42, 96. 179. 190. 
193-195. 2JS, 277. 278, 282, 
284, 2S5, 287, 293-295 

■Amir ibn Funny rah 42. 55, 97, 98. 
H4, 159. 160 

"Amir ibn Lu'ayy 15 

^Amir ibn Malik ibn Ja'tar 159, 
1 5ft 

'Amir ibn Rabi'ah, Abil Salamah 

42, 56. 9} 

*Amir ihnui-lufay! (Abfl Bai#) 
159,254,255 

* Amir tbrtul-Haiiraml 131, 1 32 

"Amir ibaul'Biiklr 42 

"Aqinbnul'Bakir42 

Ahkaru tlie daughter of 
'AbduI'Miilialib 15. 70. (24* 
125 



'Istl ibn Mary am (peace be upt>n 
him) 10,23, 31.59,72-74,76, 
272, 27?, 290 

'Auyyahul-Qurazj 179 

'Ahayah ibn Malik 213 

'Ahb&J ibn BUhi ibn Waqsh [85, 

187 

'AbbtLs ibn *Ubadah ibn Nadlah 
101 

'Abba* ibn Minias 235, 237 

"Abci ibn JahsJi, AM Ahmad 42, 

£& 297 

^Abd ManiU ibn Qu&iyy 3. 15 

*Afod Manah ibn Kmfinah 15 

\Ahd Quiiiyy ibn Qusayy 15 

^Abd Shams ibn Abd MajiaTiAbu 
Lababi 15 

' AbJ Yalll ibn Amr 78. 249 

'Alxhid-Dfu-ibnQuaayy t5 

' Abdul-" Wr/fr ibn Qusayy [5 

"Abdullah I [lie paicrnnJ cousin of 
Juwayriyah) 280 

4 Abdullah ibn Eudhafah 272 

-Ahdullahibnlanq156 

Abdullah ibn Abbiis 54, 56. 78. 
94. 133, 151. 158, 211, 226. 
282, 286, 28<), 292, 294 

Abdullah jbn ^abdd-AsacI (AM 
Sunimahi 41. 56. 93.279 



"Abdullah ibn Abdcl-Muualib !5, 
19.20 

Abdullah ibn -Abdulhlh ibn 
Ubayy \U 

^ Abdullah ibn Amr al-Muzn! 242 

Abdullah rbn "Amr ibn Hizam 5(6. 
142 

'Abdullah ibn ' Anir ibnd- l A,i46 

v Abdullah ibn ' Ailq ibn 'Abid 278 

"Abdullah ihn ^Unw 

ibniii KliaUiiU 143 

"Abdullah ibn AbT Hati-ad 22S 

" Abdullah ibn Abi laiJiah 230 

"AbdulMh ibn Abi Bakr 97, 136, 
162, 202. 222, 230, 241, 264, 
293 

"Abdullah ibn Abi Rabi"ah 57. 59. 
m, 141 

"Abdullah ibn Arqai97. 100 

^Abdullah ibn Abf Umavyah 
jbnul MugbTrah 50. 52, 219 * 

Abdullah ibn Ibn Ubayy ibn Sal 01 
139. 142, 155, 161, 163. 178. 
187-189,243 

'Abdullah ibn Jahsh 42, 93, 121, 
122, 152 

'Abdullah ibn hf far ibn Abf XuJib 
210 

"Abdullah jbn Jubayr 143 

l Alxhil)ahibnJud'an47 



Abdullah ibn JCu'b ibn "Amr 83, 
134 

Abdullah Jbn Ka v b ibn Malik 283 

Abdullah ibn Khaial 223 

'AbthdIuliibnMaz'un41 

Abdullah ibn Mas^id 42, fif), 72. 
134,246 

^Abdullah ibn Qumd Az-Ziyadi 
266 

Abdullah ibn Rawiihjifi 10 L 132. 
134,166. 170,213,2*4 

^AbduIlfihitinSu-d223 

•Abdullah ibn ShihSh Az-Zuhri 
147 

'Abdullah ihn Suhayl 205 

Abdullah ihn Tha'labah 152 

'Abdullah ibu ZanTafa284. 285 

'Abdullah ihn Zjiyii ibn Thalabah 
113,264 

"Abdullah ibnul-Hamh ibn Nawfal 
295 

Abdullah ibnul-MughulTal 242 

" Abdullah ihmith-Thftmir 10 

* Abdullah jhnui-Zib'ari 239 

'Abdul-Malik ibn Abdullah 
Ath-Thaqa.fi 7 1 

"Abdul- Malik ibn 'UbuyduHah 35 

m Abdui-Muii3tib ibn Ha shim ihn 
■AtMlMan3r3 f 12-21.24 



'Abdurrahman ibn *Awf 41. 56, 
112. 126. 189. 205. 2«9 

"Abdurrahman ibn *Uwavmif ibn 
Sa'idah 100 

^Abdurrahman ibn Ka*b242 

s Adiyy ibn Hatim 257-259. 269 

*AdiyyibnHani^69 

\Adiyy ibn Abi az-Zaghha" 126, 

"Adiyv ibn Ka'b 15 

"Akk ibn "Ad nan 4 

'All ibn AbT I^lib 30. 40. 60, 
34-97,101, 112, 126, 128, 132, 
135. 145, 148, 150. 161, 172. 
175, 184, 189. 193. 203, 205, 
20S, 217, 218, 224. 225, 230, 
243, 258, 269, 2ft2, 286. 288. 
290. 293-295 

'Ammaribn Yasir42,55. 112 

' Amr ibn Hazm 143, 266. 267 

" Amr ibn Humairi sbnuI-JamQli 242 

"Amr ihn Tdiah 7 

"Amr ibn "Abd Wudd 129. 171, 
172. 184 

'Amr ibn "Abdullah ad-fiibab? 266 

Amr ibn 'Abdullah al-Juinatii 
137. 155 

*Amr ibn"Unrtayi'66 

Amr ibn Jihash ibn Kah 161 

'Amr ibn Khuwaylid 278 



Arm ibn Mad Yukrih 260, 26 J 

, Amfibn$aiim2]6 

'AmribnSa'idibriuKAsi 210 

VAmribn Thnbir 14^ 

'AmribnTubanAjrad9. if) 

"Amr ibn Umayyah ad-Barnri 160. 
2JO. 21L273 

"Amr ibn Umayyah ibn Wahh 233 

" Amr ibn If mm Maktitm 126 

Amr ihnui-fMrumt E 2 1 , 1 25, 1 3 1 

Amr ibnul-'Ai 57. 59, GO. 123, 
141,273 

" Amr i bnul- Ahram 253. 254 

" Ami - ilmul-Jamuh 149 

'Amrah, the tbiujihlur of 
*Aiqamahl46 

"Amfah, the liaughier of Yazid 
2SI.282 

"Ad nan ibn Udad3, 4 
AriiHAb&Yasarjtta 
AlsWuh i Abuliah'-i skive) J I 

'Awfibn Lu'siyy 15 

* Awflbnul-HMm 132 

"Awnbnur-Riibi'231 
Aybat ibn ShSIakh 3 

"Avian ibn Mu&ir 15 

' Ayy5fvb ibn Abf Rabrah J2, 93 

Biidtyuh, iht; daughter of Ghnyian 



234 

BOIik 273 

BaJjiFS the monk 25, 2ft 

Burfavl ibn Warq& al-KJiuza I 20Q, 
216.217,219 

Barrah, the daughter of 
AhduVUzza 16 

Rurriih. tile daughter . -i 
"Afotlul-Muyatib and the 
mother of Abu 5 n I amah 15, 69 

Barzah, the daughter of Masud 
alh-Thaqafi 141 

Basbas ibn 'Amr al-Juham 126, 
129 

Buyhanih ibn Firiis H2 

Bijad 232 

Bilul ibn Rabab (the mawid of Abu 
Bakr) 45, 112-114, 165, 209, 
210.205. 2S4 

Bisbr ibn Sufiyun ai-Ka'bi 199, 
200 

Blshr ibnuUBara ibn Ma*rur209 

Buirus I he disciple 273 

Bujoyr ibn Zuhnvr ibn Abf 5 alma 
234, 239 

Burayrah Uhc ma^ilth of 'A'lihubf 

Caesar, (he Roman King If). I!. 
170,202.272 

PiTis al-Khazraji 161 



Daws Dhu ThiTiLihan 10.11 
DhuNaiar 12. 13 
Dlifl Ru'ayn al-Hitiiyari 9 
Dhfl Yazan 6 

Dhu'ayb fonul-Aswad ibn Razan 
215 

Difcyah ibn KMTfah al-Kalbi 207, 
272 

DimS ibn IsituTiI 4 

Durayd ibnns-&imrnah 226, 227 

Qamyain ibn *Amr nl-Ghifuri 123, 
124 

Oiriir ibn " Abdd-Muttaflli 15 

Oirur ibnul-Khatnib 171 

f-'alimah I Prophet MuhjimmacTa 
daughter) 28. 217.224 

Faiimah. Hit- daughter of 
Al-KhiiU.ab42,6(l61 

Faiimah. the daughter gf 
Al-Mujulla} 42 

p'atimuli, the daughter of Al-Walid 
ibnui-Mugbmih 141 

Halukhihn'Aybar3 

Fartuna (a female singer) 223 

Fanvah ibn * Amr 10 i 

Farwah ibn Mu&iyk aJ-Muradi 
260,261 

FihrtbnMfilik 15 

Fu£lulahJbn , Umayr226 



Fukayhah, the daughter itf Yas&r 

■12 

Furat ibn Hayyin 140 

GhtilibirmFihr5 ¥ 15 

G hay I an ibn Sahimuh 233 

HMn ibn 'Imrau (peace be upon 
hira) 76, 243 

Hafitml ibn "Abdullah 242 

Hawdhahtbn'Alf'273 

Hawdhah ibn Qays AJ-W3"ili 167 

Herac litis 213 

1-ljLOl ibn Umayyah 243 

Hind, ihe daughter or 'Uibnh 141, 
144. I4&. L50.221 

Hjnd, the daughter of AH Halah 



mshamibn£ubabuhtS7, 189 
Hashim ibn " Abd Manaf 3, IS 
HishimibirAnw70.7l,237 

Hisham m 'iH l^°. 308 

Khiliid ibmil-Watid 143. 190. 214, 
232, 246, 247, 25*. 264-266 

Hu&uysibn Kifb 15 

Hubayrah ibn AhT'Wahb 17 L 224. 
239 

Kudhayl ibn Mudrikali 15 

HunQiah iit-Hiniyarl 12. 13 

IJaiih ibn AW Bulla' ah 112. 2 Ik, 

2^3 



Hiltili ibnuI-Kanth 42 

Halim al-jai 25U 

Haiibibn "ArriT42 

HuMb ibn ' Amr ihrTUmayr 79 

llabih ibn 4 Ltyaynah ibn Misn I K6 

BubThibnTanOl 

Hafsah. the daughter of Ulnar 
ibnuJ-Khauab27K, 279, 282 

liajl ibn^Abdcl-Mtmalib 15 

H^Kim ibn ID^am ibn Kbuwaylid 
4JJ29-L3I, 219,236 

Hafiniiih. the daughter of Abu 
Dhu'ayb 2 ] -23 

Kamnuh, the daughter of Jahsh 
152, 193. 194 

Hamzdh ibn Abdcl-Muiialib 15, 
28.47,4ti,60,62,77 T H2, 119, 
m 132, 144. 145, ISO, 
151-153 

Bamzah ibn "Abdullah ibn Tmar 
2S4 

Jlan£aJyh ibn A hi "Amir \4b 

iiaramibn Milhan 159 

JIarb ibn Umayyah 27 

Jjasan ibn " All ibn Abl Xalib 2 J 7 

Hassan ibn Thabii al-An&irl 21, 
Uk 172. 194, 195. 215, 22b, 
i54 

Hassiin ibn Tuban As ad 7, 9, 10 



Hassan, !he brother of Ukuydir 
Mmah 247 

Mudhayiah ibnul-YurDin 112. 174, 



Mujayr ibn Abi lh3b 1 57 

Busavil ibn Abdullah 293 

Huwayjib ibti * Abdul -"Uzza 212, 
236 

Hityayy ibn Akh]ab an-Nadrt 138, 
161,167.169.170176,179 

AbO Hudhaynih ibn "Urban ibn 
Rabl ah 42, 56. 112, 133 

IbnAzharl20 

Ihn Liiqaym al-' Atwf 210 

Ibn Qami'ah aJ-Laylhi 145, 147, 
150 

Ibn Thai ma' 274 

Ibn Ukayniah aJ-UytM 247 

Ibn YSmTn ibn *Umayr242 

Ibnul-Asda 1 al-Hadhli 69 

IbnuJ-AkwiT . Salamah ibn "Amr 
185 

Ibrahim Lpcucebc upim him> 8, 13. 
23,29,72-74.76, 167.225 

Ibfilbim ibn MuJiummud ibn 'Ali 
ibn Abi Tafib 30 

I dm (peace be upon him) 3 

Indri'is 273 

Ira m ibn Dili Yazan 5 



Isiindiyar 53* 65 

bmailfan Angel) 74 

Ismail, the son of IbrShim {peace 
be wpnn bofh of Them) 3. 4, 17, 
252 

IvadibnMo'adtU 

has ttmul-Baktr 42 

Ikrimah ihn Abi JuM J4I T 143, 
171-173,223 

"Imarah ibn Yazid 147 
Mmiiruh ibnul-Walid 44 
~libii& ibn Silnyah 242 
Siban Jt>n MiUik UH. i12 
Uylldli ibtiul''Julanda273 

JuTur ihn Abi Iaiib 4f>, 42. 56, 58, 
59. 1 12.210,212-215 

Jabakti ibnul-Hanbul 229 

Jabbar ibn Sauna" 254 

Jabjah ibn Mt&ud al-Ghifiiri 187 

Jahm ibn "Amr ibn fci£i§3Jto 2SI 

Jafim ibn Qays 21 i 

Jayfof ibnukTllindt273 

Jibril (peace be upon bimj 35, 36. 
73,75.76,95. 133,175 

Jubayr ibn Muf ini ibn Adiyy 88. 
145.150 

Juwjkyriyah, ibe daughter of 
A^Hariili ibn Abu Dink 187, 
189, L 90. 278-280, 2S2 



Ka'bibn Asud 169, 170. 176. 174 

KaTb ihn Lu'ayy 15 

Kab ibn Malik 85. 86, 112, 147. 
233,243 

Kilab ibn Murnth 15 

KabihnZayd 159 

Ku"b ibn Zuhayr ibn Abi Saiama 
239. 240 

Kuysah. the daughter of Al-Uiriih 
256 

Khalid ibn Zayd (AbO Ayyiib 
aI-AnsM> 102. t03, 111, 195, 
2i» 

KMJidibn Muffin d-Ka]&*? 23 

Khftlid ibn Sa id ibnel-"Aji42, 2 10, 
250. 252, 260. 279 

Kba]idibnul-Bukir42, 15ft 

Kliirijiiii ibn Zayd 1U1 

KhartjahibnZuhayr|l2 

Khyhbah ibnuI-Aral! 42, 60, 61. 
64.65 



jab. the daughter of 
Khuwaylk! (Prophet 

Muhammad* wife I 27. 2R. 
36-39,41,77.136,278 

KhaHad ibn Suwayd 184 

KhawwaL ibn Jubayr 170 

Khirash ibn U may yah al-Khuza i 
202 

Khubayb ibn 'Adiyy 156-159, (70. 



Khunay* ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi 
42, 279 

Kliuwaylah, the daughter of Hakim 
as -Sal mi 234 

Khuwaylid ibn Asad 28, 278 

Khuzaymah ibn Mudrifcah 15 

Kitiunah ibn Klmzaymah 15 

Kinanah ibniir-Rabr 16 1, 167. 
207, 280 

KulLhom ibn Hudm 101 

KuJthftm ibnut-HMsayn 247 

KuUtiiim ibnul-Aswad 215 

Kur* ibn JahiraJ-Fihrt )20 

Lui (peace be upon him) 10 

Libtdihn Rabruh255 

Lakhniiy'uh YanQf DM Shanailr 10 

Lamk ibn MuimshaJakh 3 

LaylS, the daughter of Ab£t 
Mathniah 56, 93 

Lu'ayyinnGhaliblS 

Liiqman A3 

Malik ihii "Aiiir 142 

Malik ihn Awf 226-228. 23 1, 235, 
236 

Malikibn*Ub3dab264 

Malik ibn Ahi Qawqal 161 

Malik ibn Kinanali 15 



Malik ibn Miirrah 262, 264 

Malik ibn Nu way rah 2fi9 

Malik ibn Rafilah 213 

Malik ibn Rabf ah ait 

Malik ibn Si nan {(he father of AbO 
Sa^idal-Kmidm 147 

Malik ihniiu-Nadr 1 5 

Mashi ihn UrmriT 4 

Mtsha ibn Ismail 4 

MGsa ibn Mmran (pease be upun 
lum) 37, 72-74. 76. 77. 127, 
2Q», 228 

Mahnuid ibn A sad 149 

MiiJimfld ibn Maslamab 205, 207 

Matjmiyyah ibmif-Jaz 1 21 1 

Ma^btd ibn Abl Ma'bid I54 t 166 

Ma d ibn * Adnan 4 

Manibn'Adiyv 291 

MahJayi ihn Qaynan ihn Ytah 3 

Majdl ibn 'Amr 119, 129 

Makhmmuh ibn Nawud 123. 237 

Makhshi ihn Amr 166 

Manbamanna (The Prophui^ name 
in Syriacl 3 1 

Man^ur ihn "Ikrimah 63,71 

Mantl 273 

Mararah ibn Rabf 243 

Miirh^b die Jew 207, 208 



Manhad ibn Abi Marthad 126, 

i if-.. 158 

Maryam (The Virgin Mary) 59 
Mas*Qd ibn Hunaydata 100 
Mas'ud rbnul-Qari 42 
Masma a ibn Ismail 4 

Maymfinah. the daughter of 
AJ-Hanih >bn Mau* 212, 277, 
278, 2S(h 282-284 

Maysarah 27, 2B 

Mikntz ibn Hafi B5. 200, 205 

MiiLisi :bn Kmanah 15 

Miqsam Abul-Qasim 295 

Mlqyas ibn £ubabah l8 9 t 223 t 224 

MiitafLibnUthathah 1*2-196 

Mis'ar ibn Rukhayfah 168 

MudaribnNizJar 15 

Mujiaiib ibn Fihr 15 

Muhaysah ibn Mas'ud 208 

Muforiz ibn Nadlah 1 86 

Mi* ab ibn 'Umayr 85. J 12. 126. 
143, 145.153 

MiTMtibn'Afra' 102 

Mtf 3dh ibn Jahal 1 1 2, 238, 264 

Mu'awiyab ibn Ah! Sufyan 158. 
236 

Muiwiyah ibnuJ-Mughirah 155 

Mu'ammar ibn 'Abdul Lib ibn 



Nadlah 21 1 

Mif ammar ibnul-H&rith 42 

MiTaiub ibn Qushayr 170, IS) 

MtTawwidh ibtiul-Hatiih 132 

Mu'ayqib ibn Abi Falimab 210 

Mudrifcah ibn Uyfc3,15 

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim 285 

Muhammad ibn J a" far 283 

Muhammad ibn Ka"b95, 174 

Muhumrnad ibn Mas! amah 207 

Muhammad ibn Muslim 82. 206. 
241, 247. 261. 273, 2*2-285, 
291,292 

MukhayrTq the Jew 149 

Mulayb al-Kanadl 82 

Munabbih (of KhiHaah) 216 

Munabbih ibn ^Uthman 184 

Munabbih ibnul-Hajyaj 50, 129 

Muqawwim ibn Nafaur 4 

Murrahibn Kab 15 

Mu&afT ibn laJliah 146 

Musaylimah ibn JiabTh al-Hanofi 
(the liar) 52, 256, 257, 
268-270,291 

Muttushalakh ibn Akhnukh 3 

Najjur ibn Sarilgh 3 

NahOr ibn Tayrah 3 

Nabinbn Ismail 14 



-^7J)- 



Naff ibn Budayl ibn Warqa' 159 

Nfiij ibn Lamk 3 

Nadlah ibn Hishim 70 

Nabash ibn IsmTH 4 

NawfanbrTAbdMart&flS 

Nawfa] ibn ^ Abdullah 121. 122, 
134 

Nawfal tbn Kfcuwuylid 129 

NawfaJ ibn MiTiwiyah 215 

ty&g$f (Safwan's maw)3) 157 

NizaribnMa'd4, IS 

Nu'aym ibn " Abd KutaJ 262, 263 

Niraym ibn Abdullah 42, 60, 91 

Nu'aym ibn Maf Od 172-174, 270 

Nu aym ibn YazJd 253 

Nubayh ibnul-Hajjaj 50, 129 

Nufaylibniiahibl2, 14 

Nutnaylah ibn 'Abdullah 223 

Numayr ibn Kharashah 249 

Nusaybah, the daughter of Ka K b 86 

Paraclete, the Prophets name in 
Greek 3 1 

Qaribibiiul-Aswad 227,251 

Qablsah ibn ■AmraMtila? 281 

Qanfah ibn Ityls 15 

Qana& ibn Ma'd 4 

Qaydar ibn fonts* il 4 



Qaydhum ibn IsmO 4 

Qaynan ibn Yanish 3 

Qays ibn "Asim253, 254, 269 

Qayj; ibn Makhmmah 2 1 

Qays ibn Makshuh 260 

Qays ibnuJ-Uilrith 253 

Qays ibnul-Husayn 266 

Quda t ahibnMa*d4 

Qusayy ibn Kiiab % 15, 51, 94 

QuibahibnQatadah2t3 

Qudamah ibn M&£*ftn 4i 

Rati ibn Falikh 3 

RaTf ibn Khudayj 143 

RafT ibn Malik 84 

Rabrah ibn *AbbM 82 

Rabrah ibn Na£r4, 7 

Rabf'ah ibn Nizir 15 

Rabiah ibnul-Harith 261 

Ram I ah. tlie daughter of Abi *Awf 
42 

Rayfoanah, I he daughter of *Amr 
ibn KhunaTah 180 

Rayiah. the daughter of Munabbih 
ihnul-Hajjflj 14 

Rift* ah ibn Samaw'al ai-Qurayit 
180 

RifFah ibn Zayd ibn at-Tflbut 188 

Ru fay dab At-Aslamiyyah J 78 



<3J^)— 



Ruqayyah (Prophet Muhammad's 
daughter) 2S, 56 

Rustam a*h-Shtd 53, 65 

SAbui ibn Khurzad 7 

S^d ibn 'Ubadah 88. 89, 101, 170, 
171, 193, 237. m 290, 291 

Sam ibn " Umayr 242 

Salim ibn Nub 3 

SAmah ibn Lu'ayy 15 

S4r0ghibnRiTu3 

Sarah (iJw? matvlah of Banu 
* Abdul-MuttalnM 223, 224 

oaiih4. 5 

Said ibn Hwayth »t-Makhziirm 
223 

Sa'Td ibn "Amir 158 

Said ibn 'Utayd 2.34 

Said ibn Jubayr56 

Sa^d ibn EChulid 210 

Sa'td ibn YaittT 237 

Sa^Id ibn Zayd ibn 'Amr 41. 60. 

61,112.289 
Sa~fdibimL-MuaHu283 
Sa^kJ ibnul-Musayyab 74 

SaM ibn AbT Waqqas 41, 43, 
119-121. 123, 128. 147,205 

SaMibnKhaythamahlOl 

Sa'd ibn Mu^Mh 112, 127, 130, 
153, 170. 171. 17S, 183, tS4, 



247 
SadibnZaydal-Ansari 180, 186 
Sa d ibnur-Rabf 101. 112 
Suhl ibnHunayf 162 
Sahi ibn "Am/ 102 
Sahlah. the daughter of Suhayl 56 
SaKlibn'Amr 42. 273,279 
SalTt ibn Qays 102 

Snlumah ibn Amr ibnel-Akwa* 
1*5,186,208 

Salamah ibn Abi Salamah 279 

Salumab ibn Na~im ibn Mas v iid 
270 

Salamah ibn Saiamab ibn Waqsh 
1 12, 126, 135 

Salifim ibn Abel-Huquyq .an-Nudri 
161, 167 

SalJam ibn Mishkam 138, 209 

Salm& ibnul-Aswad ibn Razn 215 

Salma, the daughter of Amr (the 
moibjirof 'Abdul-MuJialib) 102 

Salma, the daughter of Qays 179 

Salmon al-Farisi 112 

Samurah ibn Jundub 143 

Sawdah, the daughter of Zam all 
ibn Qays 278. 282 

Shalakh ibn Arfakhshadh 3 

S tilth ibn Adam 3 



Shaddad ibn 'Abdullah al-Qinani 
266 

ShaddSJ ibnuj-Aswad 146 

S bay bah ibn 'Uihntin 229 

Shaybah ibn Rabfah 50, 7S, 8Q. 
129, 132, 134 

Shu}? ibn Wahb a1-A,sactf 273 

ShurahbJJ ibn G hay! an ibn 
Salamali 249 

SimAk ibD Khamhah (AfoG 
Dujanah) 143, 144. 147. 162 

Sinan ibn Wabur al-JiihanJ 187 

Subay" ibmjj-ljarith 227 

Suhayl tbn "Ami 102. 129 t 203. 
204, 236, 295 

Suhayl inn Bay da' 56 

Sulafah. die daughter of Sa d ibn 
Shahfd 146, 156 

Suraqah ibn Malik 98, 99. 126 

Suwayd al-Kbamji 161 
Suwaydibn£ainil83 

&afiyyah. the daughter of Huyayy 
ibn Akhjab 207, 209. 278, 280. 

Safiyyah, the daughter of 
'Abdul-Muiiaiib 15, 151, 152. 
208 

Sally yah, the daughter of Shay bah 
224 

Saf^an jj^, u may yah 141. 157. 



228, 236 

Safwfln ihnuhMua!|aJ as-Salmt 
191 

SaylTibnAb?Rifrahl37 

£uhayb ibn Sinan ar-Rumi 42 

fiurad ibn ^AbdulJ&h al-Azdl 261, 
262 

Tumas 274 

Tamfm ibn Aiad 2 1 6 

Tayrajiibn Ya*rub4 

Tayyiin ibn Ghalib 15 

Tayyim Ibti Murrah 1 5 

Thiibitibn Aqram2l4 

Thfibit ibn Qays ihn ash-Shammas 
189,253,279,280 

Ths'labahibnSu'yah ISO 

The Negus (ihc Abyssinian king) 
II, 12, 57-60. 62. 202. 210, 
21J P 273 

Thumamah ibn Lfihal 273 

TubanAsad7-9 

labikhah ibn Ilyas 15 

Enia ibn Ismail 4 

Talbah ibn 'Ubaydullab 41, 112, 
147. 146. 185,288 

I^aytnah ibn 'Adiyy 129 

'Ubaydah ibnui-H2"ih ibn 
"Abdul-Mullalib 41. 116. 132, 
2S1 



Ubayy ibti Ka^b I 19 
L'bayyibnKhaUf67,]48 

Udud ibn Muqawwim 3 

Ukayder Daw malt, ibn 

Abdd-Nialik; 246, 247 

Urn ay m ah, the daughter of 
'Aixiul-MunaKb 15 

'Umayr ibn Abi Waqqaj; 42 
■Umayr ibn Wahb 131,257, 244 

U niayyuh ibn Khalaf ibn Wahb 50, 
54,' 64, 68, 78, 125, 129, 134, 
157 

Umm Habtbah, Ramlah, the 
daughter of Abu Sufyan 217, 
278, 279, 282 

Umro MafciTH, Al-Bay#\ the 
daughter of ■ Abdul-Muitaiib 
15 

Umm Hakim, the daughter of 
Al-Hartth ibn Hisham [41, 213 

Umm s Amr (the ex-slave woman 
oFUrwah ihnul-Wa/d) 162 

Umm ' LFbays 55 

UmmAyyfibl02, 103. 195 

Umm Ham', the daughter of Abu 
lalm 224, 2% 

U mm J a mil the daughter of Uwh 
ibn I! may yah 64 

Umm Kullhum (Prophet 

Muhammad's daughter) 28 



Umm Mi slab, um daughter of Abfl 
Ruhml92 

Umm Salamah, Hind, the daughter 
cf Abu Umayyab (Prophet 
Mubammad's wife) 56, 57, 
177, 219, 233, 278, 279, 282, 

283 

Umm Sulayrn, the daughter of 
Mihjan 209, 230 

Usamah ibn Zayd ibn Harithah 
143, 193, 272, 274, 283, 284 

Usayd'225 

Usuyd ibn Hudayr 153, 188, 193, 
288 

Usuiyd ibn Zuhayr 143. 186 

Usayrah ibn Abi Kharijah (Abfl 
Salil) 102 

'Uyaynah ibn ito 16«, 170, 185, 
234-236, 253 

*UtJlnd ibn HAJ»b ibn Zurarah 252. 
253 

*Ubadali ibnu£-Samit 84, 89, 139, 



*UbaydtfMTUinayr35 

"Ubayd ibn Zayd J 86 

*UbaydtillaIi ibn S Abdullah 282, 
295 

'UkashithtbnMitan 121. 186 

*UlbahibnZayd242 

'Umlinih irni H^-m 245 



<aE> — 



'UmaribnAhf$alarnah279 
'Umar ibnul-KJiauab 42, 55, 60, 

62,77.93, 112, 113, 126. 133. 

135, 148, 150, 156, 158, 161. 

1S7. 189, 202. 203. 205, 20S, 

210, 217, 2 IB. 220. 224. 234. 

279, 28«92. 295 

'Umaynbnul-Hurnam 133 

'UqayNbnul-Aswad 135 

~Uqbah ibn Aht Ma'ii 67. 69, 125, 
134 

UqbahibnuMIiriihl57 

*Uqbah ibn Namir 264 

'Urwah ibn Asina' 159 

*Urwah ibn Mas' ad 74, 201. 248, 
249.251 

"Urwah ibnul-Ward 162 

Urwiih ibnuz-Zubayr 89. 2*3, 291 

Vtbah ibn AM Waqqfc 147 

'Utbiihibrt Mas' fid 211 

XTihmuii ibn Talhah 224, 225 

'Utnmfin ibn Abdullah ibn 
RabTah231 

Tlthmaji ibn ^Abditlah 

ibnd-Mughirah 122, 123 

'Ulhman ibn Affan 56, 112 r 202, 
203, 223, 234, 242, 246. 262, 295 

Tfthman ibn Abc!-'As249 t 250 

" Ulhnian ibn Maj un 4 1 . 56, 69 



*UlhmanibnRabriib21l 

"Uwayiri ibn S3 % i<Jah 1 12, 291 

Wfiqid ibtTAbdiliah 42,] 21 

Wahshi 145 

WadT'ah 161 

Wahb Ibn Jabir 249 

Waraqab ibn Nawfal 2S t 37, 54 

YMsh ibn Shilh 3 

Yisro 249 

Yasir {' AmmaYs father) 55 

Ylsjr ihe Jew 208 

YGdis274 

Yftnas ibn Matt I < peace be upon 
him) 80 

YGsuf ibn Ya'qfib (peace be upon 
tbcm>76J94 

Yaljya ibn 'Abbfid 287 

Yajjya ibn Zakariyya (peace be 
upon (hem) 76 

Ya*qflb {peace be upon him) 194 

YaqGbus 274 

Y*f rub ibn Yashjuh 4 

YahGdha 274 

Yakhiud ibnun-Nadr 15 

Yaqa^ah ibn Murrah 15 

Yard ibn Mahlayl 3 

Yashjub ibn NSbiU 

YazJd ibn ~Abdel~Madan 266 



YatfdibnAbTJi^b273 
Yazid ibn Ruman 190. 241 
Yuzid ihnul-Muluiijal 2.66 
Yubann:i ibn Ru*bah 246 
Yutjannas, thedesdpte 31 , 274 
Yuifira* ibn IsnuTiL 4 
Zahrah ibn Kiteb 15 

Zarnah ibnul-Aswad ibn 
^AbdehMurjalib 50, 70. 71, 
129. 135 

Zayd ibn Hlrtlhah 76. H2, 126, 
* 134, 140, 212, 213, 2 14. 279 

Zayd ibn Arqwn 187, 1 88 

Zayd ibn SahJ (Abu lalbah) 206, 
230, 294 

Zayd ibn Thabit 143 

Zayd ibnud-Daihinah 156, 157 

Zayd ibnul-Lusayt 245 

Zaynab (Propbci Muhammad's 
daughter) 2M 35, B6 

Zaynab, ihc daughter of Abu H&lah 
278 

Zaynab. ihc daughter of Abu 
Sa!amah279 

Zaynab, the daughter of Al-Hftnib 

209 

Zaynab. the daughter of Ja&sh 193, 
278,279.281.282 

Zaynab, the daughter of 



Khuzay man. 28 1. 282 

Ziy&d ibftus-Skan 147 

Ziyad ibn Labid 101,269 

Zuhayr. Abu &urad 235 

Ziihayr ibn Abi Saintf 94 

ZAihayr ibn AbT Umayyah 
ibncl-Mughkah 70 

Z^r v ah Dhu Nuwas 10, i 1 

Zur'ah Dbu Yazan 262. 264 



2- Tribes, Com id unities, 
and the Like 



Ahlif249 

AbO Ahmad 21S 

Abul-Jiuqayq 207 

Abyssinian* 141, 150, 169,201,202 

Al-UarithibnFthr211 

AJ-Haritb ibn Ka b 264-266 

AlHarith ibnul-Khajraj 101, 108. 
113.249,253 

AKAs ibn Said [28 

ALAsfar* Romans 24J 

AJ-Bakir ibn Abd Yalf] 42, 103 

Al-Mujialib 63, 69, 70 

Ai^Sr 83-85, 93, 107, IG& []2, 

(13, 121, 132, 137, 142, 143 

151, (53, 155, 160, 162, 165, 

178, 187. 188, 193, 199, 223. 

226, 229, 230, 235-238, 240. 

242, 248, 256. 2gO H 283, 288. 

290, 29J 

Asad itm *Abdd-TM 29. 210, 
22ft, 269 

Asif art people 4 

Ashja' 168,269 

AsJam47. 178, 24K 

Av^85, 87. 109-1 H. 137. 178. 193,222 



AwsuUah 89 

Azd26l 

*AjJal 155, 170 

^Abd Manaf 17, 29. 52, 61, 69, 70. 
95, 220 

*Abd Sham* ibn "Abd Man5f 2 10 

'Abdud-Dar ibn Quaayy 29, 55, 
143.144,211,278 

^Abdul-AshhaJ 149, 153, 178, 180 

*Abdul-Mutfalib 63, 82, 124, 223, 
235, 286 

'Abdul-Qay&154,256 

- Adiyy ibn Ka*b 29, 60, 103, 202, 220 

*Adiyyibnon-Naijir24, (02 

k Ajlin2]4,291 

* Ainr ibn Hazm 245 

*Amribn 'Amir 227 

Amrtb«rAwf83, 10], 109, 160,242 

*A«ab ibn M£Iik 249 

*Awf1 QS.UO 

* Awf ibn ■ Amir 227 

^AwfibnuUChazmj (61,293 

Amir ibn Sa'^afa 82, 83, 
159 161,254,255 



*Amir ibn Lu'ayy 184, 203, 211, 
223, 237. 273 

Bahra 213 

Bakr ibn ? Abd Manah J 25, 2 1 5 

Bakr ibn W&'il 140, 204, 2 15, 216 

Bali 213. 258 

Bayadah 101,269 

Berbers 274 

Blacl«6 

Christians 30, 79, 139.258 

Companions of As-Samur ah 229 
Companions of the Elephant 15 
Plltof Banfi Baler) 215 

Dlnfir 120, 153 

Disciples (of Prophel *Ua) 272, 

273 
Qamrah ibn Bakr 120, 166 

Fanra 23ft 

Fazarah 235 

Ghaiafan 138, L64, 168-170. 172, 
176. 18CM83, 185, i86,2Q7 

Ghifar 185,226, 243 

Ghwfrah 30 

Hashim ibn 'Abd ManaT 40, 63, 
69.70, 133 

Hamdan 260, 262, 263 

Hawazin 226-228, 230, 231. 234, 
235 



Hitfit 226 

Hind 266 

Hadhayl tbn Mudrikah 7. 12, 156, 

157.271 
Hainan 143. ML 206.242 
Hairami2i5 
Ea«a> I2S 

BmSfah 83. 256, 257, 269 
Han^alah 269 

Himyar ibn Saba" 4, 9, II. 262, 
264 

trash 71 

lrashah213 

Iram84 

UsaydimrAmr278 

Israel 127, (79,200 

Jajish ibrt Ri'ab 103 

Jafnah 1 10 

Jews 21, 26, 30, 84, 87, 100, 

108-111, H3, 139, 142. 149, 

161. 167, 168. 173, 176, 1S8, 
207 

Judh5m2l3 
Junaynah 240 

Juniub ibn ^Amr 29, 54, 79, 80, 

211 

Jurhiim 8 

Jusham 108. 1 10, 226 



KjTb2I6.226.227 

Khalmah 205 

KhaUTam 12,261 

KHazraf %$-&$> S7-89, 1 37, J 70. 
178. 1S9. 1^3,222,230 

KJwr ah J87, 200. 304. 215, 216. 
220, 279 

Kiliib 226. 227 

Kinarmti 12. 26, 27, 126. 150. 169, 
171,217 

Kjndali82. 246, 260, 26 1 

Ukhm213 

Layth 271 

Libyan 184 

Lihb 24 

Mat 0* 103 

Ma^fir 262 

Madhliij 260 

Makhzum ibn Yaqa^ah 29, 48, 55, 
93. 184,224 

Mm in ibng a- Najjar 242 

Mu&ir 15. 160 

Midrib 164 

Muitaljq 186. 187, 1&9. 190, 279, 
280 

Mu'attib251 
Muammal 55 



MiKiJij 120 

Mnnqidh ibn ' Am/ ibn Ma* fe 28 1 

Murad 260 

Miirrah 168 

Muzayaah2]9,22l,226 

Natfr 138, 160-163, 167,2*2 

Nailr ibn Kinanah 3, 15.261 

Najr226 

Nabji 109 

Napr 102, f08. 110, 195,256 

Persians 7, 53. 272 

Qarah 155, 170 

Qana<t ibn Ma* d 4 

QaylaJh 100. 143 

Qayn 213 

Qaynuqa* 139, 140, 163, 178, 1B8 

Qays^Aylan27.226 

Qudrah4,258 

Quraygah 169, 172-181, 183 

Quraysh 

RokflsT people 259 

Ruayn262. 263 

Sa~idah 101, 108, 159. 244, 288, 
290 

Salim ibn Malik 249 
SalimibnAwf 101 
Samah ibn Luayy 281 



SiCd Hudhaym 17 

Sad ibn Bakr 21-23. 226, 232, 

235, 253. 260 
SaNJ ibn Uytb 103 
Saba* 10 

Sahmib[TAmr29,211 
Sairm 1 37, 159. 219, 221. 226, 235 

SalOJ 255 

Salamah U2. 133, 181,203.236, 
241.242 

Shanttah 74. 76 

Shuiaybah 110 

Tantfm ibti Murr 211, 235, 252, 
254 

Tha* tabab 110, 164 

Tha'labah ibnuI-FUaywin 149 

Thaqif I2 t 66, 79, 8U 226. 227. 
231,236,248,249,251.252 

ThumSlah 236 

H>yyi h 244, 258, 269 

Umayyah 103 

*Udhiah213 

Waqif 106.242 

Yas£r249 

ZahrahibnKil3b29,211 

2afarl53 



<SD — 



3- Geographical Names 



Ah?l QtffKiys 134.222 

Abwa' 24 

Abyan 5, 6 

Abyssinia 56. S7 t 60, 89, 93, 279, 
284 

Adhakhir 88 
Ajrad 100 
A&ular 248 
Amai7, J 00. 184,219 
Arabian Peninsula 295 
Aylah 246 
Abibid 100 
^Aqtq 126,280 

' Aqabah 83. 84-86, 88. 89, 127 
'Aqanqal 130 
Arj TOO 

* Asfan 7. J 00 t 1 84, 1 99, 216,219 
Bin 184 

Bahranlil, 138 
Babel 259. 274 

Budr 38, 120. 123, 126, 128- BO. 
132. 136, 138, 140, 142, J44, 
150, 155, J 66. 171. 183. 192, 
211,218,293 



Balqa'2f3, 272,274 

BaqF aKJharqad 277 

Baq a' 183 

Bark aJ-Ghrni&d 127 

Bfltd' 184 

Buhrat ar-Rugh£' 233 

Buad 20, 23. 25 
Bu aih 83 
Buwai 1 19 
Dariim 272, 274 
DSmah 246 
Dumalul-Jandal 166 
Dh&ur-Riqfr 165, 166 
DhO &uf a' 260 
Dhu Iuw§ 199, 222 
DhuAmarrl38 
Dhu Kashr 100 
DhQQarad 185, 186 
Dhu SaJara 100 
DhanabNaqma 169 
Dhubab 243 
Dhul-Hulayfah 126 
Dhul-Hudum 25 1 



Fadak 208 
Fayfa'ul-Khabar 120 
Ghabah 185 
Ghamlsul-Hamiim 126 
Ghurab E84 
Ghuran 184 
Had'ati 156 
lffrah4,7 
t!awshiyyah25* 
tladraniawl 269 

Hamrff al-Asad 154 

Hi.jaz ffi J20 t 121, 123. 138. 156. 
188.260.274 

Hljr 16.29.47 

Htr^ 35, 36 

HiFtah 100. L65 

HiiTa* Bunu SaTim 159 

Hudaybiyah 200, 203, 205, 206, 
210.215,272 

Uiuiayn 99. 222, 226, 228-230, 
232. 233, 253 

Iraq 7. 51, 128, 140.295 
*Injuz-Zabyahl26, 135 
JadOjid 100 
Jarba' 246 
Jawshiyyah 258 
Jcddah 28 



ji'riinah 99, 232, 234, 236. 23fl 

Jordan95 

Jurash5.233,26l,262 

Juifl69.243.283 

Kacibah 208 

KhatfiqiaO 

Khaybarl9, 161,206,207.211 

Kbirar 100. 120 

Kudayd219 

KuriTul-Ghamim 185. 1 99 

LaqMOO 

Uyyah 233 

Mafcaj 100 

Ma' an 213 

Madinah 

Mahya'ah J 15 

Majannah 166,238 

MakMdl84 

Makkah 

Mart a£-Zahr3n 219, 238 

Masharif213 
Mihras 14« 
Minfl 82, 88 
MiAah212,2l3.215 
Mughatnmas 1 2 
Mulayh 233 
Mumysf 187 



Mushiarab 120 

Mushaqqaq ivalky) 247 

Naziyah 126. 134 

Ninawa 80 

Nfqul-' Uqab 219 

Na^lbtn 8 1 

Najd94, 13S, 140. 159. 163, 169, ISO 

Najri^ 10.265,269 

Nakhb 233 

Nakhl 164, 165 

Nakhlah8l.121.231 

NafchJai at- Yamdmyyah 233 

Naqr 188 

Nile i river) 59, 60 

Palatine 272, 274 

Ptersia 7, 53, 272 

Qadisiyyah 259 

Qanai 138. 141,143,160.249 

Qani233 

Qarqaratul-Kudr 138. 160 

Quba 100. 101 

Qura (valley) 209 

RanunaUOl 

Rflmah 169 

Rumiyyah 273 

Rajiwa 119 

Rabidhah 246 



Radm 260 

RajT 156, 170, 184,207 

RakQbah 100 

Raw^a 1 126 

Ruljqan 126 

Say ah 184 

Sifal-Bahr 

Sahkhah 141, 171 

Sajsaj 126 

Sal' 169,181. 185 

Shabakat Shadakh 248 

5haw{ 142 

Shr bar Abdullah 120 

Syria 14. [7,20,23.25,27,41.51. 
53, B5, 86, 123. 136, 140, 145, 
158. 161. 184, 212, 213, 246, 
258. 272. 273 

Safrfi'126, 134. 135 

lahba' 207 

Samghah 143 

San**' 11,269 

£erarl64 

Sukhayrai ul-YAmam 120. 126, 184 

TabOk 24 1 . 244. 246-24S, 252, 262 

Tan im 157 

Thaniyyai aKA'ir 100 

Thaniyyat al»Murar 200 

TTiawi97 



Tihamah 12, 169, 229, 236 

Turban 126 

11^12,79,80,99. 121, 144,222. 

231, 233-236, 238, 239, 249. 

251,253 

Ukud 111 141445, 149, 152. 153. 
tS3.KB.l7USUA3.2S2 

*Um&n273 

*Ushayrah120 

WacUiSfl 1 16, 16ft 

Wajj251 

Wutir 215,216 

Yalyal 1 20 
Yamamah52 P 257,268,273 

Yaihrib fMadtiiah) 21, 68. 108, 

lll t 13.1 
Yemen 4 t 64 1, K 145. 240, 246, 

261,269 

Zughabah 169 

Zahraii 156 J57. 166,219,238 



Glossary 

Afl: After Hijrah (The Prophcfs Emigration ioMadinah). 
Al*Aqm Mosque: The Sacred Mosque of Jerusalem. 

Atlahtt Akbar: "Allah is Greater" is a literal translation of the Arabic 
sentence "Atltthu Akhar", We use the word, 'Greater" instead of, "the 
Greatest", as it is commonly used, becau.se "Allah* Akbar* LITERALLY 
mean*. "Allah is Greater- m the comparative mode, Yet, this does nor 
mc^n that He (GJury be to Him) is not the Greatest, nor dees Jt ntean that 
there fa anything that can be compared 10 Him. This is because when the 
Muslim says it, he means He is "greatEtT THAN anyihimj else, which, 
consequently, means He is ihe Greatest, This use gives more influence, 
as it directly teniinds the Muslim that Aliah is "Greater 1 than anything 
he may be doing, hearing, or seeing, etc.. at the lime when it is being 
pronounced; This may be why it is used in Arabic in the comparative 
mode, otherwise it should have been used as "Allah^t- Akbar", in the 
superlative mode, the translation of which would be "Allah is the 
Greatest". Surely. Altai j knows best 

Atttfti: Ait adjective as well as a noun referring to a person belonging 10 the 
Ans_|r, 

Ansar: The plural Arabic form of An^ari. 
"Air prayer. Afternoon prayer. 

Adam. Literally, a/lam means "arrows". Here it means arrows usctl 10 seek 
good luck or a decision, practiced by the Arabs of Pre- Islamic Period of 
Ignorance, 

Banft: Literally, Banu means "sons", and the name that follows ii often 
refers to the person lo which a tribe or clan belonged, as in Baml 
Quraygah. 

Dtj m wah: This word involves the meaning of calling people to Islam through 
the best and most suitable means. 



— <3B> 



Dinar The basic gold unii «1 currency. 

Mrhum. The basic silver unit of currency. 

guA£ prayer: Forenoon prayer. It is one of the voluntary prayers, 

Fajr prayer: Dawn or early morn tn* prayer before sunrise. 

Fiqlt Mamie Jurisprudence. 

Fiinah: \\\ Afabic. dus word has different meanings, such as, induction. 

tribulation* ami a miction. 
ihirum Sanctuaries (of Mukkah or Madlnah)- 
ffijr: Tlvc unroofed portion of die Ka'bcth which at present is in (he form of n 

compound towards the north of the Ka'bah, 
hha' prayer: Evening Prayer, lis tim starts uhoiu une and a half hours 

after sunsci 
htikhnrah A prayer cansMing oJ two Rak'uhs in which the praying person 

jppeals lo Allah to guide Hun On tlwrighi way. regarding a certain deed 

or situation uruh which one ■* conformed. (Sec fci*ii/fr No. 253. Vol 2 t 

ft«i/j>/i No 14 L Vol. H. ^wiff/i No. 4R7, Vol. ft lahill al Bakhihh. 
Jatmbah Trie slate of a person after having sexual intercourse with his wife 

or after hii v in g A sexual discharge in a wel dream. 
Jihad Pighiirig in the cai^e of AHab or any kind of effoxi to make Allah's 

word superior, which is regarded as one of I he principles oflslum. 

Jityah. Head ut* imposed hy [slum On all non-Musiims living under the 

protection of an Islamic government. 
jumttah prayer: The Congncguiional prayer which is performed on Friday 

at the lime of the Zulu prayer. 
Ka'hah- A square stone buildimj in AI Masji^al-Haram uhe greaL mosque 

at Makkaht towards which all Muslims luin there faces in prayer. 

Khatnr anything that intoMCMtes. Mich as wine and the like. 

Modhtah Well-known town in Saudi Arabia, where The Prophet's mosque 

is situated. 



Makkak: Well-known town in Saudi Arabia, where the Ka bah and the 
Inviolable Mo&tjue are situated. 

M&wldh: Female /jmih-Ai, 

Afflw^: In Arabic, this won! is used for many meanings such as friend, 
fellow, client, servant, and freed man. 

Mu'adhdhin: The one who coifs Muslims to perform prayers. 
Mudd\ A dry mensure (= 16 ) t Tangier = 46.61). 
Xfuhajirun: the plural of Muhljir. 

Muliajir: In this book, it refers to anyone of the early Muslims who had 
emigrated from any place 10 Madinah in the lifetime Of ihe Prophel 
before the eonquesi of Makkah, Mtihajir also refers to the one who 
emigrates for the sake of Allah and Islam and also Ihe one who quits all 
those thing* which Allah has forbidden. 

\fuhsatt: One who is in protection, from adultery because he, or she, is 
married (or has been married), and thus apt to he chaste. 

Pbuh: Peace be upon him. 

Qibtah: The direction in which all Muslims turn their faces in prayers and 
that direction is towards ihe Ka'bah in Makkah {Saudi Arabia), 

Qumysh: One pf title greatest tribes in Arabia in the Pre-lslamic Period of 
ignorance. The Prophet Muhammad be longed to this trine, which had 
great power:, vpirimally and financially both before and after Islam 
came. 

QuraysM {plural: Qurayshts)r an adjective as well as a noun referring to a 
person belonging to the Quraysh. 

Rak «A: The prayer of Muslims consists of rak'ai (singular-raft Wi). which 
consists of one standing, one bowing and i wo acts of prostration. 

Riba. In Islam. Riba (commonly known as usury) is of two major kinds: (a) 
Rifttt Nasd'aft, i.e. interest on lent money; (b) RM al-FaslL i.e. taking a 
superior thing of [he same kind of goods by giving more of the same 
kind of goods of inferior quality, e,g., dates of superior quality for dates 
of inferior quaJily in grealer amount. Islam strictly forbids all kinds of 
Riba. 



£T : 2.03 hires of toad. 

Sirah: Record aspects of the Prophet's (pbuh) life, 

AumtaA; Alt the traditions and practices of the Prophet (phuh) thai have 

become a model lobe fallowed by Muslims; 
Sarah: Any chapter of the Quc'un is a S«ru/i. 
Tftaqif: A rrihe that dwelled Ai-Ia'if. a town near Makkah. 
Umrah A visit to Makkah at any time of the year during which one 

performs the circ urn ambulation around the Katiah and going for seven 

limes between the mountains of As-Safa and Al-Marwah. It may be 

called The Lesser Pilgrimage'. 
Yarhrib One of ihe names of Madman with which it was known before the 

Prophet emigrated to it 
Zakah: A certain fiaed proportion of the wealth and of the each and every 

kind of the properly liable to Zakfih of a Muslim to be paid yearly for Ihe 

benefit of the poor in ihe Mu&fim community. The payment of Zakah is 

obligamry, as it is one of the five pillars of Islam. 
Zamvim: The sacred well inside the &amm (the Grand Mosque) at 

Mafckah. 
Zphr prayer: Noon, mid-day prayer is called Z«Ar prayer, 



— o> 



. 



- 



■ 



Transliteration 



Arabic 


English 


'm 


a/* 


*—* 


b 


O 


i 


£> 


ih 


% 


J 


C 


h 


t 


kh 


-' 


d 




dh 


J 


r 


• 


z 


<-^ 


s 




sh 


^ 


i 


* 


i 


Jo 


i 


J* 


z 


£ 


* 


t 


Sh 


m 


f 


- 


q 


J 


k 



Arabic 


English 


J 


1 


r 


m 


u 


n 


* 


h 


A 


h/t 


J 


w 


^ 


> 



Vowels 
Short Vowels 

i/ e 
u 
Long VoweU 

1/L. a 

% i 

Dlpihongs 

j aw 

J ay